Bibliography: Native Americans in New Mexico

Bibliography: "native+americans"+"new+mexico"_1 13_20161009
Date: 2016-10-09T19:32-06:00 | URL:… | Range: 1-13; Total Pages = 13 | Total Citations = 193

Principal Leadership (2013). Native American Community Academy: The Power of Embracing Culture. The value that Native American nations place on deliberative experiential learning and oral reflection often is opposed to traditional practices in US schools. The inherent differences between those cultural approaches to learning have contributed to the large achievement gap between Native American schools and traditional public schools. In 2006 the Native American Community Academy (NACA) was founded to create a school for Native American students in Albuquerque that would integrate personal wellness and cultural identity with academic success. It was the first collaborative charter school in New Mexico, and it is the only urban public charter school in the state that is designed to serve the academic, cultural, and wellness needs of Native American youth. The Native American Community Academy is a grades 6-12 Title 1 school that is located on two campuses. Grades 6-10 share facilities with an Albuquerque Public School middle school; grades 10-12 are housed in the law school on the University of New Mexico campus. Ninety-five percent of the 415 students are Native American, and they represent more than 50 tribes, including Apache, Cherokee, Cochiti, Lakota, Navajo, Taos, Tiwa, and Zuni. The school is guided by the belief that Native American students thrive in academic environments that include and value their languages, histories, heritages, and cultures. From that vision grew the requirements for Native American language study–Ds are not accepted for credit and each student must complete six hours of college credit prior to graduation. The school's mission was to write a new story for Native American youth that is filled with hope and opportunity. After six years, students of all ages clearly articulate how different school is for them; how they feel a sense of pride when they freely express their identity; how they have learned to respect all other cultures; and most important of all, how they see a future built on a college education. Students express gratitude for being in an education setting that connects their individual background and culture to their academics. They see where they fit in–an essential variable for teenagers. Every facet of the Native American Community Academy is grounded in the school's core values. This article provides a close look at each value followed by implementation strategies to illustrate how students and staff members live, work, and learn together as a community. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, Experiential Learning, Oral Tradition

New Mexico Public Education Department (2010). A World Class Education: Strategic Plan, 2010-2015. New Mexico's unique demographics and rich intellectual assets, including two of the three largest national engineering and science research laboratories in the country (Sandia and Los Alamos), provide an excellent national setting for educational transformation. With approximately 320,000 K-12 students, New Mexico's demographics are distinctive: 57% of the State's K-12 students is Hispanic; 29% is White; 11% is Native American; 3% is Black; and 1% is Asian or of other backgrounds. New Mexico is ranked 36th in overall population size, has the fifth largest land mass in the U.S. (121,665 square miles), and ranks 45th in the nation in population density. With only 6.3 people per square mile, New Mexico faces unique challenges in educating students in rural areas. Seeking to build on its unique demographics and geography, New Mexico launched an education reform agenda in 2003 through passage of HB 212 Public School Reforms. This landmark legislation, introduced by a teacher-legislator from Albuquerque, marked a critical milestone when New Mexicans came together around fundamental concerns. That is, attracting and retaining quality teachers and principals; holding students, teachers, schools, LEAs (local education agencies), charters, and the State accountable for student performance; providing a culturally diverse curriculum with high expectations for all students; and providing better support for students, educators, families, and schools. Despite this legislation, educational performance in New Mexico has only seen nominal gains, as verified by major legislative reviews; large achievement gaps separate low-income students and students of color from others. In April 2010, New Mexico's Secretary of Education convened a group of nearly 75 legislative and education leaders, business and community members, and other key stakeholders regarding the Phase II Race to the Top grant application. The decision of the group, supported by Governor Bill Richardson, was that New Mexico is well-positioned to undertake ongoing education reform; the State should move forward, and do so enthusiastically and thoughtfully. Through the College and Career Readiness Policy Institute (CCRPI) Action Plan, New Mexico has articulated a comprehensive, college and career ready, high school graduation initiative for the state's unique population. National CCRPI partners–including Achieve, National Governors Association, Education Council, Jobs for the Future, and Data Quality Campaign–helped a diverse group of New Mexico policy, business, community, and education leaders to develop and build upon cutting edge strategies grounded in current research. This plan weaves the essential elements of the HB 212 Public School Reforms, the ongoing education reform defined within the 2010 Race to the Top grant application, and the articulated initiatives outlined in the College and Career Readiness Policy Institute Action Plan to create bold educational transformational challenge for New Mexico. [More] Descriptors: Strategic Planning, Public Schools, Elementary Secondary Education, American Indians

Baxter, Paula Jean (2009). Identifying Strategies for Native American Student Success in Community Colleges: A Qualitative Study, ProQuest LLC. This qualitative study attempted to analyze the educational goals and achievements of successful present and former Native American students at San Juan College (SJC) in Farmington, NM. It considered a systemic approach to educating Native American students by taking into account their suggestions of how to improve the educational framework to address their needs and expectations. The study group was composed of Native American students who enrolled at SJC in Farmington, New Mexico as first-time students and had successfully completed 30 credit hours or more of course work. After completing 30 semester credit hours at SJC, they either: (1) gained employment, (2) advanced in their job, (3) moved on to better employment, (4) continued their education at SJC, or (5) transferred to a four-year college or university. Data were collected in two methods: interviewing the participants through focus group sessions and one-on-one interviews. Interviews were conducted with 38 participants. The study used the framework of Human Capital Theory in the context of Social Capital Theory. The study explored the perspectives of Native American students' lived experiences. The study also incorporated their suggestions about required changes in the status quo which could help to improve the higher educational environment for Native American students. The findings in this study strongly suggest that Native American students' desire for investment in college education follows closely the tenets of Human Capital Theory and Social Capital Theory. They believed that gaining knowledge and training would enable them to increase their earning potential and secure a better future for themselves and their children. Native American students' preferences for a higher standard of living, better housing, better healthcare and nutrition, and greater employment opportunities closely resemble that of White students. It is my intention for this study to provide a set of recommendations to higher educational leaders as guidelines to design, develop, and implement culturally sensitive strategies in addressing the educational needs of Native American students. Also the study attempted to encourage other researchers to investigate the ways and means of improving the status of Native American students in pursuit of higher education. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:… [More] Descriptors: Human Capital, Community Colleges, American Indians, Focus Groups

Willeto, Angela A. A. (2007). Native American Kids: American Indian Children's Well-Being Indicators for the Nation and Two States, Social Indicators Research. American Indian/Alaska Native well-being, survival-based data are rare. This study explores the question of whether or not it is possible to produce such well-being information using secondary data sources. The answer is yes, with some limitations. Hence, Native American data for 10 well-being indicators nationally and for New Mexico and South Dakota, using a model like Kids Count (Annie E. Casey Foundation: 2003a, 2001 "KIDS COUNT Data Book: State profiles of child well-being" (Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD)) are reported; thereby reducing the gap in survival indicators for U.S. Indigenous children and youths. Comparisons between "all" children and American Indian children demonstrate that Native American children have comparatively worse well-being rates at the national level and in South Dakota, whereas New Mexico Native kids compare favorably to their non-Native peers. Policy recommendations conclude the paper. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Social Indicators, Children, Well Being

Trujillo, Michael L. (2008). Onate's Foot: Remembering and Dismembering in Northern New Mexico, Aztlan: A Journal of Chicano Studies. This essay analyzes the historical construction of "Spanish" icons in northern New Mexico and the complex Hispanic and Chicano identities they both evoke and mask. It focuses on the January 1998 vandalism of a statue depicting New Mexico's first Spanish colonial governor, Don Juan de Onate. The removal of the Onate statue's foot references a brutal colonial encounter in 1599, when Onate ordered the amputation of one foot each from Pueblo men in the rebellious Native American village of Acoma. In this case study, national and regional narratives as well as self-consciously oppositional narratives collude, conflict, and supplement one another. I conclude that the vandalized statue offers a dynamic and "open" icon that powerfully represents the contradictions of New Mexican Chicana/o identity, shedding light on the complex and contradictory identities of all Mexican-origin peoples in the United States. [More] Descriptors: Mexican Americans, American Indians, Mexicans, United States History

Lee, Tiffany S. (2010). Complex Ecologies of Indigenous Education at the Native American Community Academy, Online Submission. The Native American Community Academy (NACA) is demonstrating an example of Indigenous philosophies and practices in education through its holistic, student-centered approach to education. NACA was one school in a large statewide study on Indian education in New Mexico. Focus groups with students, teachers, and community members illustrate the evolution of complex ecologies NACA creates to facilitate students' growth intellectually, socially, emotionally, and physically. The experiences and perspectives of the participants at this secondary level charter school are shared to illustrate how this school exemplifies a model of Indigenous education, how it creates and builds community, and how it teaches students to know themselves by motivating a critical Indigenous consciousness and a sense of service toward building sustainable communities. [More] Descriptors: Charter Schools, American Indians, Focus Groups, American Indian Education

Bureau of Indian Education (2013). Annual Performance Report. Bureau of Indian Education FFY 2011. Revised Clarification, May 17, 2013. APR Template-Part B. During SY 2011-2012, the Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) continued their efforts to improve the validity and reliability of data reporting. BIE data collections are dependent on school level entry (self-reporting) into the Native American Student Information System (NASIS) or into the BIE's Annual Report from the schools. In addition, data is gathered and analyzed through the Special Education Integrated Monitoring Process (SEIMP) conducted annually. Through on-site activities, annual conferences, and webinar training sessions, schools have increased their level of understanding of data requirements and analysis. The BIE aligns reporting requirements with ESEA. The BIE oversees a total of 172 elementary and secondary schools, located on 64 reservations in 23 states. Of these, 59 are BIE-operated and 113 are Tribally-operated under BIE contracts or grants. The BIE provides funds to all schools however tribal groups have been granted or contracted to operate the tribally controlled schools. Both category of schools are treated the same relative to program management, monitoring, and support. The BIE included stakeholder involvement in the development of the APR when members of the BIE Advisory Board for Exceptional Children met on January 24-25, 2013 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and provided input on the data to be reported and the collection process. They asked for and received clarification on specific indicators and provided suggestions for revisions. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indian Reservations, Tribally Controlled Education, Data Analysis

Bogener, Stephen (2008). Land, Speculation, and Manipulation on the Pecos, Great Plains Quarterly. The Pecos River of the nineteenth century, unlike its faint twenty-first century shadow, was a formidable watercourse. The river stretches some 755 miles, from the Sangre de Cristo Mountains northeast of Santa Fe to its eventual merger with the Rio Grande. Control over the public domain of southeastern New Mexico came from controlling access to the Pecos, its tributaries and springs. In the arid environment of New Mexico's Pecos Valley, corporate accumulation of land through manipulation of federal land laws followed the removal of Native Americans, the displacement of Mexican American communities, and the departure of major players in the cattle industry of the American West. The purpose of this article is to reveal some of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century speculative impulses for harnessing water. [More] Descriptors: Land Acquisition, Water, United States History, Mexican Americans

Weldon, Tyler L. (2013). Can High School Assessments Predict Developmental Education Enrollment in New Mexico?, ProQuest LLC. Thousands of American's enter postsecondary institutions every year and many are under prepared for college-level work. Subsequently, students enroll in or are placed in remedial courses in preparation for the rigor of college level classes. Numerous studies have looked at the impact of developmental course work on student outcomes, but few focus on predictors that could identify students who are likely to need remedial education. The potential for early prediction (and therefore possible intervention) is less understood. This study addresses this gap by examining the connection between high school assessments and future developmental courses enrollment in college. Using longitudinal data from New Mexico, I estimate how well English and math scale scores from the eleventh grade New Mexico Standards Based Assessment (NMSBA) predict an individual student's remedial course enrollments in English, math or both upon entry to college. This is possible due to a state level system in which a student's high school assessment and college enrollment data are captured. Therefore, unlike previous studies, this study examined the potential for existing assessment data, with a wide range of students (7,233), to predict which students are likely to enroll in remedial education. Using logistic regression techniques, I provide odds estimates for math and English enrollment based on scale score, gender, and ethnicity predictors. The results indicate that the higher the test scale score, the less likely it is that a student enrolled in remedial college courses. This study reveals gender and ethnic variation in the strength of prediction. Women enroll in remediation significantly more than men and given equivalent NMSBA scores Native American and Hispanics enroll significantly more than whites. This work also adds to the literature examining the efficacy of high school exams. Specifically, these results suggest that high school assessments have potential as an important indicator of academic college readiness. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:… [More] Descriptors: College Readiness, High School Students, Student Evaluation, Developmental Studies Programs

Chavez, Alicia Fedelina; Ke, Fengfeng; Herrera, Felisha A. (2012). Clan, Sage, and Sky: Indigenous, Hispano, and Mestizo Narratives of Learning in New Mexico Context, American Educational Research Journal. Colleges and universities retain Native American and Latino college students at lower rates than other ethnic groups even when culturally based services, financial assistance, and support are provided. College teaching and conceptions of learning have yet to evolve on a widespread basis toward culturally diverse epistemologies and practice. This narrative inquiry explores meaning making of 50 Native, Hispano, and Mestizo American students about their learning in a variety of contexts including face-to-face and online college courses as well as learning at home, in extended family and tribal contexts. The study also explores teaching practices students identified as most helpful to their learning and success. Underlying cultural constructs emerged from narrative analysis in eight areas of learning. [More] Descriptors: Hispanic Americans, Student Attitudes, Family (Sociological Unit), American Indians

Owen, Laura (2012). Narrowing the College Opportunity Gap: Helping Students and Families Navigate the Financial Aid Process, ProQuest LLC. The number of students enrolling in post-secondary institutions in the U.S. has slowly been rising over the last 10 years, yet gaps continue to exist in terms of who attends college and persists through graduation. Minority and low income students often lack the guidance needed to navigate the college enrollment process and as a result, remain underrepresented at U.S. colleges and universities. The prospect of attending college is frequently ruled-out based on fears surrounding college costs and lack of awareness and exposure to financial aid programs. This dissertation study looked at the impact of increased school counselor outreach on FAFSA completion and college enrollment in a large urban school district in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Researchers found robust treatment effects on both FAFSA completion 0.103 (sd = 0.01) and college enrollment 0.117 (sd = 0.01) suggesting a strong correlation between student contact with a school counselor and these two essential tasks for successful college matriculation. The opportunity gap was narrowed for all groups measured with the greatest improvement noted for African American, Asian, and Native American students. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:… [More] Descriptors: Access to Education, Postsecondary Education, Equal Education, Minority Group Students

Appleseed (2008). Striving for the Best: New Mexico's Need to Strengthen Parent Involvement in Public Schools. NCLB and Recommendations Regarding the Vital Role of Parents and Guardians in Achieving Student and School Success. Parent involvement in New Mexico, and around the nation, is an essential element in the success of students and their schools. This simple point anchors the federal law known as the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" ("NCLB"). NCLB establishes state, district and school requirements designed to promote more effective parent involvement. The belief is this: if schools provide clear, meaningful performance data to parents, then parents will become better school partners, decision-makers and advocates for their children. The law also reflects the view that effective parent involvement spurs improvements in student learning. The focus on effective parent involvement as a way to boost overall achievement is supported by a long string of social science research and by the stories of schools that beat the odds. This research establishes that increased parent involvement boosts student achievement. Connected parents also maintain formal and informal communication channels with administrators, teachers, and fellow parents. These findings are particularly poignant for parents who live in poverty, or whose first language is not English, or who battle daily a variety of steep and draining obstacles. New Mexico with its vast Spanish-speaking and Native American Indian populations and wide swaths of families with pitiful incomes, could use the academic uplift that parents bring to the classroom. In 2005, Appleseed embarked on an examination of federal, state and local policies and practices on parent involvement in six states including New Mexico. The idea was to gather on-the-ground perspectives and information, based on more than four years of experience implementing NCLB. Now, in 2008, Appleseed has revisited New Mexico to determine the progress that has been made in implementing the parent involvement provisions of NCLB and to identify areas in which current efforts in New Mexico might be bolstered. It is Appleseed's hope that these perspectives, along with the information in this report, will enhance state, district and school efforts to promote effective parent involvement. The report should also provide key information to state and local policymakers, who constantly face the challenge of how best to structure, prioritize and fund public education. Appended are: (1) 2008 Quick Facts Adequate Yearly Progress and Designations; (2) Summary of New Mexico School System Parent Involvement Policies; and (3) Summary of Albuquerque Schools' Parent Involvement Policies. [More] Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Federal Programs, Disadvantaged Youth, Educational Improvement

McIlroy, Ann Lynn (2010). Policy to Practice: A Case Study of Advanced Placement Open Enrollment Programs in New Mexico, ProQuest LLC. This case study explored Advanced Placement open enrollment programs in New Mexico in an attempt to identify mechanisms embedded within the implementation practices which possibly prevent the equitable enrollment of students of color. Advanced Placement (AP) courses have become a gate-keeper in competitive college admissions. Therefore, a study of programs purporting a philosophical alliance with the College Board's AP Equity Policy is warranted in light of the enrollment inequities that exist for Latino/a, African American, and Native American students. Using a critical race theoretical (CRT) lens, the perceptions of eight respondents from four participating school districts in New Mexico were gathered and analyzed. The analysis of the qualitative data indicated four silent gate-keeping mechanisms. Failure to develop an institutional value for equity; institution centered practices; impersonal relationships with students of color; and teacher negativity were identified as silent gate-keepers. As a result, educational institutions are encouraged to acknowledge inequities through data analysis; utilize equity data as a catalyst for self-examination of underlying racist perceptions, beliefs, and behaviors; and, take action to develop the capacity of educators to appreciate diversity. Additional recommendations for educator preparation programs to promote race conscious practices by new and aspiring educators are offered as well as suggestions for further study. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:… [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Data Analysis, Advanced Placement, College Admission

New Mexico Higher Education Department (2005). Developing Relationships & Partnerships between Tribes and the State to Ensure Equitable Resources & Quality Education for Native American Students. State of New Mexico Tribal-State Indian Education Summit Report. More than 300 tribal representatives and educators from across New Mexico met at Ohkay Owingeh on December 19, 2005, to discuss ways to improve education for American Indian students in New Mexico. The Summit was a collaborative effort by New Mexico's Office of Indian Affairs, Public Education Department, Higher Education Department, and tribal communities. Governor Bill Richardson gave the keynote address. He stressed that New Mexico must develop solutions in American Indian education rather than report deficits year after year. Toward that end, he requested a legislative appropriation of $500K to propose solutions for teaching Native children on and off reservations in the state; $2M for Advanced Placement classes for Native American high school students; an expansion of the Lottery Success Scholarship to include students who attend tribal colleges; and Capital improvement projects on tribal lands totaling $2.5M. The singular challenge facing Indian educators is that achievement, retention, and graduation rates of American Indian students across P-20 levels lag significantly behind state and national norms. The Summit was organized around four strands, which also structure sections of this report: Early Childhood Education, Elementary and Secondary Education, Higher and Adult Education, and Other Education Issues, which include Urban Indians, Health, and the No Child Left Behind Act. Summit participants generated Challenges and Recommendations in each of the strands. (Contains 6 figures.) [This document was produced by the New Mexico Higher Education Department.] [More] Descriptors: Advanced Placement, Early Childhood Education, Elementary Secondary Education, Higher Education

Rossler, Jens Erwin (2012). Educators' Perceptions on Implementing Direct Reading Instruction in Native American Elementary Schools, ProQuest LLC. The Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) established a System of Support program that included certain mandates for schools in restructuring and school improvement within the framework of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). The Bureau operates 184 elementary schools and 24 colleges nationwide. Some of the schools are required to utilize scripted direct reading instruction programs to increase reading scores and student academic achievement in order to reach the required Annual Yearly Progress as outlined in the NCLB. The purpose of the present qualitative descriptive case study was to understand the perceptions of the school level educators regarding the mandates to implement direct reading instructional programs in a finite number of BIE schools in New Mexico. The study incorporated a descriptive case study design method to glean information from data collected via semistructured interviews, field notes, and available curriculum materials specific to the DI methodology for language acquisition. The study participants were drawn from three BIE schools and included three administrators, three reading coaches, and nine teaching faculty members. Four themes emerged from the results: (a) the appropriateness of the program for BIE schools, (b) DI relative to students' academic achievement, (c) DI relative to the classroom experience, and (d) the effect of a mandated implementation. One conclusion was that educators' perceptions about mandated instructional programs affect the success or failure of instructional curricula. The study provides an additional venue for future research regarding appropriate strategies to implement academic program. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:… [More] Descriptors: Teacher Attitudes, Elementary School Teachers, American Indian Education, American Indians

Walkup, Nancy (2007). Folk Art Traditions and Beyond: Travel with "SchoolArts" to Santa Fe, New Mexico in July 2008, SchoolArts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers. This article briefly discusses a seminar that will focus on the fifth annual Folk Art Festival at the Museum of International Folk Art in Santa Fe, with additional emphasis on Georgia O'Keeffe's life and art in New Mexico, and Hispanic and Native American cultural traditions. Activities include museum visits, field trips, invited speakers, hands-on experiences, and attendance at the International Folk Art Festival at the Museum of International Folk Art in Santa Fe. Highlights include visits to Georgia O'Keeffe's home, Ghost Ranch in Albiquiu, and a sister conference center to Ghost Ranch in Santa Fe for photography, sketching, or painting. The seminar will be led by two folk art collectors and educators: Nancy Walkup, art teacher and editor of "SchoolArts" magazine; and Myra Walker, art professor at the University of North Texas. [More] Descriptors: Field Trips, Seminars, Artists, Museums

