Bibliography: High Stakes Testing (page 59 of 95)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include David Warlick, John W. Murry, Arthur T. Costigan, Miles A. Irving, Gilda Ochoa, Huong Tran Nguyen, Grigory Dmitriyev, Beverly M. Donovan, Pasi Sahlberg, and Joe L. Frost.

Sahlberg, Pasi (2007). Education Policies for Raising Student Learning: The Finnish Approach, Journal of Education Policy. This article argues that system-wide excellence in student learning is attainable at reasonable cost, using education policies differing from conventional market-oriented reform strategies prevalent in many other countries. In this respect, Finland is an example of a nation that has developed from a remote agrarian/industrial state in the 1950s to a model knowledge economy, using education as the key to economic and social development. Relying on data from international student assessments and earlier policy analysis, this article describes how steady improvement in student learning has been attained through Finnish education policies based on equity, flexibility, creativity, teacher professionalism and trust. Unlike many other education systems, consequential accountability accompanied by high-stakes testing and externally determined learning standards has not been part of Finnish education policies. The insight is that Finnish education policies intended to raise student achievement have been built upon ideas of sustainable leadership that place strong emphasis on teaching and learning, intelligent accountability, encouraging schools to craft optimal learning environments and implement educational content that best helps their students reach the general goals of schooling.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Change, Social Development, Policy Analysis, Foreign Students

Schrag, Francis K. (2004). High Stakes Testing and Distributive Justice, Theory and Research in Education. Evaluation of high stakes testing regimes must consider not simply mean test scores, but their distribution among students. Taking high school graduation tests and black and white student populations to illustrate the argument, I identify two criteria of success: a larger proportion of black high school graduates and a narrower gap between the two groups. I evaluate various possible distributions against these criteria. I then consider the question of which students merit our focused attention, those students who are furthest behind or those with the greatest likelihood of passing the test given extra help. A medical triage analogy suggests we should help the former, but I show here that the analogy is misplaced.   [More]  Descriptors: Exit Examinations, White Students, High Stakes Tests, Equal Education

Reese, Marianne; Gordon, Stephen P.; Price, Larry R. (2004). Teachers' Perceptions of High-Stakes Testing, Journal of School Leadership. Over 900 Texas teachers were surveyed on their perceptions of the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS), which at the time of the survey was Texas's high-stakes achievement test. The sample included elementary, middle, and high schools within each of four test performance levels: exemplary, recommended, acceptable, and low performing. Respondents answered questions on how students were prepared for the high-stakes test and the effects of the test on their school and its curriculum, students, and teachers. Respondents reported that tested curriculum received increased emphasis, high-stakes testing did not motivate students to learn, and that the test was not an accurate measure of student learning or school effectiveness. Results indicate serious incongruence among proponents' arguments for testing, teachers' perceptions of test effects, and the research on authentic pedagogy and student achievement.   [More]  Descriptors: Testing, Academic Achievement, High Stakes Tests, School Effectiveness

Nguyen, Huong Tran (2007). Educating Vietnamese American Students, Multicultural Education. Many English language learners (ELL) struggle to function in English-only classes and to compete with their native English-speaking peers, and tend not to fare well on high-stakes testing. One such example is the Vietnamese American students at City Middle School whose reading levels ranged from an alarming 1.5 to 4 (mid-year first grade to fourth grade), and English language development from level 1 (beginning) to level 3 (intermediate). In this article, the author relates how she helped 14 "at risk" students at City Middle School. In addition to the after school program that the author recommended for these students, a 20-item survey was designed and administered to the students. Here, the findings and the discussion of the results of the survey are presented. A list of seven key factors that teachers should take into account when working with students of a similar language and culture as these Vietnamese Americans is presented.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Second Language Learning, High Stakes Tests, English (Second Language)

Morrier, Michael J.; Irving, Miles A.; Dandy, Evelyn; Dmitriyev, Grigory; Ukeje, Ikechukwu C. (2007). Teaching and Learning within and across Cultures: Educator Requirements across the United States, Multicultural Education. Teaching multicultural education has been a consistent theme in teacher education programs across the United States (Miller, Strosnider, & Dooley, 2000), yet most institutions of higher education have struggled to incorporate standards for implementing this coursework into their certification and/or endorsement programs. Evans, Torrey, and Newton (1997) found that 82% of states require some level of multicultural or diversity training for teacher preparation programs. However, only 37% of these states have a specific requirement as part of gaining teacher certification (Miller et al., 2000). This study describes how a state-level requirement for meaningful multicultural education can be developed and implemented. Specifically, this study details how the pervasive problem of underachievement of ethnic minority groups was the catalyst for what happened in one state-wide university system. Given the current context and educational and achievement gaps of ethnic minorities, the outcomes of the educational reform presented in this article can be an effective example of how meaningful reform can happen in multicultural education for preservice teachers. This is especially important given the current environment of accountability through high stakes testing and the impact it has on the education of children.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Preservice Teacher Education, Educational Change, Teacher Education Programs, Teacher Certification