Montgomery, Michelle Rene (2010). Being Raced, Acting Racially: Multiracial Tribal College Students' Representations of Their Racial Identity Choices, ProQuest LLC. In recent years, many studies have clearly documented that mixed-race people are currently engaged in the process of self validation (DaCosta. 2007; Dalmage, 2003; McQueen, 2002; Root, 1996 & 2001; Spencer, J, M., 1997; Spencer, R., 2006a; Thorton, 1992). There is not a lot of empirical research that examines how schools influence the racial identity of multiracial students, in particular mixed-race students that identify as Native American. Even more troubling is the lack of literature on experiences of mixed-race students using racial identity choice as a social and political tool through race discourse and actions. The aim of this qualitative case study was to look at the relationship between the racial agency of multiracial students and the larger white supremacist social structure. The research questions addressed in this study are as follows: (1) How do the formal and informal schooling contexts shape the identity choices of multiracial students? (2) How do the identity choices of multiracial students conform to an/or resist the racialized social system of the United States? This study was conducted at a tribal college in New Mexico with selected mixed-race participants who identified as Native American, or acknowledged Native American ancestry. At the time of data collection, the school enrollment was 513 students, representing 83 federally recognized tribes and 22 state recognized tribes. The presence of a multi-racial body of students created a unique contributing factor of multiracial participants for a broader understanding of mixed-race experiences in cultural and traditional learning environments. The study was conducted using qualitative case study methodology of mixed-race students interviewed in the last weeks of the fall semester (pre-interview) and once during the last few weeks of the spring semester (post interviews). Mixed-race students were asked to discuss nine group sessions during the spring semester their lived experiences that influenced their identity choices. The sample for this study represented mixed-race participants from various tribal communities. In an eight-month time period of the study, nine participants were interviewed and participated in-group sessions. Of the nine total in sample, two were male, seven were female; three were Native American/white, two were black/white/Native American, three were Hispanic/white/Native American, and one were Hispanic/Native American. From my analysis of the nine participants' mixed-race experience, three overarching themes emerged: (a) racial(ized) self-perceptions, (b) peer interactions and influences, and (c) impact on academic experiences. Of the nine participants, how a students' race was asserted, assigned, and reassigned appears to be determined by being mixed-race with black versus white or non-black. According to the participants, this particular tribal college did not provide a supportive or welcoming environment. As a result, students were highly stratified based on experiences tied to their phenotype and racial mixture; the more "black" they appeared, the more alienated they were. In the classroom, there was often a divide between black/Native mixed-race students versus white/Native mixed-race students, similar to the differences between monoracial white and black student experiences. As a result of dissimilar experiences based on mixedness, there were group association conflicts during their schooling experiences that included feeling vicitimized when their whiteness did not prevail as an asset or being alienated due to blackness. The study also found a clear distinction between the mixed-race black experience versus the mixed-race with white experience based on phenotypic features. Overall, mixed-race with black schooling experiences indicated situations of racial conflict. The findings of this study have policy implications for tribal colleges and other institutions to develop programs and services to help mixed-race students identify and bond with their learning environments. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:… [More] Descriptors: African American Students, Race, Social Systems, American Indians

Rivera, Hector H.; Tharp, Roland G. (2006). A Native American Community's Involvement and Empowerment to Guide Their Children's Development in the School Setting, Journal of Community Psychology. This study provides an empirical description of the dimensions of community values, beliefs, and opinions through a survey conducted in the Pueblo Indian community of Zuni in New Mexico. The sample was composed of 200 randomly chosen community members ranging from 21 to 103 years old. A principal component factor analysis was conducted, as well as a multivariate analysis of variance, to explore gender, age, education, language, and socioeconomic (SES) differences on values, beliefs, and opinions from survey participants. Overall, the findings suggest a strong agreement by the community on the direction to be taken by their school district in their efforts to improve classroom instruction, as well as in their efforts to guide their children's development as Native Americans. [More] Descriptors: Opinions, American Indians, Factor Analysis, Statistical Analysis

Deschenie, Tina (2008). Sports Drove Silva to Teach Wellness, Tribal College Journal of American Indian Higher Education. This article profiles teacher Leroy Silva (Laguna), 27, a.k.a. "Buster". Silva describes himself as an active guy who stays busy working out, playing basketball, softball, and more recently golf, soccer, and lacrosse. He teaches personal wellness and sports (not physical education), a job he began in 2006. Before that he was a trainer at the Laguna Pueblo Wellness Center, his first job after graduating from Haskell Indian Nations University in Lawrence, Kansas. He earned two degrees at Haskell: an Associate Degree in Health, Physical Education, and Athletics in 2003 and a Bachelor's Degree in American Indian Studies in 2005. Although he didn't plan to become a teacher, Silva says he has always known he wanted to make a difference with youth. When he began exploring the Native American Community Academy (NACA) position he spent two weeks deliberating before finally taking the leap at the urging of his mother, Joan Silva. Since he didn't major in education, Silva is working on alternative licensure by developing a portfolio that addresses New Mexico state teaching competencies. Kara L. Bobroff (Lakota/Navajo), the founding principal of NACA, says Silva is a strong role model for the students. He emulates the core values, mission, and vision of the school: college success, knowing his own culture and language, practicing personal wellness, and being committed to community and service. [More] Descriptors: Role Models, American Indians, American Indian Education, Wellness

Koeppe, Tina (2006). Women in History–Maria Poveka Martinez, Journal of Women in Educational Leadership. This article profiles Native American artisan Maria Poveka Martinez. Martinez played a vital role in the revival of pottery making throughout the Southwest United States. Born in 1887 in the San Ildefonso region of New Mexico, Martinez first made pottery as a child and received encouragement from her aunt, who was an excellent potter. 1907 is the year that she began her pottery career in earnest. By 1915, she had mastered the art of making larger vessels and attained a level of skill that surpassed all other San Ildefonso potters. Her pottery was characterized by relatively thin walls, hard firing, careful forming, smooth and clear finishes, carefully applied and well-executed designs, and, in the case of Black ware, a highly lustrous surface polish. Her pottery utilizes traditional techniques and demonstrates a preoccupation with form and balance. Although she had a career that spanned most of the 20th century and received national and international recognition during her lifetime, Martinez never had a major retrospective exhibition in her native state, New Mexico, until after her death in 1980. [More] Descriptors: Art History, American Indians, Ceramics, United States History

New Mexico Higher Education Department (2005). Native American and Hispanic Students: Recruitment, Enrollment, Retention and Graduation Trends; Institutional Performance Measures and Targets; Institutional Action Plans. New Mexicans of Native American and Hispanic ancestry participate less often and less successfully in the higher education system than do other groups. This fact has been demonstrated repeatedly in various studies and is exacerbated by a cycle of poverty, inadequate academic and financial preparation for college, and other issues related to traditional "first generation" families. In such settings, regardless of ethnicity, higher education and the resulting economic and social benefits may not be well understood. The complexities of student recruitment and retention to graduation present formidable challenges; the need for improved academic preparation and alignment of high school curriculum and college placement is another issue impacting successful transition from high school to college. This report outlines disparities and confirms the need for intervention. It provides baseline assessments from which to measure progress and provides a vehicle for communicating the magnitude of the problem and its urgency. (Contains 182 figures and 7 tables.) [Document published by the New Mexico Higher Education Department.] [More] Descriptors: Higher Education, School Holding Power, Enrollment Management, American Indians

Dorr, Jessica; Akeroyd, Richard (2001). New Mexico Tribal Libraries: Bridging the Digital Divide, Computers in Libraries. Describes the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Native American Access to Technology Program (NAATP) and explains how programs were developed in New Mexico tribal libraries. Topics include empowering Native communities through access to digital information resources; the grant process; on-site training; and the importance of collaboration with the tribes. Descriptors: Access to Computers, Access to Information, American Indian Reservations, American Indians

Parent, Nancy Brossard (2012). Contested Domains of Science and Science Learning in Contemporary Native American Communities: Three Case Studies from a National Science Foundation Grant Titled, "Archaeology Pathways for Native Learners", ProQuest LLC. This dissertation provides a critical analysis of three informal science education partnerships that resulted from a 2003-2006 National Science Foundation grant titled, "Archaeology Pathways for Native Learners" (ESI-0307858), hosted by the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center. This dissertation is designed to contribute to understandings of learning processes that occur within and at the intersection of diverse worldviews and knowledge systems, by drawing upon experiences derived from three disparate contexts: 1) The Navajo Nation Museum in Window Rock, Arizona; 2) The A:shiwi A:wan Museum and Heritage Center on the Zuni Reservation in Zuni, New Mexico; and 3) Science learning camps at the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center for Native youth of southern New England. While informal science education is increasingly moving toward decolonizing and cross-cutting institutional boundaries of learning through critical thinking and real-world applications, the construction of "science" (even within diverse contexts) continues to be framed within a homogenous, predominantly Euro-American perspective. This study analyzes the language of Western science employed in these partnerships, with particular attention to the use of Western/Native binaries that shape perceptions of Native peoples and communities, real or imagined. Connections are drawn to broader nation-state interests in education, science, and the global economy. The role of educational evaluation in these case studies is also critically analyzed, by questioning the ways in which it is constructed, conducted, and evaluated for the purposes of informing future projects and subsequent funding. This study unpacks problems of the dominant language of "expert" knowledge embedded in Western science discourse, and highlights the possibilities of indigenous knowledge systems that can inform Western science frameworks of education and evaluation. Ultimately, this study suggests that research methodologies and epistemologies that acknowledge and integrate indigenous ways of knowing can advance and broaden Western constructions of science, the academy, and educational research and praxis on a national and global scale. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:… [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Science Education, Archaeology, Partnerships in Education

Sorensen, Barbara (2001). Science as Joy: The Mobile Science Project, Winds of Change. A mobile educational outreach program travels to Pueblo communities in rural New Mexico attempting to increase the number of Native American college graduates and scientists. The science, math, and technology methods used in the workshops complement traditional Native hands-on teaching techniques. The project also provides students with increased access to and understanding of higher education opportunities. Descriptors: American Indian Education, College Preparation, Culturally Relevant Education, Elementary Secondary Education

Whitt, Melicia C.; DuBose, Katrina D.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine (2004). Walking Patterns in a Sample of African American, Native American, and Caucasian Women: The Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study, Health Education & Behavior. This analysis describes walking patterns among African American, Native American, and Caucasian women from South Carolina and New Mexico. Walking was assessed using pedometer and physical activity (PA) record data based on 4 consecutive days on either three (Study Phase 1) or two (Study Phase 2) occasions. Participants walked 5,429 [plus or minus] 2,959 steps per day and recorded 159 [plus or minus] 59 minutes per day of total walking in the PA record. Most daily walking was accumulated during household (46%), transportation (26%), occupation (16%), and exercise-related (10%) walking. There was a modest correlation between steps per day and minutes per day. Steps per day were higher with education and household size, and lower with increasing age and body mass index. These findings have implications for developing PA surveys and for planning interventions related to walking patterns among women. [More] Descriptors: Body Composition, Physical Activities, Females, American Indians

Tharp, Roland G.; Lewis, Hayes; Hilberg, Ruth; Bird, Carlotta; Epaloose, Georgia; Dalton, Stephanie S.; Youpa, Daniel G.; Rivera, Hector; Feathers, Marilyn Riding In; Eriacho, Wilfred, Sr. (1999). Seven More Mountains and a Map: Overcoming Obstacles to Reform in Native American Schools, Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk. Explores the educational obstacles faced by Native Americans specific to their sociohistorical contexts. Seven specific obstacles and how they can be overcome through changes to structure, content, and processes are illustrated from work with Zuni students in New Mexico. Descriptors: American Indian History, American Indian Reservations, American Indians, Disadvantaged Youth

Jones, Cathy; Caravaca, Liz; Cizek, Susan; Horner, Robert H.; Vincent, Claudia G. (2006). Culturally Responsive Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support: A Case Study in One School with a High Proportion of Native American Students, Multiple Voices for Ethnically Diverse Exceptional Learners. Schools face an array of recommendations for reforming educational practices. If these recommendations are to be implemented on a large scale, reformers will need to embed clear strategies to make educational innovations and implementation procedures culturally responsive. Schoolwide positive behavior support, as an approach to whole-school discipline, offers one example of an innovative reform that encourages cultural responsiveness. The authors present a brief overview of schoolwide positive behavior support, the ways cultural responsiveness is being included in the implementation of this approach, and practical messages from a case study with one rural New Mexico school that has embraced the approach. Implications are offered for including cultural responsiveness in all educational reform efforts and future research. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Elementary School Students, Cultural Relevance, American Indian Culture

Bureau of Indian Education (2008). School Health Assessment of Bureau of Indian Education Schools in New Mexico. An assessment of school health programs, policies and practices in the Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) schools was initiated because of concerns by Native American serving providers and advocates that American Indian youth have limited access to school health services, and because there is increasing national and state momentum with respect to health disparities and inconsistency in school health programs. A telephone survey was developed and administered to BIE principals or their designees between October 2006 and April 2007. Thirty-nine (95%) of the schools participated. Domains assessed included health facilities; school health staffing and collaboration; behavioral/mental health services; health education; student, family and community engagement; school health records; immunization; procedures for student medication and management; acute care management; and care of medically complex and medically fragile students. Special analyses were conducted comparing boarding and day schools, and BIE-operated and BIE grant schools. The report provides a summary of demographic information on the BIE schools in New Mexico. This is followed by the section describing data obtained in each of the domains structured to provide: (1) A description of each domain; (2) School health guidelines and standards established by national organizations; (3) A summary of the data; and (4) Key findings. The report concludes with the following sections: (1) A comparative analysis of school health services that examines: (a) BIE- operated schools vs. BIE grant schools (b) Boarding schools vs. day schools and (c) Student population; (2) Perspectives from interviewees regarding their school's strengths and unmet needs regarding school health services and programs; (3) A discussion of the "main themes" that emerged from analysis of the BIE School Health Assessment data; (4) Recommendations for the BIE and for state agencies that may have resources to contribute to BIE schools for school health programs; and (5) Appendices which provide more detailed information. Appendices include: (1) School Health Staffing and Collaboration; (2) Behavioral and Mental Health Staffing and Collaboration; (3) Health Education; (4) Student Health Records; (5) Immunizations/Procedures for Student Medication Administration; (6) Summary of Main Themes and Key Findings; (7) Healthy People 2010; and (8) References. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Education, School Health Services, Health Facilities, School Personnel

Peshkin, Alan (2000). The Nature of Interpretation in Qualitative Research, Educational Researcher. Addresses the process of interpretation from a study of the academic achievements of Native American high school students in New Mexico, illuminating the relationship of researcher subjectivity to the many decision points that each process of interpretation embodies. The article also contains a counterpoint of problematics that reveals where alternative interpretive decisions could have been made. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, American Indians

Engstrand, Iris H. W. (2000). How Cruel Were the Spaniards?, OAH Magazine of History. Addresses whether or not the Spaniards were cruel by discussing such issues as the Spanish conquistadors of the 16th century, the presence of the Spaniards in New Mexico and California, the missionaries, and the Spanish naturalists of the late 18th century. Explains that some people protected and helped the Native Americans. Descriptors: American Indians, Foreign Countries, Land Settlement, Persuasive Discourse

Llamas, Vincente (2000). The Four Corners Rural Systemic Initiative: Challenges and Opportunities, Rural Educator. Describes the Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN RSI), which aims to improve and integrate science, mathematics, and technology education for the primarily Native American and Hispanic students of the Four Corners region. Discusses UCAN RSI's focus on community engagement, cultural sensitivity and relevance, and local capacity building through work with six regionally self-defined coalitions. Descriptors: American Indian Education, Change Strategies, Community Involvement, Culturally Relevant Education

Raborn, Jim (). Advocates for Success: Creating an Innovative Educational Model for Diverse Special Populations. This brief paper describes a program to increase the number of Native American students identified and placed in one Albuquerque, New Mexico, elementary school's gifted education program. Introductory information notes the general underrepresentation of Native Americans in gifted education programs and their disproportionately high representation in remedial special education programs. Prior to this program's implementation, the target elementary school had no Native American students identified as gifted, even though Indian students comprised 11.8 percent of the school's enrollment. A voluntary after school and summer enrichment program was created to address the cognitive and affective domains of students in grades 3-5. The Ohiyesa program used cooperative learning, team-building, demonstration, and modeling activities in a program designed to build cognitive, affective, social, and aesthetic skills. More than 150 children and their families participated in the program during the first 5 years. In 1997-98, following program implementation, statistics indicated that eight of the 26 identified gifted program participants were considered Native American, all of whom attended the Ohiyesa program. (Contains 15 references.) [More] Descriptors: Ability Identification, American Indians, Disproportionate Representation, Elementary Education

Erickson, David, Ed.; Reid, Carolina, Ed.; Nelson, Lisa, Ed.; O'Shaughnessy, Anne, Ed.; Berube, Alan, Ed. (2008). The Enduring Challenge of Concentrated Poverty in America: Case Studies from Communities Across the U.S, Federal Reserve System. This report–a joint effort of the Federal Reserve's Community Affairs function and the Brookings Institution's Metropolitan Policy Program–examines the issue of concentrated poverty and profiles 16 high-poverty communities from across the country, including immigrant gateway, Native American, urban, and rural communities. Through these case studies, the report contributes to our understanding of the dynamics of poor people living in poor communities, and the policies that will be needed to bring both into the economic mainstream. It is not the intention of this publication to explain poverty causation. Instead, the goal is to add texture to our understanding of where and how concentrated poverty exists, by studying new areas and by interviewing local stakeholders, including residents, community leaders, and government representatives, to understand how concentrated poverty affects both individuals and communities. The report begins with "Concentrated Poverty in America: An Overview" (Alan Berube) and "Introduction to the Case Studies" (Carolina Reid). It then presents the following 16 case studies: (1) Fresno, California: the West Fresno neighborhood (Naomi Cytron); (2) Cleveland, Ohio: the Central neighborhood (Lisa Nelson); (3) Miami, Florida: the Little Haiti neighborhood (Ana Cruz-Taura and Jessica LeVeen Farr); (4) Martin County, Kentucky (Jeff Gatica); (5) Blackfeet Reservation, Montana (Sandy Gerber, Michael Grover, and Sue Woodrow); (6) Greenville, North Carolina: the West Greenville neighborhood (Carl Neel); (7) Atlantic City, New Jersey: the Bungalow Park/Marina District area (Harriet Newburger, John Wackes, Keith Rolland, and Anita Sands); (8) Austin, Texas: the East Austin neighborhood (Elizabeth Sobel); (9) McKinley County, New Mexico: Crownpoint (Steven Shepelwich and Roger Zalneraitis); (10) McDowell County, West Virginia (Courtney Anderson Mailey); (11) Albany, Georgia: the East Albany neighborhood (Jessica LeVeen Farr and Sibyl Slade); (12) El Paso, Texas: the Chamizal neighborhood (Roy Lopez); (13) Springfield, Massachusetts: Old Hill, Six Corners, and the South End neighborhoods (DeAnna Green); (14) Rochester, New York: the Northern Crescent neighborhoods (Alexandra Forter Sirota and Yazmin Osaki); (15) Holmes County, Mississippi (Ellen Eubank); and (16) Milwaukee, Wisconsin: the Northwest neighborhood (Jeremiah Boyle). Following these case studies is "Learning from Concentrated Poverty in America: A Synthesis of Themes from the Case Studies" (Alan Berube, David Erickson, and Carolina Reid). Appended to this report are: (A) References for Comparison Statistics Tables; (B) Literature Review: Federal Reserve System Poverty-Related Research; (C) References for Overview in Alphabetical Order (by First Author); and (D) Photo Credits. [More] Descriptors: Poverty, Economics, Economically Disadvantaged, Poverty Areas

Kitchen, Richard S.; Velasquez, Diane Torres; Myers, John (). Dropouts in New Mexico: Native American and Hispanic Students Speak Out. This paper provides an overview of dropout rates in New Mexico and reports the perceptions of Hispanic and Native American students on dropout-related issues. New Mexico has the third highest dropout rate in the nation. Over 7,500 students in New Mexico drop out each year, and many schools lose 30-50 percent of their students. Dropout rates are particularly alarming for Hispanics, African Americans, and Native Americans. In every ethnic group, males are more likely to drop out than females. Data tables present 1995-96 dropout rates for grades 9-12 by year, ethnic group, and gender and for grades 7-8 by ethnic group. A short literature review discusses the high national Hispanic dropout rate, regardless of socioeconomic class, immigrant status, or home language; the role of cultural discontinuity and racism in the high Native American dropout rate; the influence of poverty and social inequities on dropout rates; and evidence that school-related reasons contribute most to student decisions to drop out. Interviews with Hispanic and Native American students and parents at three New Mexico middle schools revealed some common themes: that teachers were uncaring, biased against students' cultures, and insensitive to students' difficulties at home; that school felt like a prison; and that friends, parents, extracurricular activities, and hands-on learning motivated students to stay in school. Effective dropout prevention strategies are described relating to teacher professional development, teacher support networks, the school environment, educational policy, community involvement, and research. An appendix briefly summarizes 30 dropout prevention programs in New Mexico. (Contains 40 references.) [More] Descriptors: American Indian Students, Dropout Prevention, Dropout Rate, Dropouts

Axelrod, Melissa; de Garcia, Jule Gomez; Lachler, Jordan (2003). The Roles of Literacy and Collaboration in Documenting Native American Languages: A Report from the Jicarilla Apache Dictionary Project, Sign Language Studies. Reports on the progress of a project to produce a dictionary of the Jicarilla Apache language. Jicarilla, an Eastern Apachean language is spoken on the Jicarilla Apache reservation in Northern New Mexico. The project has revealed much about the role of literacy in language standardization and in speaker empowerment. Suggests that many parallels exist between writing such a dictionary and writing a dictionary of sign language. Descriptors: American Indian Languages, Apache, Deafness, Dictionaries

Belgarde, Mary Jiron; LoRe, Richard K. (2004). The Retention/Intervention Study of Native American Undergraduates at the University of New Mexico, Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice. Student service programs act as key resources to help students persist in school until graduation. However, some critics question whether service programs aimed at specific ethnic populations contribute sufficiently toward their persistence. Tinto (1975) argues that the stronger one is integrated into the institution, the more likely he/she will graduate from college. Thus, Native students' use of Native and non-Native student service programs is likely to effect the strength of their integration. The article presents study findings to explain how Native undergraduates used mainstream and Native programs to support their persistence to graduation at the University of New Mexico. It reports the students' levels of involvement, satisfaction of the services received, and why some students didn't use them. It also includes stop-out information and reasons for stopping out. Finally, the authors discuss how the findings and conclusions may be viewed in light of Native philosophy and views on education. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Student Personnel Services, Student Participation, Stopouts

Roybal, Valerie (1998). Expanded Vision: Tamarind Institute Goes beyond the Education of Printers, to the Education of the Community, Quantum: Research & Scholarship. Tamarind Institute, a center for fine art lithography in Albuquerque, trains master printers from around the world, but also reaches out to work with Hispanic and Native American artists from New Mexico, to introduce young children and high school students to lithography, and to bring together indigenous people from South Africa and New Mexico's pueblos to share their stories and art. Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indians, Art Education, Artists

Mellas, Laurie (1998). Life's Lessons Learned, and Taught: College of Education Initiative Fosters Lively Science and Math Teaching Grounded in Life Experiences, Quantum: Research & Scholarship. Funded by Lockheed Martin, the University of New Mexico College of Education conducts three-week summer science academies for elementary school teachers of populations underrepresented in science and math. Native American teachers and Hispanic teachers whose families have lived in New Mexico for generations learn to use their own local knowledge to construct experiential science lessons for their students. Descriptors: American Indians, Elementary School Teachers, Environmental Education, Experiential Learning

Macneil, William (1999). Back from the Brink of Extinction, Black Issues in Higher Education. New Mexico's Institute of American Indian and Alaska Native Culture and Arts Development has survived major loss of federal funding and subsequent retrenchment, watched enrollment rise, and begun construction of a new campus. The institute is dedicated to study, creative application, preservation, and care of Indian arts and culture, and houses the largest art collection under Native Americans' care. Descriptors: Alaska Natives, American Indian Culture, American Indians, Art

Hall, Leslie D.; Powell, Kathryn Gomez-Tatum (1999). What Diverse, Rural Communities Need and Want from Their Teachers, Rural Educator. Two community meetings in a rural multicultural New Mexico school district examined community expectations of teachers. Awareness and sensitivity to cultural differences were identified as the most important qualities. Other qualities are presented in three sections: knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Commonly held values and beliefs of Native American and Hispanic communities are identified. Descriptors: American Indian Education, Communication Skills, Community Attitudes, Cultural Awareness

Sorensen, Barbara (1999). A Summer Journey: The 1999 College Horizons Program, Winds of Change. In 1999, College Horizons brought 50 American Indian high school students from 28 tribes to the Native American Preparatory School in Rowe, New Mexico, for a unique seminar. During the week-long summer seminar, college representatives presented intensive workshops and large-group sessions on the college application process, including essay writing, interviewing, financial aid, and dealing with racism. Descriptors: Admissions Counseling, American Indian Education, American Indians, College Admission

Zastrow, Leona M. (). Evaluation Report of the Native American Consortium for Educational and Assistive Technologies for Indian Children Living on the Acoma and Laguna Pueblos. The New Mexico State Department of Education received a federal grant to provide educational and assistive technology for American Indian children living in the Pueblos of Laguna and Acoma, New Mexico. During the 2-year project, more than 229 assistive technology items were purchased, and some form of assistive technology was provided to 121 children aged 3-22. The goal of establishing a working educational and assistive technology loan program for children aged birth to 2 was not implemented because two other nonprofit organizations were already providing this service. Two objectives of establishing a working educational and assistive technology loan program for youth aged 3-21 and 18-21, were implemented 90 and 80 percent, respectively. The objective of identifying alternative funding sources was 75 percent implemented. Two objectives were implemented 100 percent: developing culturally appropriate awareness information and resources about the project, and developing support documents about project activities and outcomes for a diverse audience and making them available through Web sites, presentations, and publications. Program weaknesses included a lack of inclusion of the pueblos in planning and writing the project, poor communication with Laguna concerning supervision and reporting, insufficient decision-making authority by the Native American consortium, the lack of a needs assessment of assistive technology, and understaffing. Appendices present program materials and a case study. [More] Descriptors: Agency Cooperation, American Indian Education, Assistive Technology, Cultural Awareness

Wakshul, Barbra (1997). Perseverance Pays Off: Albert Bowie, Doctor of Pharmacy, Winds of Change. Describes the experiences of Albert Bowie of San Juan Pueblo, who became the first Native American to graduate from the University of New Mexico's Doctor of Pharmacy program. A sidebar discusses academic opportunities in the field of pharmacy. Descriptors: Allied Health Occupations, American Indian Education, American Indians, College Students

Navarro, Jay; And Others (1997). Substance Abuse and Spirituality: A Program for Native American Students, American Journal of Health Behavior. This report describes an innovative program to prevent substance abuse among Native American students that was implemented at the Institute for American Indian Arts in Santa Fe (New Mexico). The program emphasized traditional values, history, and spirituality to enhance self-esteem. It involved readings, classroom discussions, Native American ceremonies, and student projects. Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indians, Consciousness Raising, Cultural Awareness

Education Journal of the Institute for the Development of Indian Law (1973). Indian Legal Service Field Spans Wide Scope of Action. The Native American Legal Defense and Education Fund, in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is directed toward cases which involve education, civil rights, equal employment opportunities, Indian land problems, health services, and tribal sovereignty. Descriptors: American Indians, Civil Rights, Community Control, Court Litigation

Woodbridge, Sally B. (1980). School Designed Both with and for a Navajo Community, AIA Journal. A survey designed to elicit community school-design preferences was used in planning Pine Hill School (New Mexico), the nation's first all new, self-determined, Native American school. Descriptors: American Indian Education, Architectural Programing, Educational Facilities Design, Elementary Secondary Education

Parker, Helen (1998). Walking in Both Worlds: Teaching Native Americans, American Language Review. A teacher from Gallup, New Mexico provides an overview of and discusses the complex linguistic, cultural, and social issues that burden the lives of adolescents in the school district. Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indians, High School Students, High Schools

Becker, Thomas M.; And Others (1990). Violent Death in the West: Suicide and Homicide in New Mexico, 1958-1987, Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. Examined New Mexico vital statistics data for suicides and homicides among Hispanics, Native Americans, and non-Hispanic Whites from 1958 to 1987. Found high age-adjusted rates for suicides and homicides among Hispanic and Native American males and homicide rate increase for males in all groups over time. Low suicide rates among Native American women contrasted with high homicide rates. Descriptors: Age Differences, American Indians, Ethnic Studies, Hispanic Americans

Beers, C. David; And Others (). Practitioners' Views of Indian Education in New Mexico: We Seek Harmony. This booklet examines barriers to academic success for Native American students. The 32 practitioners attending a workshop at the 1989 Annual Conference of the New Mexico Association for Bilingual Education completed a survey that assessed the extent to which 31 possible barriers interfered with Native American education in their schools. Workshop participants, of whom 25 were Native Americans, then worked as a group to identify and discuss the most important barriers. Analysis of the survey results and workshop discussions revealed a complex interlocking pattern of barriers. Six themes stood out: (1) cultural differences between Native American students and their teachers; (2) educators' lack of sensitivity to cultural differences and inadequate preparation for working in this context; (3) mismatch between Native American students' learning styles and teachers' daily routines and teaching methods; (4) low student self-esteem and high student absenteeism; (5) racial prejudice toward Native Americans and low expectations of Native American students; and (6) lack of input by Native American teachers on educational matters and lack of research on Native American education. These six themes constitute an indictment of Native American education in New Mexico. Improvement requires a cooperative approach that focuses on the involvement and input of Native American educators, students, parents, and tribal leaders. Appendices contain the survey instrument and a list of respondent characteristics. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Administrator Attitudes, American Indian Education, American Indians

Oyengue-Salazar, Rena; Vigil, Priscilla (). New Mexico Indian Education Directory, 1986-1987. A comprehensive list of officials and programs with responsibility for all levels of Indian education in New Mexico is provided in this directory. Names, titles, addresses, and phone numbers are provided. Information is listed under the following headings: New Mexico State Board of Education, New Mexico State Department of Education/Indian School Districts, Reservation Officials, Pueblo Governors, New Mexico Tribal Education Offices, Tribal Scholarship Programs and Native American Higher Education Programs, Title IV Indian Education Coordinators, Title VII/ESEA Bilingual Directors, Johnson O'Malley Directors, Private Schools with Indian Student Enrollment, Bureau of Indian Affairs/Albuquerque Area, Bureau of Indian Affairs/Navajo Area. Descriptors: Administrators, American Indian Education, American Indian Reservations, Coordinators

Smith, Walter S. (1998). Native American Perspectives, Science Teacher. On the Fajada Butte in New Mexico, 11th-century Anasazi constructed a site that marks the high and low points of the orbits of the sun and the moon. This unit on astronomy challenges students to think differently about the moon and about the ability of native people to understand the natural world. Includes resources for further study. Descriptors: American Indian Studies, Astronomy, Consciousness Raising, Epistemology

Colangelo, Nicholas; Assouline, Susan G.; New, Jennifer K. (). Gifted Voices from Rural America. This report focuses on gifted and talented education in six rural schools. An introduction summarizes a 1999 national assessment of rural gifted education and points out that the standards movement may hinder development of both effective rural schools and gifted programming. Of the six schools profiled, two were founded especially for gifted and talented students, all are small, and each has a niche developed by a special teacher or in response to specific circumstances. Akron-Westfield Community School in northwestern Iowa serves 700 K-12 students; features include social support and mentoring for gifted students, a schoolwide History Day, and yearlong history projects by high school students. Jackson River Governor's School (Clifton Forge, Virginia) offers community college courses to gifted high school juniors and seniors from surrounding rural school districts. At Voznesenka School on the Kenai Peninsula (Alaska), a teacher reflects on the situation of gifted students in a traditional village of Russian Old Believers. Nevada City School of the Arts is an arts-based charter elementary school in north-central California that provides flexible, individual attention to student needs–physical disabilities, exceptional abilities, behavioral problems, or some combination of these. The Native American Preparatory School (Rowe, New Mexico) is a residential high school for gifted and talented Native Americans that honors students' cultural heritage while providing a rigorous college preparation. Idalia High School in eastern Colorado was part of a school district"deconsolidation." Idalia's gifted students benefit from their English teacher's involvement in the Bread Loaf Rural Teachers Network. Sidebars present quotes from students and teachers, information on special programs, and Web addresses. Appendices present national data on rural schools by state, an Iowa timeline on education, and Iowa school data. [More] Descriptors: Charter Schools, Community Schools, Educational Cooperation, Educational Environment

New Mexico State Board of Educational Finance, Santa Fe. (). Report on State's Role in Native American Higher Education. House Memorial 28 Public Hearing. These hearing transcripts and recommendations were in response to requests from the New Mexico Legislature for investigation of the state's role in Native American higher education. Section I contains abbreviated transcripts of testimony on 10 study committees covering needs and recommendations in curriculum/academic issues, off-campus training, financial aid, student services and concerns, community colleges/technical schools, affirmative action, state/federal roles in Native American education, public/community relations, and tribal education concerns. Presentations of representatives from 11 New Mexico institutions of higher education and 9 representatives of tribal organizations and state agencies are included. General recommendations to state government agencies and institutions of higher learning in Section II include: enforce affirmative action; appoint Native Americans to Boards of Regents; increase funding for recruitment/retention and student financial aid for Native American students; revise state funding formulas to include undergraduate programs serving Indian students, facilitate summer/off-campus programs, and equalize funding to vocational/adult education programs; ease transfer of course credit among and improve teaching and courses in state postsecondary institutions; revise state teachers' proficiency exam to reflect knowledge and skills of Native American teachers. Appendices include suggested retention tactics for Native American students and data on student sex and ethnic distribution in New Mexico postsecondary institutions from 1973-83. Descriptors: Access to Education, American Indian Education, American Indians, College Preparation

Housman, Naomi G.; Martinez, Monica R. (). Preventing School Dropout and Ensuring Success for English Language Learners and Native American Students. CSR Connection. This Spring 2002 issue of the occasional paper, CSR Connection, reports on information that builds the capacity of schools to raise the academic achievement of all students. The success of English language learners and Native American students in U.S. public schools has been, and continues to be, impeded by deep "disconnects" between schools and students' families and communities. Effective strategies to address these disconnects were the focus of a regional forum in Albuquerque, New Mexico, in June 2001. Policymakers, researchers, and practitioners made the case that these disconnects persist because the educational system was designed for a mainstream middle-class student, and its policies and practices have not changed or been adapted to serve the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse students. Participants called for policy and practice to transform school systems so that their relationships with families and communities become more responsive, collaborative, and student-centered. Forum participants identified key issues and effective strategies for building connectivity in four areas: connecting students with an academically rigorous curriculum that is culturally and socially relevant; connecting teachers with the knowledge, skills, and professional environment they need to be effective in linguistically and culturally diverse environments; making all levels of the system accountable for student success; and connecting schools and families in collaborative partnerships. Although a broad range of effective strategies was provided, participants emphasized that deeply entrenched patterns of school failure present a complex problem requiring comprehensive changes at every level. (Contains a glossary, a list of participants, and 13 resource Web sites.) [More] Descriptors: Accountability, American Indian Education, Conferences, Curriculum Development

De Leon, Jozi; Argus-Calvo, Beverley; Medina, Catherine (1997). A Model Project for Identifying Rural Gifted and Talented Students in the Visual Arts, Rural Special Education Quarterly. A rural New Mexico project identifies gifted Hispanic and Native American children in the visual arts. Committees of parents, teachers, artists, and administrators use identification procedures sensitive to cultural, linguistic, and ethnic differences and community ethnic identity. Program elements include culturally relevant differentiated curriculum, cross-cultural sharing between sites, enhancement of local arts, and portfolio assessment. Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indians, Cultural Differences, Culturally Relevant Education

Duryea, Elias J.; Mesrian, Parvin; Semark, Larry; West, Carolyn (1997). Sexual Behavior and Perceptions of Young Women in a Rural Southwest School, Rural Educator. Risk factors associated with teenage pregnancy were studied among 95 Hispanic, Native American, and White ninth-grade females at a rural New Mexico high school. All respondents, regardless of ethnicity, reported moderate levels of health-compromising behaviors such as alcohol use, poor communication with parents regarding sex, and a false sense of sexual invulnerability. Contains 25 references. Descriptors: Adolescent Attitudes, Adolescents, At Risk Persons, Females

Watkins, Karen (1996). New Mexico: Information Technology Initiatives, Library Hi Tech. Discusses information technology initiatives in New Mexico that involve: a consortium of agencies, businesses, universities, and government offices; dial-up Internet access; access to government information; state educational technology plans; wiring institutions of higher education; two state networks; and tribal initiatives to improve telecommunications and information technology in Native American communities. Descriptors: Access to Information, Consortia, Dial Access Information Systems, Educational Technology

Simonelli, Richard (1996). More Than a House, Winds of Change. For 14 years, Mountain Outreach, a program at Cumberland College (Williamsburg, Kentucky), has enabled college students to participate in community service projects. Recently, 35 students traveled to New Mexico to build a house for a Navajo elder who was unable to obtain adequate housing. Participants discuss their learning experiences and their esteem for Native American values. Descriptors: College Students, Construction (Process), Cultural Awareness, Experiential Learning

Greer, Sandy (1994). Contemporary Imagemaker Expressing Vision, Winds of Change. Profiles the career of Larry McNeil, Tlingit photographer and professor at the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico. As with his own work, McNeil teaches his students that the fundamental task of image making is to raise questions concerning the portrayal of contemporary Native Americans. Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, Art Education, Art Expression

Kallstrom, Scott (1995). Faith in Education, Purdue Alumnus. Introduces Faith Smith, president of Native American Educational Services (NAES) College in Chicago. Discusses community-based and action-oriented approaches to education followed on the central campus and satellite campuses in Montana, New Mexico, Minneapolis, and Wisconsin. Reports on the range of NAES activities and programs and portrays some participants. Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indian Studies, American Indians, College Role

C de Baca, Mary Rose; And Others (1991). Santo Domingo School: A Rural Schoolwide Project Success, Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. The schoolwide project option of the 1988 Hawkins Stafford Amendments to Chapter 1 allowed a rural school serving a disadvantaged Native American population to restructure its compensatory and regular education services. Santo Domingo school (New Mexico) illustrates the ways modifications of federal law and policy benefit children. Descriptors: American Indians, Compensatory Education, Economically Disadvantaged, Educational Policy

Taylor, Anne; And Others (1990). The Head Start Classroom of the Future, Children Today. Describes the Head Start Classroom of the Future project, which is being introduced into inner-city centers in Grand Rapids, Michigan; a classroom for children of Hispanic migrant farmworkers in Holland, Michigan; and a classroom for Native American children at the Isleta Pueblo Head Start near Albuquerque, New Mexico. Descriptors: Classroom Design, Classroom Environment, Demonstration Programs, Educational Facilities Design

Cavatta, M. Louise (). New Mexico Enhanced ACT and SAT Results. School Year 1991-1992. Students in New Mexico may take either the American College Test Assessment (ACT) or the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), although New Mexico students usually take the ACT. Results from both examinations are presented in this report, based on seniors expected to graduate. Overall, New Mexico and national composite scores have remained steady on the ACT (Enhanced ACT) for the past 3 years, although there has been a slight decline in English scores. New Mexico scores remained slightly below the national average, although scores improved for students enrolled in a core curriculum. Males scored higher in mathematics while females scored higher in English. Minority groups in New Mexico generally scored higher than their national counterparts. Far fewer New Mexico students took the SAT. Their verbal and mathematics scores remained above the national average, with an increase in verbal scores and a slight, and continuing decline, in mathematics scores. On the SAT, minority groups in New Mexico also scored higher than their national counterparts, and Mexican Americans and Native Americans substantially increased their scores. Four appendixes give scores by school district and detailed information about gender, mean SAT scores, and ethnic composition of SAT takers. (Contains nine tables, five figures, and five sources.) [More] Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Academic Aspiration, College Bound Students, College Entrance Examinations

Beers, C. David; Ott, Richard W. (). The Child Development Training Consortium. A Status Report on the San Juan College AACJC-Kellogg Beacon College Project. The Child Development Training Consortium, a Beacon College Project directed by San Juan College (SJC) is a collaborative effort of colleges and universities in New Mexico and Arizona. The consortium's major objective is to create child development training materials for community college faculty who teach "at-risk" Native American and Hispanic students enrolled in early childhood education programs. The program's conceptual framework is guided by aspects of self-directed learning, story telling, media communications, and quality management. Founded on the premise that Native American and Hispanic people make their own local preschools work, the program facilitates community efforts by providing training and technical assistance. Consortium members are engaged in the following activities: (1) the University of New Mexico (UNM), Los Alamos, is producing a photo essay showing their Nanny Program graduates at work; (2) Northland Pioneer College (Arizona) is producing a video of a Native American man who works as a Child Development Associate advisor in the Navajo Nation; (3) Santa Fe Community College (New Mexico) is documenting a preschool education training program which develops high literacy skills; (4) Luna Vocational Technical Institute (New Mexico) is producing a video about their literacy program which employs art activities; (5) UNM-Gallup is documenting its curriculum for Native American preschool teachers emphasizing basic skills in math and English; (6) SJC is developing materials on approaches to collaborative learning in multicultural classrooms; and (7) Northern New Mexico Community College and UNM-Valencia are establishing early childhood programs which will experiment with materials developed by the consortium. Descriptors: American Indians, Child Care Occupations, Community Colleges, Community Development

Sharp, Pat Tipton, Ed.; And Others (). Exploring the Southwest States through Literature. Exploring the United States through Literature Series. This book is comprised of seven annotated regional resource guides to selected print and nonprint materials for grades K-8. Each regional bibliography is divided into state sections identifying materials that relate to the history, culture, geography, resources, industries, literature and lore, and famous figures of the states in the region. This volume focuses on the Southwest states. The materials included in this bibliography offer young people a deeper understanding of the histories and contemporary cultures of Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Functioning as a selection tool or as a resource for reader guidance, this volume identifies about 460 items that are set in or focus on at least one of the four states. In addition to bibliographic data and subject headings, each entry includes a brief annotation of 75-100 words. Each annotation describes the work, evaluates its merit, and suggests a follow up activity to encourage young people to extend the ideas or information in the work. Arizona's rich tradition of Native American stories is evident in the available books and nonprint materials relating to the state. Materials on Arizona history do not make up a major portion of the bibliography, and the same is true for materials on current business and industry in Arizona. New Mexico, like Arizona, has many publications that relate to Native American contributions and to stories collected from Native Americans. The colorful history of New Mexico is a major focus of the New Mexico materials. Because the choice of materials is limited, the New Mexico bibliography has fewer titles than some of the other state sections. Three major concepts predominate in the Oklahoma publications: (1) the Native American influence in the state; (2) the economic impacts of the dust bowl and oil; and (3) the southwestern culture of cowboys and homesteading. Texas independence is a major topic for that state. It is in the Texas resources that the cultural diversity of the southwestern portion of the United States is shown with most clarity. Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies, Childrens Literature, Elementary Secondary Education, History Instruction

Shonerd, Henry (). Recruiting and Retaining Native Americans in Teacher Education. This paper identifies problems in Native American teacher training and suggests solutions to improve the training. In New Mexico, ideal candidates for teacher licensure are a group of Native American teacher assistants who work with Native American students. Most lack the general education requirements for a bachelor's degree and must take extensive coursework. Although 29% of the teacher trainees at the College of Santa Fe are Native American, only 56% of these trainees are active during any given semester, compared to 78% and 77% for Hispanic and other ethnic groups, respectively. Factors that explain disruption in teacher training of Native Americans are: (1) poverty; (2) geographic isolation; (3) family commitments; (4) cultural conflicts; and (5) inadequate academic experience. To address these problems, the program contacts Pueblo councils to find candidates for teacher training. Efforts also continue to recruit Native American teacher assistants, by providing financial support for coursework through school districts and by offering core coursework at the same institution as that in which students do their teacher training. Native American students could be retained in the program by offering them a larger monthly stipend, more on-site courses, and on-site advising and tutoring. [More] Descriptors: Access to Education, American Indian Education, American Indians, Cultural Differences

Leap, William L. (1974). On Grammaticality in Native American English: The Evidence from Isleta, International Journal of the Sociology of Language. This paper considers some aspects of sentence construction characteristic of the variety of English spoken at Isleta pueblo, an Indian community located fifteen miles south of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Descriptors: American Indian Languages, American Indians, Dialect Studies, English (Second Language)

Chavers, Dean, Ed. (). Deconstructing the Myths: A Research Agenda for American Indian Education (Albuquerque, New Mexico, April 14-15, 2000). This report outlines a comprehensive research agenda for Indian education from the Native perspective. It resulted from a meeting held in Albuquerque, New Mexico in April 2000, planned by a national steering committee of Indian education researchers, administrators, and association executives. The introduction describes four traits of research in Indian education and calls for a long-term commitment of funding for the basic research that needs to be done, including gathering baseline information, the interaction of culture and education, factors that make Native students successful, school/family cooperation, the nature of Indian teacher and Indian student interaction, the effects of having more Indian teachers, characteristics of exemplary programs, and identifying policy changes that will improve outcomes for Indian students. Following the mission statement and summary is a statement of current problems and descriptions of task force recommendations. Separate task forces addressed each of 10 topics: early childhood education and teaching and learning styles, special education, social factors, professional preparation, tribal colleges and universities, mainstream colleges, multicultural and bilingual education, community education, education finance, and curriculum. Each task force presents its own statement of problems and identifies research priorities. Ten appendices present the meeting agenda, sponsoring organizations, steering committee members, conference chairman biography, Executive Order 13096, descriptions of topic areas, production of Native American teachers by college and year, list of attendees, invited guests, and a bibliography containing 23 references. [More] Descriptors: Academic Achievement, American Indian Education, American Indian Students, Bilingual Education