Mulvenon, Sean W.; Murry, John W., Jr.; Ritter, Gary W. (2001). High Stakes Testing and Accountability Programs: Policy and Practice Guidelines for Implementing These Programs, Arkansas Educational Research and Policy Studies Journal. Provides an update on the current status of high stakes testing and accountability programs in the United States, conducts a review of important litigation related to high stakes accountability, and highlights best practices for policy makers based on the development of the Arkansas accountability program. Descriptors: Accountability, Court Litigation, Educational Practices, High Stakes Tests

Donovan, Beverly M. (2010). Examining the Profession: Policy Standards and Practice, ProQuest LLC. No longer is there a small red schoolhouse that serves as the learning institution for a small number of children and a few teachers. Schools of today have blossomed into high-stakes testing, inequitably funded, poverty-challenged, microcosms of students many with language and ability barriers (Bellamy, Fulmer and Muth, 2003).   Today's principals have to rise to these and other challenges while ensuring that student achievement remains the focus, hence the role of the school administrator has changed.   The Educational Leadership Policy Standards: Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards promote a shared vision as a critical component in effective leadership. This vision will provide an opportunity for every child to achieve at high levels of academic and social development and foster school improvement.   On December 12, 2007, The National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP) specifically as well as the National Policy Board for Educational Administration (NPBEA), a collective body of leading policy boards on leadership, clearly defined and adopted new national leadership standards that were revised from the ISLLC standards for the education leader of the 21 st century. These change and learning-focused standards support the need for action by principals to identify and perform the functions of the school administrator to the benefit of all they are chosen to serve.   This study sought to have practicing public school principals and teachers of urban schools to rate the principal's level of implementation of the functions associated with the ISLLC 2008 standards. The principals and teachers responded to a survey that identified the functions in correlate to the ISLLC 2008 standards recently adopted by the National Policy Board for Professional Teaching Standards under the direction of the Council of Chief State School Officers. Principals and teachers assigned varying levels of implementation to the functions in guiding the school administrator's professional practice.   Comparisons between the principals' and teachers' reported levels of implementation were made on each function associated with the ISLLC standards as well as by standard.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com…   [More]  Descriptors: Urban Schools, Academic Achievement, Educational Administration, High Stakes Tests

Fitchett, Paul G.; Heafner, Tina L. (2010). A National Perspective on the Effects of High-Stakes Testing and Standardization on Elementary Social Studies Marginalization, Theory and Research in Social Education. The purpose of this study was to explore the nationwide historic trend of elementary social studies marginalization compared to math, science, and language arts. Incorporating 17 years of data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Schools and Staffing Survey, the authors conducted comparative analyses to investigate differences in instructional time between elementary social studies and other core subject areas. In addition, variance of social studies instructional time was examined across grade levels and survey years. The results indicate that social studies instruction has remained a subsidiary part of K-5 curriculum over the last two decades. Moreover, between grade-level analyses shows a trend toward greater attention to social studies in intermediate grades (3-5) compared to primary grades (K-2). A significant decline in social studies instruction coincided with educational policy that places greater importance on mathematics and language arts. The authors conclude that while No Child Left Behind legislation has magnified trends in decreased instructional time for social studies, this federal mandate is not the sole reason for the decline of social studies within elementary curriculum. They argue that the marginalization of social studies is an enduring trend over the last two decades, a byproduct of an educational policy shift toward national standardization.   [More]  Descriptors: Federal Legislation, Language Arts, High Stakes Tests, Time on Task

Wilson, Jack M. (2007). Resist Simplistic Measures of Success, Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education. When the author testified last year before the national Commission on the Future of Higher Education created by U.S. Education Secretary Margaret Spellings, he congratulated the commission for training a spotlight on the key issues of affordability, accessibility and accountability, while pointing out what he felt were some of the shortcomings of the metrics that purport to measure these. He particularly objects to the notion that college is simply high school for older kids. Approaches that have been used widely in the schools–such as high-stakes testing of general achievement–have limited utility in colleges where the academic aims and programs are far more diverse. Furthermore, metrics that are often cited in discussions of where higher education needs to improve may have exactly the opposite effect to that intended. The Spellings Commission and others speak of a need for universities to improve their graduation rates, but the metric often cited to measure this aspect of college success is outmoded and could actually lead to much lower accessibility, affordability and completion.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Graduation Rate, Academic Achievement, High Stakes Tests