Mearns, Curt (). Title IX Program Evaluation: Corresponding with FY 98 Application for Grants. Albuquerque Public Schools, 1997-98. Title IX and Johnson O'Malley services were provided to 1,495 Native American students at 10 Albuquerque (New Mexico) elementary, middle, and high schools and the Homework Center during the 1997-98 school year. The five goals of the Title IX program were to provide: (1) intervention assistance for students, in which students, parents, and staff set goals in areas such as attendance and behavior problems; (2) tutoring assistance, which focused on language arts and math at the elementary level and added science and social studies at the secondary level; (3) student participation in cultural, social, or academic activities to promote good citizenship, community service, and personal responsibility; (4) parent participation in cultural, social, or academic activities, promoted through announcements in newsletters, letters sent home with students, and announcements at parent meetings; and (5) professional development in sensitive cultural issues that impact Native American student performance. In intervention and tutoring assistance, each school level surpassed its goal. The homework center was most effective, followed by assistance at the middle and elementary school levels. Students reported 99.5 percent of the time that the social, cultural, and academic activities were beneficial. Because of low survey response rates, parent participation was difficult to evaluate, but 88 percent of the 18 respondents thought the activities were beneficial to students. Ninety-eight percent of respondents thought that the professional development was somewhat beneficial. [More] Descriptors: Academic Achievement, American Indian Education, American Indian Students, Cultural Awareness

Shen, Winston, W.; And Others (1984). Verbal Participation in Group Therapy: A Comparative Study on New Mexico Ethnic Groups, Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences. The verbal participation of Anglos, Mexican Americans, and Native Americans in group therapy sessions for alcoholic patients was examined. Fifteen therapy groups with a total number of 265 alcoholic inpatients were recorded. Anglo patients had significantly higher verbal participation than either Mexican American or Native American patients. Descriptors: Alcoholism, American Indians, Anglo Americans, Comparative Analysis

Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed. (2001). Religious Freedom in America, Insights on Law & Society. This magazine aims to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on religious freedom in the United States. It contains 11 articles: (1) "Government-Religion Relations in Historical Perspective" (C. Cookson) discusses how differing views of order in colonial, 19th century, and modern times have formed the basis of the relationship between civil authority and religion; (2) "Religious Minorities and the Pressures of Americanization" (E. M. Mazur) discusses how Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormons, and Native Americans make choices within the U.S. constitutional order; (3) "A Variety of Attitudes toward Church-State Relations" (T. G. Jelen; C. Wilcox) presents the findings of a study suggesting that views of church-state relations in the United States are more complex than previously believed; (4) "Debate: Are Publicly Funded School Voucher Systems Constitutional or Not?" presents "Pro: A Case for Including Religiously Affiliated Schools in Publicly Funded Voucher Systems" (T. S. Collett) and "Con: The Inclusion of Religious Schools in Public Voucher Systems Is Unconstitutional" (C. Dubnoff); (5) "Students in Action" discusses debating church-state and related free speech issues, established churches in colonial times, the establishment clause, religious freedom and today's religious minorities, and the Santa Fe (New Mexico) school prayer or free speech case; (6) "Learning Gateways" provides a lesson plan and student activities; (7) "Supreme Court Roundup" (C. F. Williams) discusses two Fourth Amendment cases the Court takes up during the current term; (8) "News from Capitol Hill" (K. F. Fenske) reviews issues facing the 107th Congress; (9) "Teaching with the News" (W. B. Lewis; C. F. Williams) discusses what the law says about Internet filtering; and (10) "Media Specialist's Corner" (M. Kayaian) offers resource lists dealing with the journal's theme. Descriptors: Attitude Measures, Court Litigation, Debate, Educational Vouchers

New Mexico Commission on Higher Education. (). Native American Student Recruitment and Retention at Colleges and Universities in New Mexico. This report describes programs at New Mexico's colleges and universities that focus on the recruitment and retention of Native American Students. It also provides enrollment data for fiscal year 1995-96 and student retention data for three cohorts of students who enrolled as freshmen in 1993, 1994, and 1995. The report is based on a survey of all public postsecondary institutions in the state. In fall 1995, 6,682 Native American students were enrolled at public postsecondary institutions in New Mexico, representing 6.7 percent of total enrollment, down slightly from 6.8 percent in fall 1994. Statewide, about 44 percent of Native American freshmen either completed their program of studies within one year or returned to school for a second year, as compared to 51 percent of non-Indian students. Eight institutions reported having programs that focused specifically on the recruitment and retention of Native American students. Concerns of tribal education leaders in regard to recruitment and retention are reviewed. Appendixes provide supporting statistical data, a copy of the survey form, and brief descriptions of recruitment and retention programs at 23 institutions. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, College Programs, College Students, Enrollment

Burnett, Waynette (). Gran Quivira: A Blending of Cultures in a Pueblo Indian Village. Teaching with Historic Places. Gran Quivira is one of three sites that make up Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument in present-day New Mexico. A vibrant society, mostly Pueblo Indian and Spanish missions, thrived there until the late 17th century. Today, people encounter only a soothing silence broken by a constant breeze and the chirr of insect wings. This lesson plan is based on National Park Service documentation. The lesson can be used in U.S. history, social studies, and geography courses in units on native American Indian culture or the colonial presence of the Spanish in the Southwest. It explores the history of a Puebloan village from the 7th century to the arrival of the Spanish in the 17th century. The teacher materials section includes: "About This Lesson Plan" (Where It Fits into the Curriculum; Objectives for Students; Visiting the Site; Supplementary Resources) and "How To Use TwHP Lesson Plans." The student materials section includes: "Getting Started"; "Photograph Analysis Worksheet"; "Setting the Stage"; "Locating the Site" (Maps: Early Puebloan Communities, and The Salinas Basin); "Determining the Facts" (Readings: Village Life, and The Coming of the Spaniards); "Visual Evidence" (Photos: Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument, Kiva at Gran Quivira, Aerial View of Gran Quivira; Drawings: Typical Kiva, Plan of Gran Quivira, Artists's Conception of Gran Quivira); and "Putting It All Together" (Activities: Retrieving Data, Constructing a Model of a Pueblo, Puebloans and Local Indians). [More] Descriptors: Built Environment, Geography, Heritage Education, Historic Sites

Burnaby, Barbara Jane, Ed.; Reyhner, Jon Allan, Ed. (). Indigenous Languages across the Community. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Stabilizing Indigenous Languages (7th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 11-14, 2000). Conference papers examine efforts by Indigenous communities, particularly Native American communities, to maintain and revitalize their languages. The 27 papers are: "Ko te reo te mauri o te mana Maori: The Language Is the Life Essence of Maori Existence" (Te Tuhi Robust); "The Preservation and Use of Our Languages: Respecting the Natural Order of the Creator" (Verna J. Kirkness); "Maori: New Zealand Latin?" (Timoti S. Karetu); "Using Indigenous Languages for Teaching and Learning in Zimbabwe" (Juliet Thondhlana); "Language Planning in a Trans-National Speech Community" (Geneva Langworthy); "The Way of the Drum: When Earth Becomes Heart" (Grafton Antone, Lois Provost Turchetti); "The Need for an Ecological Cultural Community" (Robert N. St. Clair, John A. Busch); "Building a Community Language Development Team with Quebec Naskapi" (Bill Jancewicz, Marguerite MacKenzie, George Guanish, Silas Nabinicaboo); "Methods of Madness: The Tuscarora Language Committee" (Francene Patterson); "Daghida: Cold Lake First Nation Works towards Dene Language Revitalization" (Heather Blair, Sally Rice, Valerie Wood, John Janvier); "The Jicarilla Apache Language Summer Day Camp" (Maureen Olson); "Report on the Workshop 'World of Inuktitut'" (Janet McGrath); "Awakening the Languages: Challenges of Enduring Language Programs; Field Reports from 15 Programs from Arizona, New Mexico, and Oklahoma" (Mary S. Linn, Tessie Naranjo, Sheilah Nicholas, Inee Slaughter, Akira Yamamoto, Ofelia Zepeda); "A Native Language Immersion Program for Adults: Reflections on Year 1" (David Kanatawakhon Maracle, Merle Richards); "The Importance of Women's Literacy in Language Stabilization Projects" (Jule Gomez de Garcia, Maureen Olson, Melissa Axelrod); "Teaching Reading with Puppets" (Ruth Bennett); "Assessing Lakota Language Teaching Issues on the Cheyenne River Reservation" (Marion BlueArm); "Incorporating Traditional Nehiyaw/Plains Cree Education in the University" (Myron Paskemin, Donna Paskemin); "Collecting Texts in Craho and Portuguese for Teaching" (Sueli Maria de Souza); "Early Vocabularies and Dictionary Development: A Cautionary Note" (Blair A. Rudes); "The Process of Spelling Standardization of Innu-Aimun (Montagnais)" (Anne-Marie Baraby); "Maintaining Indigenous Languages in North America: What Can We Learn from Studies of Pidgins and Creoles?" (Anne Goodfellow, Pauline Alfred); "Ojibway Hockey CD ROM in the Making" (Shirley I. Williams); "The Use of Multimedia and the Arts in Language Revitalization, Maintenance, and Development: The Case of the Balsas Nahuas of Guerreo, Mexico" (Jose Antonio Flores Farfan); "The Languages of Indigenous Peoples in Chukotka and the Media" (Galina Diatchkova); "Language Revitalization Using Multimedia" (Peter Brand, John Elliott, Ken Foster); and "Meeting of the Inuktitut and Yup'ik Family of Languages, May 12, 2000" (Guy Delorme, Jacques Raymond). [More] Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indian Languages, Bilingual Education, Community Action

Borgrink, Henry (). New Mexico Dropout Study, 1986-87 School Year. A survey of all New Mexico public schools with students enrolled in grade nine or higher gathered data on the extent and nature of the school dropout problem during the 1986-87 school year. All 88 New Mexico school districts and 100% of the 146 schools surveyed provided information on grade, sex, ethnicity, and reason for dropping out for students who left school prematurely. During 1986-87, 6,495 ninth through twelfth grade students dropped out, resulting in a dropout rate of 8.0%, up from 7.4% the previous school year. Males dropped out of school proportionately more than females, an effect which has been true each year of this annual study. The highest dropout rates occurred among Native American students (12.0%) and Hispanic students (9.0%), the lowest among Asian students (4.1%). Native American students have consistently experienced the highest dropout rates. Anglo, Black, and Hispanic students experienced the highest dropout rates in grade 10, and Native American students in grade 9. The most frequent reason for dropping out was lack of motivation or interest (22.0% overall). Native American students had a disproportionately high rate of expulsion (17.3% versus 1.5-2.1% for other ethnic groups). The report contains seven figures and three tables, and provides dropout rates from 1978-79 through 1986-87. Appendices list enrollments and dropout rates for each school and district and include the survey instrument. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Black Students, Dropout Characteristics, Dropout Rate

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services. (). Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children Program. Factsheet, . This fact sheet describes the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children Program overall and includes descriptions of 22 specific programs. The program was authorized by Congress in 1992 and provides federal funds through demonstration grants to states, communities, and Native American tribes. The program currently administers 22 federal grants in 29 communities in 18 states to implement, enhance, and evaluate local systems of care. The program emphasizes inclusion of families as partners in designing services and on "cultural competence" in relationships with children and families of diverse races, cultures, and ethnicities. The individual program descriptions highlight unique features of each program in a brief summary and provide full contact information. Programs in the following states are described: California, Hawaii, Illinois, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont, Virginia, and Wisconsin. [More] Descriptors: Adolescents, American Indians, Children, Community Programs

New Mexico State Dept. of Education, Santa Fe. Div. of Indian Education. (). New Mexico Indian Education Directory, 1996, . This directory provides addresses, phone numbers, and contact persons for state and federal agencies, tribal agencies, organizations, and schools concerned with American Indian education in New Mexico. Sections include the following: a map of New Mexico showing state board of education districts, both elected and appointed; state board of education members, with expiration date of term; representatives to the state advisory council on Indian education; tribal officials, education offices, and tribal organizations of the Pueblo and Apache Tribes and the Navajo Nation; schools in 22 public school districts with Indian student enrollment; Title IX Formula Grant programs, for both public and private schools; P. L. 81-874 programs for public school districts with Indian enrollment; Johnson O'Malley programs for both public schools and tribal programs; public schools and Bureau of Indian Affairs schools participating in Title VII bilingual education Native American programs; private schools with Indian student enrollment; Native American higher education programs, postsecondary institutions, and tribal scholarship programs; education organizations and Head Start programs in New Mexico; various divisions and branches of the Office of Indian Education of the U.S. Department of Education; and four national Indian organizations. Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indians, Elementary Secondary Education, Federal Programs

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. Office of Indian Education Programs. (). Bureau of Indian Affairs Outstanding Programs in Math, Science and Technology, 1995, . This booklet describes the goals and activities of 20 exemplary programs in mathematics, science and technology for students and teachers in schools operated or funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The programs are: "Computer Home Improvement Reading Program," Beclabito Day School (New Mexico); "Cherokee High School Science: Honoring Tradition/Seeking the Future," Cherokee Central High School (North Carolina); "Making Connections," Cheyenne-Eagle Butte School (South Dakota); "Effective Math and Science Strategies on the Navajo Reservation," Cove Day School (New Mexico); "Dennehotso Boarding School Library-Media Center," (Arizona); "Image Processing for Teaching," Dzilth-Na-O-Dith-Hle Community School (New Mexico); "Radio Broadcasting Program," Greyhills Academy High School (Arizona); "Haskell Math and Science Summer Workshop," Haskell Indian Nations University (Kansas); "Reclaiming the Desert with Native Plants," Little Singer Community School (Arizona); "SMILE: Science and Mathematics for Indian Learners and Educators," Northern Arizona University; "BIA Hands-On Science and Mathematics Workshop," Sandia National Laboratories (New Mexico); "RAISE: Rural American Indian Science Education Workshop," Sandia National Laboratories (New Mexico); "San Simon Elementary School Math Technology Program" (Arizona); "Science Education Training Project Workshop(s)," Sinte Gleska University (South Dakota); "SIPI College Bound Math and Science Enrichment Program," Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (New Mexico); "Community Academies for Science and Mathematics," Taos Day School (New Mexico); "Native Americans in Science Program," Theodore Jamerson Elementary School (North Dakota); "Science Enrichment Program," Turtle Mountain Community High School (North Dakota); "Computers for Life Program," Tuba City Boarding School (Arizona); and "University of Arizona Holistic Science and Whole Language Works." Appendix A lists some past and contemporary American Indians in science, medicine, and technology. The bibliography in Appendix B lists over 100 resources for teachers and students. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indians, Computer Uses in Education, Demonstration Programs

Wesson, Allen; And Others (). The New Mexico Accountability Report 1992-1993, . Each year the New Mexico State Department of Education and the state's 88 school districts publish report cards that provide information on the operation and performance of the schools and characteristics of its students. This report is the state-level report card, providing narrative and statistical information on an array of educational indicators. Student enrollment has increased to 315,278 students in 1992-93, an increase of 4.3% over that of 1990-91. Percentages of Hispanic American and Native American students have increased, as the Anglo American population has declined. While many school districts scored well above national averages on standardized tests, in most areas statewide performance was slightly below national averages. Student indicators reported include enrollment trends, ethnicity, graduates, and dropouts. Student achievement indicators include results of the New Mexico Portfolio Writing Assessment, the New Mexico Achievement Assessment, the ACT Assessment, the New Mexico High School Competency Examination, and the Reading Assessment (grades 1 and 2). Financial indicators define revenue and expenditures. Eighteen tables and 11 figures present data on the schools and students. (Contains 14 references.) [More] Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Accountability, American Indians, Anglo Americans

Grainger, Jane, Ed. (). Enduring Heritages: A Guide to Multicultural Education in the Secondary School, . During 1975-76, Menaul School, a private, coeducational four year high school for boarding and day students, served 137 Spanish-surnamed, 38 Anglo, 17 Native American, 4 Black, and 29 international students. Emphasizing the unique and valuable contributions of these diverse groups, multicultural education enabled the students to retain and develop their cultural identity while learning the values and lifestyles of mainstream America. During the year, multicultural themes were included in English, Spanish, French, sociology, history, New Mexico Studies, Native American Studies, environmental science, home economics, music, art, and religion classes. Unit outlines are given for: English ("The Diary of Anne Frank" and writings of Asian, Black, Mexican and Native American authors); social studies (regional folklore and history and New Mexico's history and culture); home economics (Chinese, Italian, Jewish, North American, Spanish/Mexican American foods); Christian Education (religious dances from various cultures); and science (Chaco Canyon). The five major events celebrated during the year are outlined–Black Heritage Day, Lunar New Year, Christmas, a Pow-Wow, and a Mini-Course Week. Appendices include: a discussion of current emerging needs and issues; guidelines for evaluating textbooks; a listing of the nutrient content of some Southwestern foods; eight New Mexican folk tales; and a student essay on Father Antonio Jose Martinez. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Black Culture, Boarding Schools, Cross Cultural Training

Castle, Emery, Ed.; Baldwin, Barbara, Ed. (). National Rural Studies Committee: A Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (5th, Las Vegas, New Mexico, May 14-16, 1992), . This proceedings contains 11 papers that focus on issues and problems of rural communities in the Southwest. Papers include: (1) "Dilemmas of a New Age: A Half-Millennium of Landscape Change in New Mexico and the Southwest," by Paul F. Starrs; (2) "American Indians Today," by C. Matthew Snipp; (3) "The Southwest: Global Issues in a Regional Setting," by F. Lee Brown and Jose A. Rivera; (4) "Misunderstanding the West in General and New Mexico in Particular," by Peirce Lewis; (5) "Putting Columbus in His Place," by William Howarth; (6) "The New Mexico Rural Economy: One Person's Portrait," by Robert O. Coppedge; (7) "One Generation of Self-Determination: Native American Economic Self-Reliance in New Mexico," by Theodore S. Jojola and Herman Agoyo; (8) "Hispanic Americans in the Rural Economy: Conditions, Issues and Probable Future Adjustments," by Refugio I. Rochin; (9) "Information Technologies and Rural Economic Development," by Don A. Dillman; (10) "Size, Function, and Structure: Jurisdictional Size Effects on Public Sector Performance," by Ronald J. Oakerson; and (11) "Large Metropolitan Areas: Their Functions and Prospects," by Edwin S. Mills. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Conservation (Environment), Demography, Economic Development

Native American Preparatory School, Rowe, NM. (). Native American Preparatory School, . This booklet provides information on the Native American Preparatory School, a residential secondary school in Rowe, New Mexico, for high-achieving Native American students. The school sponsors two programs: a 5-week rigorously academic summer school for junior high school students and, beginning in fall 1995, a 4-year college preparatory program. The programs stress character and cultural development through academics, community service, athletics, and the arts, with the goal of preparing Native American students to be successful in college and to become effective community leaders. The school's philosophy is based on blending Native American and Western education and emphasizing culture, the community, creativity, and challenge. The school is located in the Pecos River valley on land that was sacred to the Paequiu tribe during the 12th century. The curriculum focuses on critical thinking skills, effective communication skills, writing fluency, and computer literacy. In addition, all students participate in athletics and extracurricular activities. Admission is based solely on merit, and financial aid is available. Course offerings and special activities are listed. The booklet lists the board of directors and advisory board members. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, Boarding Schools, College Bound Students

Fuentes, Nancy (). Profiles of Native Language Education Programs. A Source Book for Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, . This source book provides information on school, college, and community programs that teach American Indian languages in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. These programs were identified through leads provided by a nine-member regional task force of Native educators and language activists; consultation with federal and state agencies; information requests on listservs; and a survey of likely organizations, tribes, and other contacts. The source book begins with a brief overview of the status of Native languages in the five-state region and a description of the source book's development and the data collection methods used. Profiles of 24 Native language programs are arranged alphabetically by language and include program base, goals, brief description, instructional materials used, funding and other support, and contact information. A table summarizes the programs' services, settings, and target groups. The languages covered are Cherokee, Muscogee (Creek), Choctaw, Kiowa, Cheyenne, Comanche, Dine (Navajo), Keres, Osage, Seminole, Shawnee, and Tewa. Programs are presented in schools, colleges, preschools, and community settings. Appendices include regional task force members, advice about Native language education drawn from questionnaire responses, 9 recommended readings, text of the Native American Languages Act, the Navajo Nation's long-range language goals, 7 Web sites and listservs on Native languages, and 30 relevant organizations. An index is included. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indian Languages, Community Education, Elementary Secondary Education

Little Soldier, Lee (). Sociocultural Context and Language Learning of Native American Pupils, . A study examined the quantity and quality of language produced by kindergarten and early primary Native American pupils in relation to selected factors in the classroom context in which the language was produced. Observations of about 50 classrooms were conducted in schools serving predominantly Native American pupils on and off reservations in New Mexico. A rating sheet was used to evaluated the sociocultural environment of the classrooms. Results showed that informal classroom organization with flexible arrangement of furniture and emphasis on group work enhanced language learning. Other factors relating positively to language learning were situations in which the locus of control was shared by teachers and pupils, where there was an emphasis on cooperative learning and dialogue patterns involving pupils to a great degree, and in which culturally relevant materials or activities were used. Descriptors: American Indians, Bilingualism, Classroom Communication, Classroom Environment

Roy, Loriene; Christal, Mark (). Creating a Virtual Tour of the American Indian, . This paper describes how Potawatomi and Santa Clara Pueblo children came to create a virtual tour of cultural exhibits from the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI). The first part of this paper explores the nature of museums, how people interact with them, the concept of a virtual museum, and a brief history of NMAI. In addition to three physical spaces, NMAI is developing a "Fourth Museum" to extend access to and use of NMAI's holdings, especially for Native communities remote from the museum sites. As part of the Fourth Museum, in 1999 NMAI, students and teachers from two reservation schools, and University of Texas educators involved in the Four Directions project began a unique collaboration. Four Directions proposed that members of Indian communities be involved with museum personnel in presenting and interpreting cultural objects using technology such as Web page authoring and QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR) software. One component would be development of a virtual tour of NMAI exhibits at the George Gustav Heye Center (New York City), as seen through the eyes of Native American children. NMAI agreed, and two schools were chosen on the basis of written plans and school administrative support. Elementary students from Santa Clara Day School (New Mexico) and Hannahville Indian School (Michigan) were chosen through an essay process and traveled with their teachers to New York, where they created QTVR object movies of cultural items on exhibit and QTVR panoramas of the museum space. The current virtual tour (at includes 19 panoramas and 26 objects along with the students' interpretive essays. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, American Indians, Elementary Education

Layton, Jean; And Others (). The Recruitment and Retention of Minority Trainees in University Affiliated Programs. Native American Indians, . This monograph addresses the recruitment and retention of Native American Indians in University Affiliated Programs (UAP) which train personnel to provide health, education, and social services to people with developmental disabilities. It is designed to assist UAP faculty and staff to develop a comprehensive plan to increase the participation of Native American Indians. A chapter titled "Current Issues and Demographics" documents the low American Indian enrollment rate in higher education and its causes. "Identified Problems and Attempted Solutions in Education" outlines factors contributing to declining college enrollment among Native American Indians and uses a poem and a personal narrative by Native American Indians to describe the inadequacies of the education system and the cultural influences contributing to the target population's alcoholism and lack of personal goals and motivation. "Breaking Down the Barriers" focuses on three major barriers: cultural, academic, and financial. "Programming Possibilities" describes the essential components of a recruitment and retention plan: faculty involvement, financial assistance, marketing strategies, and cooperative efforts. Exemplary programs from Alaska, California, Colorado, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oregon, Texas, the Philippines, and Canada are described. A bibliography of 39 references concludes the monograph. [More] Descriptors: Access to Education, American Indians, Cultural Background, Developmental Disabilities

Carter, George E., Ed.; And Others (). Essays on Minority Folklore: Selected Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Minority Studies (3rd, April 3, 1975), Volume 3, . This collection of selected conference papers includes experiences of specific minority groups: the native Americans, the Chicanos, and the Puerto Ricans. The papers represent the work of folklorists, historians, musicians, literary critics, and minority and ethnic studies experts. The section on native American oral tradition includes papers on Indian oratory, Algonkian communal values, Indian wisdom stories, and the work of Alex Posey, a Creek Indian. In the section on Latino folklore, the topics covered are the importance of folk literature in the Chicano experience, the creation of myth in Chicano literature, Hispanic wedding customs in New Mexico, the paradoxes of contemporary Puerto Rican poetry, the literature of the Barrio, and the Puerto Rican folk tradition of the child's wake. Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indians, Conference Reports, Essays

Fuentes, Nancy, Comp. (). Native Education Resources for the Southwest Region, . A companion to a 1997 national directory, this southwestern regional directory focuses on resources for educators of K-12 American Indian students in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Organized by subject or type of resources available, each entry lists the name of the organization or project, contact information, and a brief description. The resources in the languages and language education section are general and not specific to particular languages or tribes. The section on art, culture, heritage, and history includes museums and similar institutions. Youth fellowship resources include programs for American Indian students as well as other ethnic groups, programs that are tribe-specific, and some that are national and international in scope. Resources in the training, technical assistance, information, and support section include services targeted specifically to American Indians students and those that address all culturally and linguistically diverse students. State-focused resources provide services that cut across resource categories. The section on periodicals and publications presents 15 journals and monographs, as well as 15 publishers and distributors that offer books, curriculum materials, audiotapes, videos, and other audiovisual materials. Appendices list the tribes in each of the five states, with contact information, and give population figures for Native Americans in the five-state region. Contains an index. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, American Indian History, American Indian Languages

Thurston, Kay (). The Tribal College: A Model for Western Institutions, . Mainstream educational institutions could improve their success rate with Native American students by emulating strategies used in tribal colleges. It is a well-documented fact that Western institutions are extremely unsuccessful in retaining Native American students. Research focusing specifically on composition courses at the University of New Mexico found that Native Americans are two-and-a-half times more likely to drop or fail those courses than their Anglo counterparts. One of the main factors in the high dropout rate is financial difficulty; another factor is the Native American student's need for family contact and support. Navajo educators at Navajo Community College (NCC) in Arizona, have been sensitive to student needs–developmental writing class size has been kept to 15 students, and 3 separate developmental writing classes have been offered. The college also familiarizes Western instructors with the students' cultural background and the historical context in which teaching takes place. Particularly emphasized are the tribal stories–or at least the first of 12 levels of understanding the stories. In earlier times, White educators tried to eradicate Navajo culture and negate Navajo ways of knowing. The traditional Navajo cultural model, when followed, produces balance and harmony for all of creation. Many writing instructors at NCC (1) use reading and writing topics relevant to students' lives; (2) do less lecturing and more small group work; (3) experiment with portfolios which include community projects; and (4) look for ways to acknowledge different rhetorical styles. Descriptors: Cultural Context, Culturally Relevant Education, Higher Education, Instructional Effectiveness

Hall, Carroll L.; And Others (). The New Mexico 1994-95 Accountability Report, . The "Accountability Report" provides indicators of the condition of Public Education in New Mexico, and is published each year by the State Department of Education. The report provides narrative and statistical information on an array of educational indicators, which include enrollment trends, funding and expenditures, graduation and college-bound statistics, specialized program support, and student achievement information. Over the past 3 years student enrollment in New Mexico schools has grown by 3% to 325,000 students. Growth has been significant in special education, as well as in elementary and secondary education. The past 3 years have also seen a continued shift in the ethnic makeup of the student population, with increases in the percentage of Hispanic and Native American students and decreases in the Anglo population. In the 1994-95 school year, the student population was 39.9% Anglo, 46.4% Hispanic, 10.4% Native American, 2.4% African American, and 1.0% Asian. State appropriations to the public schools have increased over the past 3 years, and teacher salaries have begun to catch up to the national average. (Contains 10 figures, 23 tables, and 12 references.) [More] Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Accountability, Achievement Tests, American Indians

Borgrink, Henry, Comp. (). New Mexico School District Profile: 1986-1987 School Year. This profile summarizes and analyzes data to provide a broad range of educational indicators of the operation and performance of New Mexico's 88 school districts. The profile looks at the dropout rate and student enrollment, including the number of students receiving public assistance, special education, and bilingual education. Also studied are: the pupil/teacher ratio and teacher loads in various grade levels; the number of certified staff, including degrees and years of experience; proficiency examinations and the number of graduates; and the results of standardized achievement tests (Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills). Vocational education information is also reported. Section 1 of the document is a summary overview of the statewide data, gathered over a 3-year period. The data indicate that the number of New Mexico students is increasing as is the diversity of their needs. Forty-seven percent of the students are Anglo, 40% are Hispanic, and 10% are Native American. Of the teachers, about 70% are Anglo, 24.2% are Hispanic, 1.6% are Native American, and 1.2% are Black. The document includes charts and graphs to show both statewide performance and performance for each school district. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Education, Bilingual Education, Dropouts, Educational Assessment

Cavatta, Jerry C. (). New Mexico Dropout Study, 1981-82 School Year. Each public school that had students enrolled in grades 9-12 was surveyed to gather data on the extent and nature of the school dropout problem in New Mexico during the 1981-82 school year. Data on grade, sex, ethnicity, and reason for dropping out were collected. Information was obtained from all 89 public school districts and from 97% of the schools surveyed. Data indicated that 6,575 ninth through twelfth grade students dropped out of school, resulting in a dropout rate of 8.1%. This was the lowest dropout rate ever recorded in New Mexico. The highest dropout rate for both male and female students occurred at grade 11 and the lowest at grade 9. Males tended to drop out of school proportionally more than females, an effect which has been true for each school year. Native American students (13.8%) and Hispanic students (8.4%) had the highest dropout rates. Anglo and Black students experienced their highest dropout rates at grade 11 and their lowest at grade 9. Hispanic students experienced their highest dropout rates equally at grades 10 and 11 (9.9%) and their lowest at grade 9. Native American students experienced their highest dropout rate at grade 10. Descriptors: American Indians, Black Students, Dropout Characteristics, Dropout Rate

Borgrink, Henry, Comp. (). New Mexico School District Profile: 1984-1985 School Year. This report provides a broad cross section of data on the operation and performance of New Mexico public schools during 1982-85. Data on enrollment (in kindergarten, in grades 1-6 and 7-12, and in special education, and percent enrolled in Title I and bilingual education programs), student characteristics (dropout rate, ethnicity, mobility), teacher characteristics (pupil/teacher ratio, teacher load, ethnicity, education, experience), number of high school graduates, test results (Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills, New Mexico High School Proficiency Exam, and American College Testing program), and vocational education enrollments are presented by year for each school district. The report has three sections. Section I discusses statewide data using bar graphs. Section II explains each variable and cites data sources. Section III contains the data for each school district arranged alphabetically by district. Statewide characteristics noted during the 3-year period include increased enrollment, ethnic composition of 47% Anglo, 41% Hispanic, and 9% Native American, 20% of students reporting Spanish or Native American dialect as primary language, declining dropout rate, overall decrease in pupil/teacher ratio, increase in percentage of students passing the High School Proficiency Exam, increase in average scores on the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills, and decrease in American College Testing program scores. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Anglo Americans, Bilingual Education Programs, Dropout Rate

Schilling, Nancy; Gittinger, Jack D., Jr. (1989). The Eastern Navajo Agency Network: Computer Networking for Native American Schools, Winds of Change. Describes a computer-based communications network linking the University of New Mexico and six isolated Bureau of Indian Affairs schools. Discusses network structure, staff training, and network delivery of instructional programs and in-service teacher education and staff development programs. Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indians, College School Cooperation, Computer Networks

Recruitment Leadership and Training Inst., Philadelphia, PA. (). Bridging the Gap: Recruiting Indian People for Careers in Education. Since there are large gaps between the culture, economy, and education of Native Americans and mainstream Americans, the recruitment and training of Native Americans as paraprofessionals in the schools appears to be a promising opportunity to deal with all three gaps simultaneously. Three model programs which are currently bridging these gaps with increasing levels of complexity are: (1) the Rural Indian Education Program sponsored by the Cherokee Nation and the Tulsa Public School District; (2) the Teacher Aide Project sponsored by Oklahoma City University; and (3) the On-site Pueblo Personnel Training Program sponsored by the All Indian Pueblo Council and the University of New Mexico. The Tulsa program recruits and trains parents and other Indian adults as classroom paraprofessionals capable of undertaking very specific tasks. The Oklahoma City program goes beyond such objectives by providing university classes for its paraprofessionals and giving college credits for courses taught on-site throughout the State. The New Mexico program is the most comprehensive of the three in that it is planned to encourage Indian paraprofessionals to complete a sequence of courses leading to an Associate degree and to move on to advanced degrees. In the Pueblo program, most instruction is conducted in the schools in which the aides work. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Career Opportunities, Cultural Differences, Educational Programs

Munro, Fern H. (). A Comparison of Laguna-Acoma High School's Class of 1972 With Similar Schools in New Mexico. Data collected by the New Mexico State Department of Education in the spring 1973 are used in tables to compare the 1972 Laguna Acoma High School (LAHS) graduating class and other 1972 New Mexico high school graduating classes. The percentage of 1972 LAHS graduates who at the time of the study were involved in post-secondary academic education or vocational training is compared to the averages for the state, for schools having graduating classes of similar size, and for schools with a Native American population of 50% or more. Similar comparisons are made for 1972 LAHS graduates who at the time of the study were employed, unemployed, housewives, or in military service. As LAHS is part of the Grants Municipal School System, comparative figures for Grants High School are included. Findings show that Laguna-Acoma had 47% of its 1972 graduates involved in post secondary academic education, which was also the average for New Mexico; LAHS had 18% of its 1972 graduates involved in vocational post secondary education, while the state average was 19%. Reflected in other categories, no LAHS 1972 graduates were in military service, but 18% were employed, 10% were housewives, and 8% were unemployed. Descriptors: Academic Education, American Indian Education, Comparative Analysis, Employment

Warrior, Della C. (). Report on Native American Assessment Colloquy (Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 26-27, 1973). Summary. This report includes a collection of eight papers presented at the Native American Colloquy. The all-Indian consultants discuss the implications of the CDA concept as it relates specifically to Indian curriculum, tribal education, training, educational change and assessment. The presentations are of particular value to administrators, early childhood teachers and specialists. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Child Development, Community Involvement, Cultural Awareness

Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC. (). Indian Education and the Proposed Transfer of Bureau of Indian Affairs Schools to Tribes or Local Governments. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education and Health of the Joint Economic Committee, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (Santa Fe, New Mexico, September 4, 1987). This congressional hearing, held at the Santa Fe (New Mexico) Indian School, addressed issues relating to the quality of education for American Indians. A central issue was a proposal transferring management of Indian schools from the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) to tribes or local governments. Statements from federal and local authorities centered on the quality of education under the current BIA system. Included in the report are statements from local education officials and leaders from several tribes. An appendix includes letters, statements, and testimony expressing concerns about the proposal from school, community, and tribal leaders. Concerns about the proposed transfer of authority centered around educational quality, that is, whether there would be a reduction of services or funds after the proposed legislation was put into effect. Proponents of the transfer argued that it would mean increased local and tribal control over the BIA schools. Federal officials contended that the move was not a budget-cutting measure and said the BIA would still monitor many aspects of school construction and maintenance. Native Americans represented in the proceedings included members of the Navajo, Apache, and Pueblo nations. Attachments include data comparing test results of American Indian children in New Mexico with those of Hispanics and Anglos. There is also a history of the relationship between the federal government and the Jicarilla Apache Indians of New Mexico. The history focuses on Indian education. [More] Descriptors: Administrative Change, American Indian Education, Elementary Secondary Education, Federal Aid

Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Education Dept. (). Kids, Schools, & Health: Where Do We Stand? Results of the 1993 New Mexico Youth Risk Behavior Survey of Native American Schools. This report summarizes the major results of a youth risk behavior survey administered to 1,549 students (grades 9-12) in 14 New Mexico schools identified as predominantly "Native American." The purpose of this report is to stimulate useful discussions into ways to increase informed support for effective, school-based comprehensive health education programs. A similar report presents results from schools not identified as "Native American." Of responding students, 77.5 percent described themselves as Native American or Alaska Native. After a brief description of the survey methodology, statistics and graphs are presented in the following areas: (1) unintentional and intentional injuries relating to motor vehicles, violence, and suicide; (2) tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use; (3) sexual behaviors relating to HIV/AIDS education, other sexually transmitted diseases, commencement and frequency of intercourse, pregnancy, and condom use; (4) dietary behaviors relating to obesity and fat consumption; and (5) physical inactivity and exercise. Most statistics are disaggregated by gender and grade, with males showing higher levels of risk behavior on most parameters. National statistics and relevant "year 2000 objectives" provide a broader context for understanding. A final section lists the elements of a successful comprehensive school health program. Contains 41 references. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Drinking, Drug Use, Eating Habits

Spicker, Howard; And Others (). Rural Gifted Education in a Multicultural Society. Economically disadvantaged and ethnically diverse children are underrepresented in programs for the academically gifted. SPRING (Special Populations Rural Information Network for the Gifted) is a consortium of Indiana University, New Mexico State University, and Converse College (South Carolina) whose major concern is the identification and programming needed for culturally diverse gifted students in rural schools. SPRING I developed identification methods and instructional materials for Appalachian gifted children. This paper focuses on plans for SPRING II, which will expand the consortium's work to three additional subpopulations of gifted rural youth: African-Americans at three South Carolina schools, Hispanics (primarily Mexican-Americans) at a New Mexico school, and Mescalero Apaches at a New Mexico public school. Parent and peer information; child products; teacher observations; and test data on intelligence, achievement, and creativity will be analyzed for similarities and differences among populations and for the strengths and weaknesses of each population in various skill and knowledge areas. As in SPRING I, a curriculum will be planned for each population that is congruent with that group's strengths. Tables describe the assessment instruments and outline the characteristics of White Appalachian and Black gifted children in disadvantaged rural areas versus those of gifted children in advantaged middle-class areas. Special concerns in the identification of Mexican-American and tribal Native American students are also discussed. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indians, Black Education, Blacks

Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC. (). Native Americans' Perceptions of Public Broadcasting. CPB Research Notes, No. 69. In March and April 1994, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting conducted a focus group study of Native Americans to determine how they perceive public television. The focus groups were conducted by American Indian Telecommunications to determine the general viewing habits of Indians, their awareness of television programming, their response to Indian portrayals in media, and their perceptions of public television. Focus group participants were Native Americans age 25 or older, fluent in English, and located in Tahlequah, Oklahoma; Oakland, California; and the Zuni Pueblo in New Mexico, representing rural, urban, and reservation areas. Television viewing is an important part of most American Indian homes, although importance and how it was used varied across the three focus group sites. The most significant findings included: (1) education is public television's outstanding image; (2) public television is recognized for excellent preschool programming; (3) public television portrayals of Indians are fair and ethical; and (4) Native Americans desire more programming with relevance to Native people. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Attitudes, Audience Response, Cultural Pluralism

Chavers, Dean, Ed. (). Exemplary Programs in Indian Education. Second Edition. This directory profiles 16 exemplary programs serving American Indian students in elementary and secondary schools, colleges, and community adult education programs. An introduction discusses what "exemplary" means, the history of Indian education, the lack of Indian programs in the National Diffusion Network's (NDN) directory of exemplary programs, characteristics of exemplary programs, and other exemplary programs in the United States. Each program entry contains: contact information, program focus, population served, personnel, sources of support, indicators used to measure program success, changes in baseline indicators over time, evaluation methods, technology use, details of program features contributing to success, comments on program replication, outreach efforts, parent involvement, student selection, and recognition or awards received. The projects and their sites or sponsors are: (1) Dropout Prevention Program (Cass Lake Local Indian Education Committee, Minnesota); (2) Indian Homework Centers (Davis County Indian Parent Association, Utah); (3) Denver Adult Education Program (Native American MultiEducational School, Colorado); (4) Ganado Primary School (Arizona); (5) Cool School Project (Ganado Intermediate School, Arizona); (6) MESBEC (math, engineering, science, business, education, computers) Scholarship Program (Native American Scholarship Fund, New Mexico); (7) Mississippi Choctaw Adult Education Program (Mississippi Choctaw Tribe); (8) Total Quality Management Program (Mount Edgecumbe High School, Alaska); (9) National Honors Program (National American Indian Honor Society, Arizona); (10) Tradition and Technology (Peach Springs School District, Arizona); (11) Individual Student Learning Program (Rock Ledge School District, Wisconsin); (12) Salmon River Central School Indian Education Project (New York); (13) Tohatchi High School Career Center (New Mexico); (14) Student Support Services Project (University of Alaska-Fairbanks); (15) Focus on Excellence Program (Wellpinit School District, Washington); and (16) Native American Student Services (University of Wisconsin-Madison). Appendices include contact information for agencies selecting exemplary programs, criteria for exemplary status in this directory, and criteria for NDN exemplary status. [More] Descriptors: Adult Education, American Indian Education, American Indians, Educational Improvement

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. (). Native American Children, Youth, and Families. Part 3. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session (Albuquerque, NM, January 10, 1986). As part of a weeklong investigation into conditions among Native American families and children, the House of Representatives Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families met to hear testimony from tribal leaders, parents, young adults, and service providers from reservations and pueblos in New Mexico and Colorado. Topics include unemployment and its effect on the family; housing, sewer, and electricity shortages; a tribally-run school that acts as a base for a comprehensive array of youth and adult services; and foster care and child welfare services. Numerous speakers address the link between alcohol abuse and family problems including Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Teen-age students from the Southern Ute Tribe (Colorado) discuss a program they initiated to encourage fellow students to remain drug and alcohol free. The report includes transcription of the hearing proceedings, numerous prepared statements from tribal organizations, and articles on issues such as adolescent suicide at an Indian reservation, health of Native American women, childhood injuries in a Native American community, and the epidemiology of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome among American Indians of the Southwest. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indian Reservations, American Indians, Child Welfare

Bromberg, Walter; And Others (). The Native American Speaks. This publication is the product of several workshops and is aimed at multi-ethnic integration of teacher attitudes, curriculum content, and teaching techniques. The 7 articles and 3 bibliographies, contributed by Native American consultants, emphasize recognition and alteration of bias in teacher attitudes, curriculum content, and teaching techniques. Articles are titled "Navajo Culture Today–Alteration of Tradition" (a brief history of Navajo cultural eras, the final era postulated as that of late 20th Century tribal or individual business enterprise); "Cultural Aspects That Affect the Indian Student in Public Schools" (time, competition, future orientation, and talk are cited as philosophical differences); "Contemporary and Traditional Clothing of the Pueblos" (a fashion show commentary designed to differentiate between the 19 pueblos in New Mexico); "The Varied and Changing Nature of the Indian Community" (a plea for educating teachers in terms of Indian identity and the negative aspects of paternalism); "Self Actualization Through the Creative Process" (creativity seen as a means of liberation); "Self-Image of the American Indian–A Preliminary Study" (drugs and Indian psychology, the Indian Gestalt view, and self-image and Indian psychology). [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Bias, Clothing, Creativity

Lewin, Stephen, Ed.; And Others (). Hispanic America to 1776. Globe Mosaic of American History. This textbook examines Spanish exploration, conquest, settlement, and colonization of present-day Mexico, United States, and the Caribbean, and the conflicts and exchanges resulting from culture contact between Spaniards and Native Americans. Chapters cover: (1) first contacts in the Caribbean, enslavement of Native Americans, arrival of African slaves, and society in the Spanish colonies; (2) conquest of the Aztecs, the "Columbian Exchange" (cultural exchange), and creating a Hispanic Mexico; (3) settlement of Florida and founding of St. Augustine; (4) settlement of New Mexico, the Pueblo revolt, and the blending of Spanish and Native cultures to form a unique New Mexican culture; (5) settlement of Texas and establishment of large cattle ranches; and (6) settlement of California, the role of the missions, and the independence of Mexico. Each chapter contains an outline of key ideas, questions for review and critical thinking, a short piece on Hispanic heritage, and suggestions for related writing assignments. Many questions stimulate thinking about Native American resistance to Spanish settlement and Native contributions to present-day Hispanic-American culture. This book contains an index, a glossary, timelines, maps, and drawings. An accompanying separately published "Teacher's Resource Manual" contains lesson plans, teaching tips, historical sidelights, focus activities, and chapter tests and answers. Descriptors: American Indian History, Colonial History (United States), Culture Contact, Hispanic American Culture