Ochoa, Gilda (2007). Learning from Latino Teachers, Jossey-Bass, An Imprint of Wiley. This book is based on author interviews with Latino teachers who have a range of teaching experience, in schools with significant Latino immigrant populations, offering an insider's perspective on the educational challenges facing Latinos. Teacher stories offer insights gained from experiences coming up through the K-12 system as students, and then becoming part of the same system as educators. Following introductory information (List of Tables; Dedication; Preface; Acknowledgments; About the Author), the book is divided into three parts. Part One, Background, includes: (1) Listening to Latina/o Teachers; (2) Explaining the Achievement Gap; and (3) Understanding the Experiences of Latinas and Latinos in the U.S. Part Two, Family and School, includes: (4) Learning from Latina/o Families; (5) What Do We Give Up for an Education?; and (6) Supporting Latinas/os throughout the Educational Pipeline. Part Three, Improving Outcomes for Latino Students, includes: (7) De-Tracking Inequality; (8) Eliminating High-Stakes Testing; (9) Strategies for Effective Teaching; and (10) Conclusion: Love and Justice in Our Schools. The book concludes with an index.   [More]  Descriptors: Teaching Experience, Elementary Secondary Education, Teacher Effectiveness, High Stakes Tests

O'Neill, Paul T. (2001). Special Education and High Stakes Testing: An Analysis of Current Law and Policy, Journal of Law and Education. Key components of state high-stakes testing are analyzed in light of major federal statutes and court cases involving the rights of children with disabilities. Concludes with three state policy recommendations for testing students with disabilities: (1) avoid testing on a single criteria; (2) give adequate notice; and (3) do not test what has not been taught. Descriptors: Court Litigation, Federal Legislation, Graduation Requirements, High Schools

Warlick, David (2001). On My Mind: Pay It Forward with Professional Development, Not High-Stakes Testing, Knowledge Quest. Suggests that professional planning, not high-stakes testing, "an Industrial Age solution to an Information Age problem," is the key to education's future. Proposes that the day for school library media specialists and teachers should be equally divided between teaching and professional planning-four hours of instructional supervision and four hours of supported professional planning time. Descriptors: Educational Change, Educational Planning, Educational Technology, Elementary Secondary Education

Journell, Wayne (2010). The Influence of High-Stakes Testing on High School Teachers' Willingness to Incorporate Current Political Events into the Curriculum, High School Journal. This paper describes the findings of a qualitative study of six government teachers from three diverse high schools in the Southwest Chicago suburbs during the 2008 Presidential Election. All of the teachers expressed a desire to cover the election in their classes; however, several experienced difficulty incorporating current events into their curriculum due to a perceived need to prepare their students for an end-of-course assessment that held graduation implications. Overall, the author found that the teachers fell into one of three groups with respect to their inclusion of current events within the curriculum: curriculum-first, disciplined-inclusion, and opportunity-first. The teachers who were categorized as curriculum-first and disciplined-inclusion appeared wary of devoting significant instructional time to the election because they were concerned their students may not perform well on the end-of-course test, a fear that appeared linked to their school's prior academic performance on high-stakes assessments and their perception of their students' academic abilities.   [More]  Descriptors: Current Events, Student Attitudes, High Stakes Tests, Secondary School Teachers

Frost, Joe L. (2007). The Changing Culture of Childhood: A Perfect Storm, Childhood Education. In this article, the author observes how a combination of interrelated elements are currently changing the face of the civilizing traditions of the U.S. education and forming a new culture of childhood. These include: (1) the standardization of education; (2) the dissolution of traditional spontaneous play; and (3) the growing specter of poverty in the United States and around the world. The author compares the effects of these elements to the perfect storm. Each element has contributed its destructive force, which created an enormous potential for failure and damage to children–a sociopolitical system out of control. As such, the author suggests that reactive, standardized learning should be replaced with creative, thoughtful, introspective, interactive learning. He explains that the engine that drives high-stakes testing, dismisses the value of children's play, and ignores the poor is a political engine. The author further contends that if everyone will speak out, this storm will pass and good sense and a confluence of cultural creativity will return to the classrooms.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Standards, Academic Achievement, High Stakes Tests, Play

Crocco, Margaret S.; Costigan, Arthur T. (2007). The Narrowing of Curriculum and Pedagogy in the Age of Accountability: Urban Educators Speak Out, Urban Education. Under the curricular and pedagogical impositions of scripted lessons and mandated curriculum, patterns associated nationwide with high-stakes testing, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, and the phenomenon known as the "narrowing of curriculum," new teachers in New York City (NYC) find their personal and professional identity thwarted, creativity and autonomy undermined, and ability to forge relationships with students diminished–all critical factors in their expressed job satisfaction. These indirect consequences of accountability regimen as it operates in NYC may exacerbate new teacher attrition, especially from schools serving low-income students. The data reported here suggest a mixed picture of frustration and anger, alongside determination, resistance, and resilience in the face of these impositions. Responses vary by school and grade level, lending support to the notion that the organizational environment serves as a critical factor in teachers' early career decisions about staying or leaving a school or the profession.   [More]  Descriptors: Job Satisfaction, Federal Legislation, Teacher Persistence, High Stakes Tests

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