Theisen, Barbara Jim (). Cross-Cultural Spanking Practices–Implications for Parenting and Education, . In a pilot study undertaken with the students and faculty members at the campus of Eastern New Mexico University, a cross-cultural survey was taken to determine whether levels of physical aggression in childrearing practices varied between cultural groups. Specifically, spanking as a form of discipline was studied among groups of 13 Anglo-Americans, 11 Blacks, 120 Hispanics, 13 Native Americans, and 15 Asians. Results of the survey showed that there were no significant differences with regard to treatment as children or treatment of children–all groups admitted to having been "sometimes spanked" as children and to later also spanking their own children. Where alternatives to spanking were concerned, Native Americans and Asians were least likely to give or withhold rewards to discipline their children, while Hispanics and Asians were the most likely to use shame. Anglo-Americans expressed the highest level of reservation about their actions; Hispanics and Blacks expressed lesser reservations (as did Native Americans), and Asians expressed no reservations. Descriptors: American Indians, Anglo Americans, Blacks, Child Rearing

Carter, George E., Ed.; Mouser, Bruce L., Ed. (). Identity and Awareness in the Minority Experience. Selected Proceedings of the 1st and 2nd Annual Conferences on Minority Studies (March, 1973 and April, 1974). Volume 1, Number 1, . The first conference focused on specific approaches in the offering of minority studies (both as a collective unit and as separate entities) and on problems of "Anglo" educators in medium-sized Midwestern institutions. Topic panels focusing on various literatures and on specific minority groups were held at the second conference. Stemming directly from papers presented at both conferences, this anthology of 14 essays deals with the subject of identity and awareness in the minority experience of Latinos, Native Americans, and Afro-Americans. Topics covered include: the importance of literature in the emergence of Latino identity; drama as an important medium in a quest for Latino identity; the main thrust of the Chicano studies program at New Mexico Highlands University (Las Vegas); Navajo "nationalism" as a source of identity and awareness; the impact of urbanization on the identity of Native Americans; the importance of identity and awareness from a literary perspective as it relates to Native Americans; the mulatto tradition in literature, a search for identity in two worlds; black identity and awareness viewed from the negative side, as developed by the English; adolescent literature viewed as a method of developing awareness and self-identity; the development of racial pride among blacks (from an historical perspective); and the issue of educational programs in the context of resocialization. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Anthologies, Black Literature, Black Studies

Young, William Russell, III, Comp. (). New Mexico Dropout Study, 1979-80, . The study for 1979-80 identified 8,414 or 9.20% of the statewide enrollment of 91,438 for grades 9-12, as school dropouts, using surveys tallying all dropouts and enrollment by grade, sex, ethnicity, school, district, and possible reasons for leaving school, from 144 schools in 86 districts. The lowest rate was for grade 9, the highest for grade 11, typical of the previous 3 years. Also consistent with past results was a higher dropout rate for males (9.76%) than females (8.62%), although the differential was less. Major causes for dropping out for both males and females were "Motivational or Interest Related" (41% and 32%, respectively) and "Home or Related" (16% and 27%, respectively). Further analysis attributed the 27% rate for females to pregnancy or marriage. Anglos, Hispanics, and Blacks had similar ranges (7.69%, 8.92%, 9.19%) with an increase for Native Americans (13.59%). Anglos and Hispanics dropped out most in grade 11, Native Americans in grade 10, and Blacks in grade 12, with major causes for all groups reported as "Motivational or Interest Related." Five schools and three districts had no dropouts. Included in the report are the survey, data tabulation, and a map showing dropout rate by school district. Descriptors: American Indians, Black Students, Dropout Characteristics, Dropout Rate

Antle, David (). New Mexico Adolescent Health Risks Survey, . To inform students of health risks (posed by behavior, environment, and genetics) and provide schools with collective risk appraisal information as a basis for planning/evaluating health and wellness initiatives, New Mexico administered the Teen Wellness Check in 1985 to 1,573 ninth-grade students from 7 New Mexico public schools. Subjects were 52% male and 48% female. Ethnic distribution was 46% Anglo, 36% Hispanic, 9.5% Native American, 2% Black, 1% Asian, and 5.5% other. Respondents confidentially answered questions on health-related knowledge and practices regarding family history, dental hygiene, alcohol and drug use, exercise, nutrition, sexuality knowledge, smoking, stress, and motor vehicle safety. Overall findings indicated 73% didn't always wear seatbelts, 62% didn't eat variety from 4 food groups daily, 50% didn't eat 5 breakfasts weekly, 40% didn't get 20 minutes of aerobic exercise 3 times weekly, 30% drank alcohol, 27% drove or rode with drivers under influence of alcohol/drugs, 23% were highly stressed, 15% smoked cigarettes, 15% used alcohol with other drugs, 12% often felt life was not worth living, 10% didn't brush teeth daily, 6% drank 5 or more alcoholic drinks daily, 2% smoked 1 or more packs of cigarettes daily, and 2% were 20% or more overweight. Descriptors: Adolescents, Dental Health, Drug Use, Exercise

Jojola, Theodore S.; Agoyo, Herman (). One Generation of Self-Determination: Native American Economic Self-Reliance in New Mexico, . This paper examines changes in federal policy that have encouraged economic development by American Indian tribes, and presents examples from New Mexico. The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 guaranteed federal provision of education and other services to the tribes, but the newly reorganized tribal governments were regulated almost exclusively by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). In the 1950s, aspects of federal wardship were terminated and Native Americans were relocated to urban areas. In the 1960s, Indian Community Action Programs of the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) allowed tribes to initiate their own reforms, forcing tribal governments to become more structured and to create their own bureaucracies. The OEO also provided training for tribal leaders and established consortia with major universities to provide technical assistance. The 1970s saw the beginning of the self-determination era. Job training for Native Americans was increased, tribes were allowed to contract services from the BIA, and the policy of Indian preference in hiring for Indian programs was strengthened. In the 1980s the Supreme Court ruled in favor of tribes imposing severance taxes on extracted minerals, but sagging world prices for strategic minerals and massive federal cutbacks in programs and services highlighted the boom-and-bust nature of tribal economics. Major program areas administered by Pueblo tribal consortia are listed, and barriers to tribal economic self-reliance are outlined. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Reservations, American Indians, Community Development, Economic Change

New Mexico State Dept. of Education, Santa Fe. (). New Mexico Dropout Study: School Year 1989-90, . Data from an annual study conducted in 1989-90 on the extent and nature of the dropout problem in New Mexico public schools is presented in this document. Data is reported in these categories: annual dropout rate by grade, gender, and ethnicity for grades 9-12 and 7-8; dropout rate by ethnicity and grade; dropout rate by ethnicity and gender; dropout rate by reasons; dropout rate by reasons and gender; and dropout rate by reasons and ethnicity. Topics of discussion include the impact of demographic factors; New Mexico's participation in the National Center for Education Statistics' dropout field study; and issues concerning dropout prevention. The summary notes that results of the 1989-90 dropout study present an encouraging trend in maintaining enrollment in school. Conclusions listed in the summary include: (1) the rate of dropout decreased slightly and stopped a 4-year rising trend; (2) dropout rate by grade remained highest at the 10th-grade level; (3) more males dropped out of school than females; (4) Native American students dropped out of school at higher rates than other groups of students; and (5) at the middle/junior high school level the rising incidence of Black student dropout is becoming an area of concern. Tables and figures illustrate the data. General directions for the dropout study and the dropout study form are included. Descriptors: Dropout Rate, Dropout Research, Dropouts, Secondary Education

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs. (). Development of Native American Culture and Art. Hearing before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session on S. 2l66 (Sante Fe, New Mexico, April 14, 1980), . On April 14, 1980, the Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs heard testimony in Santa Fe, New Mexico, regarding S. 2166, a bill to establish a National Institute of Native American Culture and Arts Development. Forty-two witnesses appeared before the committee to note strengths and weaknesses of the bill, suggest changes in wording, and voice their concerns regarding the ability of the BIA to administer a postgraduate arts institute and the appropriateness of Santa Fe as the location for the proposed institute. Representatives of nine Pueblos and the All Indian Pueblo Council strongly opposed the bill, fearing the institutionalization of their culture, the invasion of private religious practices, and especially the loss of basic educational services for Indian children in the Santa Fe area at the Institute of American Indian Arts l(IAIA) facility. The committee reassured the Pueblo governors and the many other witnesses with similar concerns that this was not the intent of the bill. Representatives of the Crow, Zuni, and Navajo Tribes and New Mexico Senator Pete Domenici spoke in support of the bill. Other witensses represented IAIA, the Santa Fe Indian School, and several Indian arts associations. The text of S. 2166 is included in the record. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, American Indians, Art

McCoy, Jack (). New Mexico Standardized Testing Program Report. 1983-1984 School Year, . In March of 1984, a total of 55,771 New Mexico public school students in grades 3, 5, and 8 were tested with the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS) as required by the statewide standardized testing program. This document reports scores as national percentile ranks, and indicates the position of New Mexico students compared to a national sample of students. Scores are reported in 14 categories for each grade tested. Test results show that out of a total of 42 scoring categories for all three grades tested, 41 categories were at or above the national norm. In grade 3, the percentile rank scores in all fourteen categories were up from the previous year, and scores for grade 5 were higher in nine categories. Scores for grade nine increased in eleven categories. The appendix provides a summary of percentile scores in grades 3, 5, and 8 based on student's ethnicity, dominant language, and involvement in bilingual education programs. All of the percentile rank scores listed for Hispanic, Native American, and Black students were equal to or greater than the scores achieved by these ethnic groups in the previous year. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Achievement Tests, Basic Skills, Bilingual Students

De Leon, Jozi; Argus-Calvo, Beverley (). A Model Program for Identifying Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Rural Gifted and Talented Students, . Identification of gifted students among cultural and linguistic minority groups and development of culturally relevant gifted programs have been problematic. In addition, although giftedness can manifest itself in many ways, few gifted programs have been established in nonacademic areas, especially in rural settings. This paper focuses on the identification procedures of a culturally relevant, visual arts, gifted and talented program in two rural New Mexico elementary schools with predominantly Hispanic or Native American (Pueblo) populations. Education in the arts not only is intrinsically valuable but also supports student persistence and achievement. Nevertheless, the limited resources of rural schools may lead to elimination of arts programs. Identification of exceptional abilities in the arts can be just as problematic as in academic areas if it relies on standardized tests. Although in the majority in the two program schools, Hispanic and Native American students were the minority in gifted and talented programs. A multidimensional approach to identification was developed that included the following: nomination by teacher, parent, or self; participation in an art show; teacher assessment on a checklist and a rating scale; assessment by a community artist; portfolio assessment; and student evaluation on two formal tests. Interviews with members of the identification committee indicate that the most effective selection method was the cross-referencing of the community artist's recommendations with those of teachers and students and results of the art show. [More] Descriptors: Alternative Assessment, American Indian Education, Art Education, Culturally Relevant Education

Banker, Mark T. (). Missionaries and Mountain Peoples: Presbyterian Responses to Southern Appalachia & Hispanic New Mexico, . This paper examines the comparable educational histories of the "Hispanos" of a mountainous area of New Mexico and the peoples of southern Appalachia. Presbyterian missionaries entered both regions following the Civil War and soon placed mountain people in the category of "exceptional populations," along with freed slaves, Native Americans, Mormons, and other marginal groups in American society. By 1890, there were 32 mission schools in New Mexico serving more than 1,600 Mexican-American students. A decade later in the Appalachians, there were 37 mission schools that served 3,000 mountain youths. By the early 20th century, mountain students could progress from isolated one-room elementary schools to relatively large and well-equipped boarding schools that offered secondary-level work. The goal of boarding schools was to prepare future teachers for the advent of public school systems. As the latter expectation became fulfilled, Presbyterians gradually discontinued their day schools. The boarding schools, however, remained vital through the 1930s. Throughout the years many teachers left, but for those who remained, classroom duties made up only a small part of their daily routine. They performed an array of medical duties; offered advice about housekeeping, farming, and legal affairs; and served as midwives and undertakers. These efforts bridged cultural barriers, countered local suspicions, and perhaps most importantly, eroded the missionaries' own prejudices and ethnocentrism. Although the missionaries accomplished a great deal by offering education, there is evidence that their influence eroded traditional culture in both regions. [More] Descriptors: Acculturation, Boarding Schools, Cultural Interrelationships, Educational History

Cavatta, Jerry C., Comp. (). New Mexico School District Profile, 1979-80 School Year, . Representing a broad cross section of data bearing on the operation and performance of public schools in New Mexico during the school year 1979-80, the document presents data on school district characteristics, teacher characteristics, pupil characteristics, school finance, high school graduates, American College Testing (ACT) results, and results of standardized testing programs for each school district. An overview of district characteristics is presented in section 1 which includes: the 40-Day Average Daily Membership (ADM) in school districts ranged from 62 to 78,532 students; 46 districts offered bilingual education programs; statewide average in special education was 3.3%; pupil-teacher ratio ranged from a low of 8.1 to a high of 21.0%; average years of teacher experience was 10.5 years; Anglos constituted 73%, Hispanics 24%, and Native Americans 1% of the teacher population. Student characteristics included Anglo students comprised 47%, Hispanics 41% and Native Americans 8%; high school drop-out rate was 9.2%; expenditures per pupil averaged $1,556; 18,334 students graduated; and 47% planned to continue their education beyond high school. Section 2 consists of tables and section 3 contains graphic presentations of data by school district with statewide values displayed. Descriptors: American Indians, Anglo Americans, Educational Assessment, Elementary Secondary Education

Cavatta, Jerry C.; Gomez, Albert S. (). New Mexico Dropout Study: 1983-1984 School Year, . Each public school that had students enrolled in grades 9-12 was surveyed to gather data on the extent and nature of the school dropout problem in New Mexico during the 1983-84 school year. Data on grade, sex, ethnicity, and reason for dropping out were collected. Information was obtained from all 88 public school districts and from 99% of the schools surveyed. Data indicated that 5,868 ninth- through twelfth-grade students dropped out of school, resulting in a dropout rate of 7.3%, up slightly from the 1982-83 7.2% level. This represents an interruption of a downward trend in the dropout rate. The highest dropout rate for both male and female students occurred at grade 11 and the lowest at grade 9. Males tended to drop out of school proportionally more than females at all grade levels. Native American students (12.3%) and Hispanic students (7.9%) had the highest dropout rates. Only Native American students experienced their highest dropout rate at grade 9. The highest portion (39.1%) dropped out for reasons related to "motivation or interest", while 17.6% cited "home and related" reasons. The remaining 15.0%, 11.2%, 9.9%, and 7.2% dropped out for reasons related to "other,""reenrollment,""discipline," and "pregnancy or marriage" respectively. Descriptors: American Indians, Black Students, Dropout Characteristics, Dropout Rate

Duncan, Sharon E. (). Cheap Ship Trips: A Preliminary Study of Some English Phonological Difficulties of Language-Minority Children and Their Relationship to Reading Achievement. Bilingual Education Paper Series, Vol. 7, No. 4, . A study of the pronunciation problems of language-minority children had as subjects 578 first, third, and fifth-graders from seven ethnolinguistic groups (urban and rural Mexican-Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban-Americans, Franco-Americans, Native Americans, and Chinese-Americans) from low to low-middle income communities in California, Texas, Florida, New York, Louisiana, and New Mexico and 128 Anglo children from similar income groups. Results showed a significant positive relationship between phoneme production and reading achievement for some groups of third and fifth-graders, as well as for Anglo first-graders. The difficulty pattern varied across the ethnolinguistic groups, but the greatest pronunciation difficulty for the language-minority children was with the phonemes acquired last by first-language English speakers. While some phonological difficulties seem to disappear with increasing age for some groups, for others the difficulties are greater in the higher grades. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Chinese Americans, Comparative Analysis, Cross Cultural Studies

Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology, Washington, DC. (). Task Force on Women, Minorities and the Handicapped in Science and Technology: Executive Session. Report of the Proceedings (Cambridge, Massachusetts, April 8, 1988), . The Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology was established by the U.S. Congress in Public Law 99-383 with the purpose of developing a long-range plan for broadening participation in science and engineering. Public hearings were held in Albuquerque (New Mexico), Atlanta (Georgia), Baltimore (Maryland), Boston (Massachusetts), Chicago (Illinois), Kansas City (Missouri), and Los Angeles (California) between Fall 1987 and Spring 1988. The final report of the task force was produced in December, 1989. This document is the verbatim transcript of the meeting. Co-Chair Mr. Jaime Oaxaca conducted the meeting. Discussions include: (1) An opening statement; (2) Hispanic, Native American, Women, Disabled, and Black target groups; and (3) preparations for the next meeting. [More] Descriptors: Access to Education, College Science, Disabilities, Elementary School Science

Chiavacci, Walter P.; Davey, William G. (). The Status of Minorities in the Southwest. A Demographic Profile, . General demographic data concerning Black Americans, Mexican Americans, and Native Americans in the Southwest are reported. Data were collected in those states designated by the U.S. Civil Rights Commission as being "Southwest": Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. The tabular information is organized according to: general information–population by sex, state, race, and residence; social characteristics–head of household, marital status, size of family, and housing characteristics; economic characteristics–percent of persons in the labor force, income of families, income less than poverty level, class of workers 16 years and older, major occupation groups, and total pay schedule of Federal agencies; and educational characteristics–school enrollment, years of school completed, and percentage of high school graduates per state and race. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, American Indians, Blacks, Census Figures

Hall, Carroll L. (). Validating the NTE for the Initial Certification of Teachers and Administrators in New Mexico…and Beyond. Based on 18 months of extensive research and study, the New Mexico State Department of Education developed the Staff Accountability Plan to address the issue of teacher accountability and certification. One of the provisions of the plan (a written assessment of general and professional knowledge for initial certification) will be fulfilled by using the National Teacher Examinations (NTE). Validation of the Core Battery has been completed with passing scores for the three parts of the Core Battery having been determined by the State Board of Education. The process of validating 21 area examinations is presently underway. Educational Testing Service's basic validation process was utilized with one exception. In addition to the Content Review Panels and Knowledge Estimation Panels, New Mexico required the inclusion of a Content Relevance Panel consisting of K-12 classroom teachers who were asked to provide their professional judgment on the relevance of test content to the classroom setting. The social and political implications of utilizing the NTE in a state with a high percentage of Hispanic and Native American residents are also discussed here. Descriptors: Beginning Teachers, Cutting Scores, Elementary Secondary Education, State Programs

Jimenez, Luis A.; Upham, W. Kennedy (). Rural Youth in Five Southwestern States: The Population Under Age 25 in Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. Information Report No. 73-2. Population characteristics of rural youth (persons under 25 years of age) living in the Southwestern States of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas are presented. Data were collected from the 1970 U.S. Census of Population Final Reports for the individual States. This report is organized into two sections: (1) the analytical text and (2) tabular data by State. The analytical text discusses the youth of the Southwestern region; the rural population; the rural youth of the five Southwestern States; the general distribution of the rural Spanish heritage youth by State; and the distribution of rural Native American youth. The tabular section consists of numerical data regarding rural youth by State, sex, racial or ethnic categories, and age groups. Some findings are: (1) rural youth represent 14.1 percent of all persons under 25 in the Southwest; (2) rural Spanish heritage persons tend to be generally younger than other groups; and (3) in New Mexico rural Spanish heritage youth represent over 50 percent of all rural youth. Definitions of technical terms used are provided in the appendix. [More] Descriptors: Age, American Indians, Census Figures, Definitions

Benson, Chris, Ed. (1997). Networking across Boundaries, Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network Magazine. This theme issue focuses on the challenges and opportunities of online technology as it is used by teachers and students in rural classrooms in Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Mississippi, New Mexico, South Carolina, and Vermont. "Computer Country" (Cynthia Baughman) is an overview of online collaborations of teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network. "Rural Teachers and Students: Connecting and Communicating" (Rocky Gooch) answers teacher questions on the classroom use of BreadNet, Bread Loaf's telecommunications network. "Student, Teacher, and Community Growth at Ganado Intermediate School: An Interview with Susan Stropko" (Chris Benson) describes professional development, technology implementation, student involvement, and goals of a Navajo school in the Bread Loaf network. "Native American Literature and Learning: A Multicultural Sharing" (Lucy Maddox) reports on the networking of Native American teachers. "Walking in Two Worlds: Poetic Explorations across Distances and Differences" (David Koehn) describes how a poem by a Navajo poet galvanized Alaska students to begin an online inquiry into the experience of biculturalism. "Writing with Telecommunications: Crossing Institutional Boundaries" (Ceci Lewis) describes collaborative writing projects that link high school and college students. "Rural Challenge Network: Reaching Out" (Anthony Kennedy, Natasha O'Brien) relates how principals and teachers in Alaska use networking for school reform and a pedagogy of place. "Cross-Age Conferencing: A Literary Inquiry" (Michelle Wyman-Warren) describes online discussion of Joseph Conrad's "Heart of Darkness" by New Mexico high school students and Massachusetts college freshmen. "Listening to Students in the Connections Project" (Patricia Parrish) reports on an online writing exchange between middle-schoolers and preservice English teachers. Other brief articles include "Teacher Networking and Professional Development in Alaska: An Interview with Annie Calkins"; "Teacher Networks at Bread Loaf: The Endless Summer" (Diana Jaramillo); "Stepping Aside To See Ourselves" (Scott Christian); "Research for Action Submits Four-Year Report on BLRTN"; "'Exchanging Lives: Middle School Writers Online': A Review" (Chris Benson); "You Have Mail with Telecommunications" (Emily Quirion); "Between Two Schools: Poetry, Magic, Connection" (Doris A. Ezell-Schmitz); "Maple Syrup and Desert Sand: A Heritage Exchange" (Carol Zuccaro); "New Mexico and Alaska Border Jumpers" (Dianna Saiz); and "Andover Bread Loaf Writing Workshop Makes Annual Visit to BL" (Lou Bernieri). Includes 1997-98 announcements abut members, notes from state network meetings, 39 book and online resources on technology and education, and lists of rural teacher fellows. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Education, Class Activities, Computer Mediated Communication, Computer Networks

Noe, Sally W.; Wright, Gregory, Ed. (). This Proud Land, A Unit in Native American Studies. The American Indians of the Southwest–their history and culture from ancient to modern times–are the focal point of this resource manual based on an American history course developed at Gallup High School, Gallup, New Mexico. The course covers ancient culture and migrations of the Indian tribes now inhabiting New Mexico and the coming of Spanish explorers and Anglo settlers; it concludes with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. This guide includes an outline for the two-semester course, performance objectives for students, maps, charts, sample tests and study guides, chronologies, and two detailed units of study titled "Navajo Clan System and Distribution" and "Migratory Distribution". Brief background is provided on southwestern geology and physical geography; on cultural differences and similarities among the Anasazi, Hohokan, and Mogollon-Mimbres cultures from which modern tribes descent; and on the history and culture of Pueblos, Zunis, and Apaches–especially the "apaches de nabahu", the Navajos. A bibliography of 55 entries directs the reader to in-depth information on various aspects of Southwest history. Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indians, Ancient History, Anthropology

Edington, Everett D.; And Others (). Educational, Occupational, and Residence Aspirations and Expectations for Rural and Minority Youth in New Mexico. Fixed-choice stimulus questions were distributed to students from 12 New Mexico rural high schools (randomly selected), and responses were derived from 139 Native, 171 Anglo, and 240 Mexican American students in the 10th and 12th grades. Responses indicated educational, occupational, and residential aspirations and expectations and goal deflections. Findings revealed: (1) significant differences in occupational aspirations between grade levels and ethnic groups (sophomores aspired to less professional occupations and Native Americans aspired to less professional occupations than Anglos); (2) differences in occupational expectations due to sex (females expected less professional occupations); (3) occupational goal deflection differences due to ethnicity, sex, and the grade level by ethnicity interaction; (4) residence aspiration differences due to sex and ethnicity (males aspired to a more rural and Mexican Americans to a more urban residence than the others); (5) goal deflection between Anglo residence expectations and aspirations; (6) residence expectation differences due to sex and ethnicity (males and Native Americans had more rural expectations); (7) differences in educational aspirations due to grade level and sex by ethnic group interaction; (8) educational expectation differences due to grade level and sex by ethnic group interaction. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Anglo Americans, Aspiration, Education

Edington, Everett D.; Di Benedetto, Romeo Raymond (). Principal Leadership Style and Student Achievement in Small and Rural Schools of New Mexico. Effective leadership appears to be an element of a successful school, but few studies have covered either leadership in small and rural schools or effective schools with the ethnic mix of Anglo, Hispanic, and Native American students. This study's population consisted of the 24 New Mexico rural public elementary schools having an enrollment of 500 or fewer students and a principal who had been at the school for more than one year. Hispanics and Native Americans comprised, on average, 37.1% and 2.3%, respectively, of student enrollments. The principals and eighth grade teachers of each school rated the principals on participation, role clarification, supervision, and charismatic leadership. A multiple stepwise regression analysis tested the effect of principal leadership qualities, student socioeconomic status, and student ethnicity on eighth grade student scores on the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS). Student socioeconomic status was related to CTBS scores, but ethnicity was not. The teachers' perception of the principal's role clarification was negatively related to CTBS scores, and their perception of his charismatic leadership was positively related. No other teacher ratings or principal self-ratings were significant variables. The paper includes five statistical tables and 18 references. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, American Indians, Educational Research, Grade 8

Forbes, Jack D.; Adams, Howard (). A Model of "Grass-Roots" Community Development: The D-Q University Native American Language Education Project. Embodying a thoroughly grass-roots, democratic approach, the Native American Language Education (NALE) Project of D-Q University began operation during 1973-74. Local Native Americans are employed to work with the indigenous population in the local communities. Members of the local community are provided the time and opportunity to discuss, meet, and present their views, feelings, and opinions regarding the total language development process which occurs within their own community. The elderly people, who possess all the knowledge and wisdom of tribal language, culture, and history, are periodically contracted as professional consultants because of their tribal expertise, to correct, evaluate, and approve language materials before they are printed and distributed. In 1973-74 materials were prepared for, and disseminated to, a large audience comprised of Indian tribes across the country. Most staff effort was focused at the Papago in Arizona and the Zuni in New Mexico. By 1974-75 virtually all resources were focused at Papago and Zuni. This report includes: a summary of the historical and current situation of the Zuni and Papago peoples; discussions of the community development theory and the NALE project, and of the role of self-determination in language development; a description of the NALE project (background, philosophy, general objectives, and operation); and a brief discussion of the project evaluation. Descriptors: American Indian Languages, American Indian Reservations, American Indians, Community Development

Gonzales, Joe R., Comp. (). Spanish/English and Native American/English Bibliography. A Guide to the Holdings of the SW-BETRC Resource Materials Bank. A guide to the holdings of the Southwest Bilingual Education Training Resource Center (SW-BETRC) located at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, this bibliography includes updated (60's and 70's) listings and annotated citations relevant to bilingual/bicultural education programs comprised of English, Spanish, and Native American language components. Divided into seven basic sections, this bibliography includes (1) an annotated educational and cultural bibliography of Mexican American professional resources listed by author's surname (130 citations); (2) a listing of over 150 locally and commercially developed classroom instructional materials with grade level and publisher's title; (3) a listing of 165 Native American professional resources with descriptions (includes print and non-print materials); (4) a listing of some 175 bilingual evaluation instruments (secondary level) available for reference use in the Center's Materials Bank or via the accompanying distributors list; (5) a list of 41 bibliographies providing information and references to early childhood education, bilingual education programs, evaluation, migrant education, parent-community involvement, and other specific aspects of bilingual education; (6) a list of 25 ERIC (Educational Resource Information Center) sources on bilingual/bicultural education; and (7) a list of 55 distributors of bilingual materials (includes addresses, catalog titles, areas of interest, and material types). Descriptors: Agencies, American Indians, Annotated Bibliographies, Audiovisual Aids

All Indian Pueblo Council, Albuquerque, NM. (). All Indian Pueblo Council: On-Site Teacher Education Program. The All Indian Pueblo Council and the University of New Mexico (AIPCUNM) jointly developed a program of on-site instruction, counseling, and advisement for Pueblo adults pursuing the Associate of Arts degree and the Bachelor of Science degree in Elementary Education. The expectation was that Native American children would learn more and feel better about themselves and school if they were taught by adults from their own community, who understood their needs and could communicate effectively with them. Serving 19 pueblos throughout northern and northwestern New Mexico, the program was aimed at developing the facilitative teaching component, composed of 3 major factors: (1) one's self-awareness; (2) interpersonal communication skills; and (3) one's recognition and use of modeling. Nineteen AIPC-UNM graduates participated in the 1980 evaluation study, conducted by an independent evaluator and using control groups from the same Pueblos, which analyzed patterns of interaction between teachers and students in the classroom, and results of questionnaires measuring students' self-concept and attitudes toward school. Findings indicated that students of AIPC-UNM graduates had significantly more positive attitudes and higher self-concepts than equivalent control groups, and that AIPC-UNM graduates conducted classes in ways expected to facilitate students' emotional and intellectual growth to a greater degree than the non-AIPC group. Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indians, Biculturalism, Communicative Competence (Languages)

Pike, Bill, Ed. (). Health Careers Recruitment Program Handbook. Designed to encourage Native American students in Colorado and New Mexico to pursue health careers, this handbook presents the following information: (1) statistics documenting the need for American Indian health professionals; (2) current career opportunities in the health professions (descriptions of the many health fields and descriptions of professional practice and health service agencies, including such careers as environmental aide, school health, research, occupational therapist, etc.); (3) preparing for the health professions (secondary school preparation, college level training and preparation, admission into the health professions schools, special Indian programs, and financial planning); (4) where to obtain additional assistance (counseling and advice, additional sources of information, recommended reading list, and glossary). Among the more important specifics presented in this handbook are: lists of professions requiring and those not requiring a college degree; lists of new and emerging health professions; a selected list of four-year colleges and universities in the Southwest and Rocky Mountain states; a list of New Mexico technical-vocational schools; a list of organizations offering special Indian programs; a budget for first year students at U.S. medical schools (estimated minimum expenses for 1975-76); and information on grants, scholarships, etc. [More] Descriptors: Allied Health Occupations Education, American Indians, Career Opportunities, Colleges

Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX. (). Native Education Resources in the Southwestern Region. This directory lists 160 organizations in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, as well as national organizations that provide educational resources for American Indians. Few American Indians live in Arkansas and Louisiana, but Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico rank among the top 10 states in terms of Native American population. The vast majority of American Indian students attend public schools. The first section of the directory lists national associations, organizations, Indian Education Technical Assistance Centers, and multifunctional resource centers based in the five-state region. The remainder of the directory lists organizations by state. Listings include government and government-funded agencies; tribes and tribal organizations; American Indian centers and organizations; associations and other private organizations; schools and organizations that serve schools; postsecondary institutions and related organizations; media and technology; and museums, monuments, and parks. Most entries include address, contact person, and a brief description of the organization's objectives and services. Contains a list of seven native education initiative publications and five references. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, American Indian Reservations, Colleges

Lassiter, Ruby F. (). Minority Access to Excellence in Higher Education. The future of New Mexico, which has a unique diverse minority population (Hispanics, Blacks, and Native Americans), is linked with how well the educational systems serve the special needs of these groups. However, these groups are the least educationally prepared to function meaningfully in and to contribute to both the contemporary society and the growth potential in New Mexico. Higher education, representing the ending integral in the educational preparation of minorities for employment and functional proficiencies, can be identified as the major opportunity to redress the problem. Unfortunately, minorities have not always fared very well in institutions of higher education and training. Representing a minority's perspective on the critical issue of minority access to excellence in higher education, this paper discusses minority access to higher education in terms of enrollment, retention, and persistence, and presents a discussion for expanding the definitions of excellence and excellence accountability. The paper draws upon the professional and life experiences of a minority student and instructor in higher education, an informal survey of 12 minority students, and a review of current literature on the status of minority education. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Access to Education, Accountability, American Indians

Cavatta, Jerry C. (). Las Cruces Public Schools: A View of Our Schools, 1986-87 School Year. Las Cruces Public Schools (Dona Ana County, New Mexico) is the second largest school district in New Mexico serving 6% of the state's public school students. Enrollment, declining in the late 1970s to a 1980-81 low of 15,349 students, has increased steadily through the 1986-87 school year, when 17,207 students were enrolled, primarily in grades K-5. The district includes 17 elementary schools, 4 junior high schools, 1 combined elementary-junior high school, 2 high schools, an alternative high school, and a night high school. Increased enrollments and educational requirements have led to an aggressive expansion and modernization effort funded through voter support for bond issues and tax levies. School population reflects a blend of ethnic/cultural backgrounds–45% Anglo, 52% Hispanic, and 3% Native American. Demographic samples show that the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills for 1983-84 through the 1986-87 school years given to 3rd, 5th, and 8th graders have been at or above the national average performance. Information on the proportions of teaching staff to administrative and support staff, pupil/teacher ratios, training and experience level of staff members, and percentage of students requiring special education and bilingual services is provided. The of teaching staff to administrative and support staff, pupil/teacher ratios, training and experience level of staff members, and percentage of students requiring special education and bilingual services is provided. The New Mexico High School Proficiency Exam is outlined. Scholarship and award winners are listed. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, American Indians, Basic Skills, Bilingual Education

Native American Scholarship Fund, Inc., Albuquerque, NM. (). Exemplary Institute. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (3rd, Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 22-24, 1998). This proceedings contains presentations and workshop summaries from the 3rd Annual Exemplary Institute for educators of Native American students. Presentations include: "Quality in Learning: Romancing the Journey" (quality management at Mount Edgecumbe High School, Alaska) (Todd Bergman); "Creating a School-wide Literacy Climate" (Sig Boloz); "How To Write Winning Proposals" (Dean Chavers); "How To Motivate Indians To Achieve Their Highest Potential" (Frank Dukepoo); "Focus on Excellence" (Wellpinit School District, Washington, technology plan) (Gerald Hombel); "Preparing Indian Students for Math and Science Study" (college preparation and financial aid) (Lucille Kelley); "Focus on Math: Designing a Successful Mathematics Program for Alaska Native and American Indian Students" (Gregory Owens); "Yes, Reading Is Everything" (Jon Reyhner); "Motivation: Increasing Student Motivation & Performance Quality in the Classroom" (Spence Rogers); and "School-Wide Literacy Improvement Project" (Susan Stropko). Other presentations listed but not included in this proceedings are: "National Exemplary Programs" (Dean Chavers); "Exemplary Adult Education Programs" (Lynda Nuttall); and "Parent Involvement and the PTA" (Gayla Stone). (Includes the Exemplary Institute schedule and lists of presenters and advisory committee members.) [More] Descriptors: Adult Education, Alaska Natives, American Indian Education, American Indians

National Advisory Council on Indian Education, Washington, DC. (). Native Language and Culture. INAR/NACIE Joint Issues Sessions. National Indian Education Association (NIEA) Annual Conference (22nd, San Diego, California, October 15, 1990). This report summarizes two joint sessions held by the Indian Nations At Risk Task Force and the National Advisory Council on Indian Education to hear testimony on educational issues related to Native American language and culture. Educators, students, parents, and tribal officials made presentations concerning: the importance for academic success of retaining one's Native or historic language base; the suppression of Native language experienced by older tribal members who attended boarding schools; philosophical problems and personal experience in bilingual education; efforts to preserve the culture and language of small tribes; the need to train non-Native teachers of Indian students about Native culture and language; and three programs and strategies that work. The federal Native American Languages Act, which supports the use and preservation of Native languages, is briefly summarized. State and local initiatives related to bilingual education in Wisconsin, New Mexico, Alaska, and Washington are described. Recommendations are made concerning: standards, definitions, and planning for teaching Native languages; higher education and alternative certification for teachers of Native languages; the importance of studying tribal history; and the special challenge of providing cultural education for urban American Indians. [More] Descriptors: Acculturation, American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, American Indian Languages

Hambleton, Ronald K.; Rogers, H. Jane (). Detecting Biased Test Items: Comparison of the IRT Area and Mantel-Haenszel Methods, . The agreement between item response theory-based and Mantel Haenszel (MH) methods in identifying biased items on tests was studied. Data came from item responses of four spaced samples of 1,000 examinees each–two samples of 1,000 Anglo-American and two samples of 1,000 Native American students taking the New Mexico High School Proficiency Examination in 1982. In addition, a matched group analysis was conducted using a third sample of 650 Native Americans and 650 Anglo Americans. The item characteristic curve area and the MH methods were used. The consistency of classification of items into biased and not-biased was in the 75 to 80% range for both methods. When the unreliability of item bias statistics was taken into account, both methods gave similar results. Discrepancies between methods were due to bias from intersections of item characteristic curves and the choice of interval over which item bias was defined. The Mantel-Haenszel method, with a minor modification or two, provides an acceptable approximation to the item response theory based methods. Five data tables and eight graphs show study results. [More] Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, High School Students, High Schools, Item Analysis

Clauser, Brian E.; And Others (). Influence of the Criterion Variable on the Identification of Differentially Functioning Test Items Using the Mantel-Haenszel Statistic. Lab Report 198, . This paper explores the effectiveness of the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) statistic in detecting differentially functioning test items when the internal criterion is varied. Using a data set from the 1982 statewide administration of a 150-item life skills examination (the New Mexico High School Proficiency Examination), a randomly selected sample of 1,000 Anglo-American and 1,000 Native American examinee item response sets was analyzed. The MH procedure was first applied to all of the items involved. The items were then categorized as belonging to one or more of four subtests based on the skills or knowledge needed to choose the correct response. Each subtest was then analyzed as a separate test, using the MH procedure. Three control subtests were also established using random assignment of test items, and they were analyzed using the MH procedure. Based on three runs of a MH computer program analyzing a total of 91 items, 22 items were identified as functioning differentially in the two examinee groups. The choice of criterion–total test score versus subtest score–had a substantial influence on the classification of items according to whether or not they were differentially functioning in the Anglo-American and Native American groups. Evidence for the convergence of judgmental and statistical procedures was found in the unusually high proportion of differentially functioning items within one of the classifications, and in the results of the reanalysis of this group of items. Two tables present data from the analyses. Descriptors: American Indians, Anglo Americans, Comparative Testing, High School Students

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs. (). Culturally Relevant Early Education Programs. Hearing on Oversight Hearing on Culturally Relevant Early Education Programs before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session (November 24, 1987), . This hearing produced testimony on the efforts of Hawaiian and American Indian educators to provide effective, culturally relevant education at preschool and elementary levels. Witnesses described (1) Kamehameha Elementary Education Program (KEEP) which developed elementary school reading and language arts curricula and teaching methods compatible with the learning styles of native Hawaiian children; (2) Rough Rock Demonstration School, a Navajo school developed with assistance from KEEP and providing bilingual and bicultural education, K-6; (3) Indian teacher education at the University of New Mexico; (4) a proposed Zuni school to be developed with assistance from KEEP and Rough Rock; (5) a Hawaiian language immersion program for preschool children aged 2-6; (6) six Choctaw elementary schools which incorporate tribal cultural precepts and language across the curriculum; (7) a Navajo boarding school, K-9, which considers culturally appropriate learning styles in a variety of programs; and (8) Santa Fe (Pueblo) Indian School, an effective high school which drastically cut its dropout rate. Speaking for several Native educators, Professor Roland Tharp of the University of Hawaii asked for congressional support and federal funding for a plan whereby six schools of six different Native American cultures would participate in a circle of assistance and teacher training. The Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory submitted an 88-page report on the applicability of effective school practices for the native American learner. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indians, Bilingual Education, Cognitive Style

Newton, Ray (). Native Americans and the Mass Media, . Presenting testimony from various sources, this report describes growing resentment in the American Indian community of Anglo media misinterpretation and exploitation of Indian culture and Indian people. The full text of the Navajo Nation's plan for a Navajo Communications Board (established by the Advisory Committee of the Navajo Tribal Council) is presented as evidence of such resentment in the Southwest. Additionally, criticism from the Indian media is presented (Wassaja, The Navajo Times, The American Indian Press Association, The Ramah Navajo Broadcasting Station, etc.). Results of a survey are presented to indicate the lack of Indian representation in the New Mexico media where there is only one Indian reporter (Albuquerque Journal) and two Indian correspondents (Farmington Daily Times and the Santa Fe New Mexican). Citing lack of self determination, formal training, and organized tribal input as major deterrents (outside of Anglo domination) to the lack of Indian media representation, this report concludes with a brief description of the progress now being made by: (1) Ron Wood and Native Americans for Community Action; (2) Chester Yazzie and the Navajo Nation Report (a half-hour television program out of Flagstaff, Arizona); and (3) Ernest Lavato and the Communications Center for the All Indian Pueblo Council in Albuquerque. [More] Descriptors: Accountability, Advisory Committees, American Indians, Anglo Americans

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. (). The Native American Videotape Archives – Catalog, . Developed under the auspices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs' Bicentennial Celebration and its videotape documentation project, this catalog describes documentary videotapes of tribal activities produced by American Indians with the consent of individual tribes. The catalog is divided into the following sections: User's Policy (regulations governing access to and use of the videotape archive located at the Institute of American Indian Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico); Master Tape List (contains master tape numbers, the tribal name, and program title); Master Tape Abstracts (master tape number, tribe, program title, length, and brief summary of each master tape program); Project Title List (project number, project title, tribe, and number of source tapes shot); Cross Reference Index to Source Material (headings include Arts and Crafts, Economic, Family and Family Background, Government and Law, History and Culture, Social, and Subsistence; subheadings are also provided for each major heading; for example, Ceremonies is a subheading within the major heading of Social); Names Index (names all persons who could be identified in the source tapes); and Log Sheets (each log sheet on each of the source tapes includes project title, project and source number, date of taping, viewer cues, counter number references, cross reference subject headings, a brief description of the content appearing between the indicated counter numbers, and comments pertaining to the technical quality of that portion of the tape). [More] Descriptors: Abstracts, Activities, American Indians, Art Expression

New Mexico Commission on Higher Education. (). The Condition of Higher Education in New Mexico, Spring 1997, . This report summarizes information about New Mexico's public colleges and universities. Data tables provide summarize information on revenues and expenditures of the state's colleges and universities from 1985 through 1996. Tables are organized into those on: student enrollments and degrees completed; tuition and financial aid; and state higher… [More] Descriptors: Adult Education, Anglo Americans, Articulation (Education), Asian Americans

Valencia, Atilano A. (). The Cognitive and Affective Development of Elementary School Children in a Bilingual-Bicultural Learning Environment. A Study of the Grants Bilingual-Bicultural Education Program, Grants, New Mexico, . Providing relevant data, analyses, and observations, with particular reference to the cognitive and affective development of bilingual children, the 1973-74 Grants Bilingual-Bicultural Program evaluation determined the personnel's attitudes and perceptions about program components and operations and the children's responses to bilingual-bicultural instruction. Native American, Anglo, and Spanish surnamed children from 9 classroom groups (6 program and 3 non-program) in grades 1, 3, and 5 comprised the sample. Tests administered in Spanish and English, a 30 item questionnaire, and classroom observations were used. Due to the lack of tests in Native American dialects, reference to observations of Native American cultural features in the program was made rather than to cognitive achievement based on the tests. Tests included the Inter-American Series' Tests of Reading, the General Ability Test (Spanish version), and the Science Research Associates, Inc. (SRA) Achievement Series, Form E/Blue Level and the Primary Edition, Form E, Primary I and II. Some findings were: students gained significantly in oral vocabulary, numbers, general concepts, and cognitive processes based on verbal and pictorial stimuli in Spanish; 3rd grade students measured at or beyond grade level on the SRA Test; and the personnel felt the program was well coordinated, sufficiently supplied with materials and equipment, and effective in developing the children's bilingual ability and cognitive skills. Descriptors: Affective Behavior, American Indians, Anglo Americans, Biculturalism

Garmhausen, Winona (). History of Indian Arts Education in Santa Fe: The Institute of American Indian Arts with Historical Background 1890 to 1962, . This book traces the history of the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Sections cover four time periods in the evolution of the Institute: the United States Indian Industrial School at Sante Fe, 1890-1932; the Santa Fe Indian School, 1930-62; and the Institute of American Indian Arts, 1962-70 and 1970-78. The United States Indian Industrial School at Santa Fe was opened to University of New Mexico students and to all Indian students in the Southwest in 1890. The school, which was part of the federal boarding school system, sought to provide vocational training that would allow young Indians to manage allotment lands they had received through the Dawes Act. Another purpose of boarding schools was to separate Indians from their families in hopes of breaking tribal ties and hastening acculturation. The Meriam Report of 1928, which evaluated Indian education, found among other deficiencies that the standardized curriculum based on White cultural values was ineffective in educating American Indian students. This report, along with widespread interest in Native American art, opened the door for the introduction of traditional Indian arts in the boarding school curriculum. In 1930 the school changed its name to the Santa Fe Indian School to reflect the school's change in focus. During the next 30 years, the school opened a new arts and crafts building, a painting studio, and initiated other improvements and additions. At the end of this period the arts program was floundering and a new direction was needed, thus in the fall of 1962 the official opening of the Institute of American Indian Arts took place. For the next 19 years, the Institute housed the nation's only all-Indian, all-arts training center. This center, which offered upper secondary and junior college programs, was the first to be controlled and supervised by the federal Indian Arts and Crafts Board, was funded directly by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and was open to all Native Americans. Contains a bibliography and index. Descriptors: Acculturation, American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, American Indians

New Mexico Commission on Higher Education. (). Condition of Higher Education in New Mexico, 1995, . This annual report provides information about New Mexico's colleges and universities and the students attending these institutions, including demographic data on enrolled students; student financial aid funding levels and awards granted; student tuition and fees across the state; current and historical financing data; and special program information. Following a brief overview, including a list of the institutions in the state, are two data sections, each preceded by a short text summary. In the first are: historical enrollment data; headcount by residency; ethnicity and gender data for certificate and degree recipients; degrees awarded by field; program completion and transfer rates; tuition and fee data; and student financial aid data. Tables in the financing section cover: state appropriations; general expenditures and revenues; research expenditures; compensation; and capital expenditures. Following the data sections is information on the mission of the Commission on Higher Education, standing committees, and organizational structure. Another section lists various activities of the Commission, some of which are: adult basic education, cooperative education, Native American education, oversight and licensure of private proprietary schools. The final sections of the report contain commission resolutions and a list of selected commission reports and publications. [More] Descriptors: Administrative Organization, College Attendance, Degrees (Academic), Educational Finance

National Advisory Council on Vocational Education, Washington, DC. (). Public Hearings on Native American Vocational Education (November, 1976-January, 1977). NACVE Task Force on Native American Vocational Education, . Summarizing hearing procedures and findings, this document includes testimony presented at hearings conducted by the Task Force on Native American Vocational Education. Held between late 1976 and early 1977 at Rapid City, South Dakota; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Seattle, Washington; and Washington, D.C.; these hearings address the current status of Indian vocational education under the provisions of the Education Amendments of 1976 (PL 94-482). Major findings are presented as follows: there are two types of facilities needed–schools on or very near the reservations and area schools which can serve small tribes or a group of tribes; there is a critical need in elementary through adult education programs for information regarding options in employment and student assessment of interests and aptitudes; and until other segments of education are improved, vocational education programs will have to include components of remedial reading, wriLing, and computation. Major Task Force recommendations are represented as follows: that the legislation be amended to require the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) to match vocational education funds appropriated via the U.S. Office of Education (USOE); that the BIA and USOE share the responsibility for administering and monitoring these funds; that the USOE and BIA provide technical assistance to tribes submitting proposals under this legislation; that proposal evaluation criteria consider the special needs of the diverse populations to be served; and that tribes determine their own education priorities. Descriptors: Adult Education, Agency Role, American Indian Reservations, American Indians

Edington, Everett D.; Martellaro, Helena C. (). Variables Affecting Academic Achievement in New Mexico Schools, . To determine if a relationship can be found between school size and academic achievement, a study examined correlations for 566 New Mexico public schools (grades 5, 8, and 11) from 1978 to 1981. The measure of academic achievement used was the schools' average "total scale score" on the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills. The two questions to be answered were whether there is a relationship between school enrollment size and student achievement, and whether there is such a relationship when correlations have been made for certain other predictors of achievement. Examining the 12 multiple regression model results (3 grades times 4 years) indicated that in 11 cases, school enrollment size was not significantly related to academic achievement. The study concluded that school enrollment size was not related to academic achievement, and that percentage of students eligible for Title I and percentage of Native American and Spanish American students appeared to be significantly related to academic achievement. Recommendations were that since academic achievement seems unrelated to school size, other factors should be considered when school consolidation is contemplated, and since academic achievement appears highly related to socioeconomic and cultural/ethnic factors, these two areas should be considered when developing new programs. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, American Indians, Comparative Analysis, Consolidated Schools

Schacht, Robert M.; Baldwin, Julie (). The Vocational Rehabilitation of American Indians Who Have Alcohol or Drug Abuse Disorders. Executive Summary, . Begun in 1993, a 5-year project examined treatment modalities and outcomes and counselor and client attitudes related to American Indian or Alaska Native vocational rehabilitation (VR) clients with alcoholism or substance abuse problems. Specifically, surveys and focus groups examined elements of successful substance abuse treatment and VR programs, areas of social-cognitive dissonance between VR counselors and their clients, and the use of culturally relevant treatment modalities different from those used in mainstream programs. A 1993 survey of 31 "exemplary" substance abuse treatment centers recommended by VR counselors, and a 1996 followup survey of 14 of these centers found that most centers extensively incorporated American Indian personnel and cultural practices into the treatment process, but success rates over 50 percent were rare. In the followup survey, all programs based "most" or "some" of their treatment methodology on Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Treatment orientations based on Native American traditional healing did not claim better success rates than other orientations. Counselor and client focus groups in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona discussed eligibility for VR services, effects of the substance abuse problem and state of recovery on the VR process, client motivations, training needs, and factors contributing to or impeding recovery. Areas of congruence and disparity in counselor and client attitudes are discussed. Recommendations are presented for VR counselor training and program improvement, and the 12 steps of AA are listed. [More] Descriptors: Alaska Natives, Alcoholism, American Indians, Client Attitudes (Human Services)

Stabler, Karen, Comp. (). Southwestern Native American Studies: A Selected Bibliography, . Conducting research in the field of Native American studies requires the use of many different materials in the library. This guide provides a bibliography of useful tools as well as a basic strategy to follow when researching the topic. The types of documents listed include: dictionaries and encyclopedias, guides and handbooks, journal articles, databases, statistics, and government documents. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Studies, Annotated Bibliographies, Books, Databases

King, Richard A.; Pohland, Paul A. (). A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Administrator Training Programs for Native Americans. Monograph, . Researchers analyze the cost effectiveness of educational administrator training programs for Native Americans at four universities: Harvard, Pennsylvania State, Minnesota, and New Mexico. The programs vary in scope, duration, clientele, admissions, and five other characteristics. The programs' average costs per student are computed and are related to differences in program characteristics. The researchers then compile effectiveness rankings for seven different outcome measures, including program completion rate, post-program jobs and salaries, shifts in job aspirations, and students' perceptions of program quality, changes in their decision-making responsibilities, and realization of preprogram expectations. Program rankings on each outcome are weighted and averaged, and a measure of program cost per unit of effectiveness is computed. While one unidentified school is found to have lower costs, the authors conclude that no school can be considered more cost effective because the use of different outcomes or weights would yield different figures for cost effectiveness. They discuss the problems of analyzing the cost effectiveness of social action programs, especially in relation to variation in program goals, structures, resource constraints, and outcome measures. [More] Descriptors: Administrator Education, American Indians, Cost Effectiveness, Educational Administration

Anchondo, Jose Jorge; And Others (). Working with Your School. A Handbook of the New Mexico Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights, . In a sense, public education is like a pyramid of laws, policies, regulations, rules, guidelines, and practices built on a foundation called the U.S. Constitution. At each level, there is a set of "do's and don'ts" that guide the actions of people involved in public education. This handbook, written to help people understand their rights relating to public education, gives information, ideas and suggestions on ways to improve the students' education. Discussed are the education pyramid; legal rights of students and their parents; how to influence school decisions; evaluating the school; New Mexico State education agencies and laws; how and where to file discrimination complaints; major issues in schools–curriculum, personnel, school plant and equipment, parent and student rights, school board and accountability; freedom of speech; searches; suspensions and expulsions; dress codes; corporal punishment; student marriage and pregnancy; student records; ability grouping; the educable mentally retarded; bilingual education; Federal programs and discrimination; free lunch program; Freedom of Information Act; textbooks; teacher certification; education of Native Americans; and local school boards. Also included are sample letters for filing Title VI and IX complaints, for requesting a conference with school personnel, and for requesting permission to speak before the school board; suggestions for dealing with people in the education pyramid; and an evaluation checklist for evaluating a school. Descriptors: Ability Grouping, American Indians, Bilingual Education, Civil Liberties

Chin, Laura, Ed.; And Others (). The Farmington Report: A Conflict of Cultures. A Report of the New Mexico Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights….. In response to numerous complaints from Navajo leaders, the New Mexico Advisory Committee undertook this study of the complex social and economic relationships that bind the city of Farmington and the Navajo Reservation. This report examines issues relating to community attitudes; the administration of justice; provisions of health and medical services; alcohol abuse and alcoholism; employment; and economic development on the Navajo Reservation and its real and potential impact on the city of Farmington and San Juan County. From testimony of participants during a three-day open meeting in Farmington and from extensive field investigation, the Advisory Committee has concluded that Native Americans in almost every area suffer from injustice and maltreatment. Recommendations are addressed to local, county, State, and Federal agencies. They include: establishing a human relations committee in Farmington; developing a comprehensive alcohol abuse and alcoholism program; coordination between public and private health facilities to provide adequate services to Navajos; upgrading the community relations program of the Farmington Police Department; affirmative action by private and public employers; and compliance with the "Indian Preference" clause by private employers on the reservations. [More] Descriptors: Alcoholism, American Indian Reservations, American Indians, Civil Rights

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs. (). Development of Native American Culture and Art–Part 3. To Promote the Development of Native American Culture and Art. Hearing Before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session on S. 792. The Select Committee on Indian Affairs met July 29, 1981 to hear testimony concerning S. 792, a bill to provide for the establishment of a national institute to preserve, revitalize, and disseminate Indian art and culture. Bill S. 792 was endorsed by senators from Oregon and Hawaii and, with certain reservations, by representatives of eight Indian Tribes, Pueblos, and Associations. Indian representatives wanted Indian control on the Institute's Board of Trustees to insure sensitivity to Indian religious and cultural concerns for policy direction, the exhibition of Indian arts and crafts, and compliance with the American Indian Religious Freedom Act. There was support for the concept of developing regional institutions rather than a national institute. The Department of the Interior's Bureau of Indian Affairs opposed the enactment of S. 792 because the bill proposed to remove the Indian Arts and Crafts Board and the Institute of American Indian Arts from the Department. Statements from nine Pueblo leaders in New Mexico who opposed S. 2166 (a bill to establish a National Institute of Native American Culture and Arts Development) and various correspondence were entered into the record. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, American Indians, Art

J & E Associates, Inc., Silver Spring, MD. (). Creating a Literate Future. A National Forum on Strengthening Policies and Partnerships for Adult Education and Training for Native Americans/Alaska Natives (St. Paul, Minnesota, October 12-14, 1995). This document contains information from the national forum Creating a Literate Future for the Year 2000, which was held to help state team delegations develop vision/mission statements and action plans citing goals, objectives, and activities for enhancing adult literacy and education for Native Americans and Alaska Natives. Presented first are introductory discussions of the forum's objectives and activities. The conference keynote address, "Creating a Literature Future for the Year 2000" (Augusta S. Kappner), is included. Team vision/mission statements and action plans are included for each of the following states/tribes/nations: Alaska, Hawaii, and Northern Mariana Islands; Arizona; California; Colorado; Florida, Maine, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, and North Carolina; Idaho; Illinois; Kansas; Michigan; Minnesota; Montana; Navajo Nation; Nevada; New Mexico; North Dakota; Oklahoma and the Cherokee Nation; Oregon; Texas; Utah; Washington, Wisconsin; and Wyoming. Exemplary adult education and literacy demonstration programs in California, Colorado, Arizona, and Minnesota are profiled. Appendixes constituting approximately 60% of this document contain the following: 1990 census data regarding the educational attainment and school enrollment and labor force status of American Indians/Alaska Natives; conference agenda; presenter/moderator and participants list; and tally of responses to conference evaluation forms. [More] Descriptors: Adult Basic Education, Adult Education, Adult Vocational Education, Alaska Natives

Young, William R., III (). New Mexico Dropout Study, 1977-78 and 1978-79. Based on surveys tallying statewide enrollment and dropout figures by grade, sex, ethnicity, school and district, of 83,832 students enrolled in 1977-78 in 147 schools in 86 districts, 9,059 students (9.75%) were dropouts; of 86,117 enrolled in 150 schools in 88 disricts in 1978-79, 8,069 students (8.56%) dropped out of school. For both years, grade 9 had the lowest dropout rate and grade 11 the highest. In 1977-78, 10.6% of males dropped out, as opposed to 8.8% of females; in 1978-79 the gap narrowed, with 9.2% for males and 7.9% for females. Pregnancy-caused dropouts increased slightly between the two years. Anglos had lowest dropout rates in both years (8.1% and 6.9%), while Native Americans had the highest (13.0% and 13.5%). Unlike Anglos or Hispanics, whose dropout rates peaked in grade 11 for both years, the rate for Native Americans peaked in grade 9 (1977-78) or 10 (1978-79). The Black dropout rate decreased substantially from 10.5% to 7.8%. Although districts with high minority enrollments often had high dropout rates, two such districts showed that this should not be assumed. Maximum dropout rates for districts increased between 1977-78 (17.3%) and 1978-79 (27.8%); number of districts with no dropouts increased from 3 to 4. Descriptors: American Indians, Black Students, Dropout Characteristics, Dropout Rate

Dubois, Betty Lou (). British-Tradition English in the American University. Lektos: Interdisciplinary Working Papers in Language Sciences, Special Issue. This paper describes the English language problems encountered by foreign students at New Mexico State University, students whose previous educational experiences have included extensive use of British English. Specifically dealt with are West African students having lived in a situation where "transplanted English" was introduced by administrators and military men, but did not succeed in eradicating the preexisting languages of the territories in question. Following a discussion of the historical and educational background of New Mexico State University, the foreign student background is described, and features that characterize the varieties of English spoken by these students are listed. Since few foreign students succeed in regular freshman English composition courses, the university has a special English program. Admission and placement of foreign students is discussed, and comparison is made with courses in Spanish for native Spanish-speaking Americans. Three basic needs are defined: (1) greater intelligibility in speech, (2) greater intelligibility in writing, and (3) a greater sociolinguistic range in terms of knowing the rules that govern interaction and conversation in American English. It is hoped that the existing English course for foreign students can be revised to meet these needs. [More] Descriptors: English (Second Language), Foreign Students, Higher Education, Language Attitudes

New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. (). Indian Resource Development. Annual Report 1982-1983. During the 1982-83 fiscal year, Indian Resource Development (IRD) continued to work to fulfill its mission of assisting Indian tribes to gain effective control and management of the development of their natural resources by providing a cadre of educated and experienced Indian people to fill technical and management positions. Headquartered at New Mexico State University (NMSU), IRD works with Indian students and tribes throughout the state by encouraging the students to attend the university of their choice and major in natural resource related fields such as agriculture, veterinary medicine, forestry, fish and wildlife, geosciences, physical sciences, computer science, engineering, economics, statistics, management, or business. The annual report covers: recruitment and retention; student services (financial aid information and retention services); cognitive development; high school orientation (staff, student recruitment and selection, assessment, learning skills, special events, program evaluation); work experience for students; business (seminar, trust and real property management); College of Engineering at NMSU, Native American Program at UNM; agriculture; contacts (colleges and universities, Indian tribes, organizations and companies, government entities, and support); and institute development (the conversion of IRD to a stand alone unit under the College of Agriculture, funding, Indian advisory committee). Appendices include information material distributed, form letters, letters of support, and lists of student participants. Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indians, Career Guidance, College School Cooperation

New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. (). Indian Resource Development and Internship Program. Annual Report 1981-1982. The Indian Resource Development and Internship (IRDI) Program marked its seventh year by continuing to assist Indian tribes in developing a managerial, professional, and scientific corps of American Indians through college academic education and related practical work experience. Participants attended universities and pursued majors of their choice, considering tribal needs and individual interests. Following the introduction and a brief history of IRDI, the 1981-82 annual report covers: transition to a new leadership (permanent staff and program); recruitment of Indian high school and college (undergraduate and graduate) students; student services (financial aid information, retention, tutoring and counseling, etc.); work experience through part-time, work study, summer jobs, internships, co-op assignments, and employment assistance; student seminars (high school orientation and business seminar), and adult seminars (Indian women's professional advancement, real property seminar), and agricultural and economic development activities). Other topics of the report include: program support from Trust and Real Property Management, College of Engineering, Native American Engineering Program, institutions, tribes, and organizations; institute development (history, strategy, support, and future); advisory committees; New Mexico 1982-83 legislation; and proposal to the W. K. Kellogg Foundation. Numerous appendices include examples of letters, job descriptions, lists of participants, etc. Descriptors: Adult Programs, Advisory Committees, Agriculture, American Indian Education

Boyd, Victoria; Fitzgibbon, Kathleen (1993). Superintendents of Small Districts and School Improvement: Planning, Providing Resources and Professional Development, Issues about Change. This newsletter provides examples from four small, rural school districts of how innovative superintendents plan and provide resources and provide staff development, which are two of the six ways that school administrators effect change. The superintendents are located in a small poor district in the Arkansas Mississippi Delta region, a primarily Hispanic small city in northeastern New Mexico, a small rural K-12 school in Oklahoma, and a northeastern Oklahoma district in which 75 percent of students are Native American. Interviews with the four superintendents describe how they go about implementing their visions of school improvement by identifying important educational needs or deficiencies, by aggressively searching for supplemental funding, and by promoting staff development opportunities that involve teachers in the change process. The superintendents offer guidelines and advice to other administrators implementing change in small or rural school districts. Tips include: identify special needs and select programs for needs; utilize available state and service agency resources; identify school budget funding resources; subscribe to the "Federal Register"; write and submit grant proposals; train staff for grant writing; survey needs of parents; replicate successful programs; identify and visit model schools; assist in passage of bond issues; network with colleagues; work with local higher education institutions; conduct workshops; and use available community resources. Contains 10 references. [More] Descriptors: Administrator Role, Change Agents, Change Strategies, Educational Change

National Advisory Council on Indian Education, Washington, DC. (). Academic Performance. INAR/NACIE Joint Issues Sessions. National Indian Education Association (NIEA) Annual Conference (22nd, San Diego, California, October 15, 1990). This report summarizes two joint sessions held by the Indian Nations At Risk Task Force and the National Advisory Council on Indian Education to hear testimony on issues related to the academic performance of Native American students. Educators, employers, parents, and tribal officials testified on the following topics: Native students' high dropout rates and lack of basic skills; low teacher expectations of Native students; high Native unemployment rates; lack of teacher accountability in both public and Bureau of Indian Affairs schools; the failure of the educational system to address differences in learning styles; high Native failure rates on the New Mexico high school competency test, resulting in ineligibility for a diploma or state job; test bias; alternative student evaluation strategies; the overrepresentation of Native students in special education; labeling and self-fulfilling prophesies; positive expectations and recognizing success; parent participation; the question of college preparation versus vocational education; recruitment of Native students to college; and the importance of integrating Native culture into the curriculum. A principal described his own research and findings on hemispheric specialization and cognitive style among Indian and other minority students. Promising educational strategies are described, involving integrated curriculum, cooperative learning, application of special education methods, training of teacher aides, and extracurricular activities as a motivator. [More] Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Academic Failure, American Indian Education, American Indians

Chavez, Rudolpho Chavez; And Others (). Pre-Service Students' Perspectives to "Dilemmas" in a Multicultural Education Course. Draft. The teacher education program at New Mexico State University requires all undergraduate preservice teachers to enroll in a multicultural education course. This study was conducted to assess students' ideas, beliefs, and attitudes about multicultural issues, and to determine how the course may affect their view of the world. Two newspaper articles of national import were chosen to serve as "dilemmas." The first article described the protest by a group of Native Americans against the Atlanta Braves' fans use of the "tomahawk chop"; the second dilemma concerned the use of Indian symbols by athletic teams. At the beginning of the semester, participants (N=65) were presented with the first dilemma and asked to write their reactions, thoughts, and opinions. At the end of the semester, students were asked to perform the same task with the second dilemma. Data analysis revealed that a majority of students entered the course with a linear perspective of the world; that their attitudes and beliefs largely reflected the racial status quo; and for the most part, that the course had little effect on students' developing perspectives. It was concluded that to construct more socially and culturally sensitive perceptions, educational strategies are needed to confront three knowledge domains: the personal, the historical, and the ideological and cultural. Copies of the newspaper articles are appended. (Contains 45 references.) [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Attitude Change, Attitude Measures, Course Evaluation

Gilbert, W. Sakiestewa (). School, College and University Partnership. The majority of Native American students in Arizona and New Mexico experience inferior elementary and secondary educations. They attend small rural schools with limited resources in remote locations on or near reservations. Poverty and unemployment rates are high. Northern Arizona University, the Navajo and Hopi Tribes, Northern Arizona Education Association, and the U.S. Department of Education have joined in a partnership to address these issues. The partnership supports a program to increase computer literacy and career awareness and to decrease dropout rates among rural educationally disadvantaged students. The school year component of the project features: (1) training of up to five teachers per school from seven target schools in the areas of high school retention, parent involvement, student career and personal development, and teaching of critical thinking skills; (2) on-reservation sessions to train parents to help their children academically and to deal effectively with teachers and the school district; (3) counseling and mentoring related to career and college preparation; and (4) installation of computer assisted instructional laboratories on the Navajo and Hopi reservations. The program's summer component, Nizhoni Camp, is a 5-week session at Northern Arizona University. This program introduces high school sophomores and juniors to the rigors of university life while improving specific skills identified as conducive to success in college. Nizhoni Camp's courses and workshops are described. Descriptors: American Indian Education, Career Guidance, College Preparation, College School Cooperation

Cummings, Tom (). The Report of Engineering Special Programs July 1, 1983-June 30, 1984. In an effort to achieve ethnic parity for underrepresented minorities at the University of New Mexico College of Engineering, precollege and undergraduate programs were developed to recruit and retain Hispanic and American Indian students. The Math, Engineering, and Science Achievement (MESA) program is a coherent, longitudinal program organized to increase awareness and motivation in bright minority Algebra I students and to support their interest through high school graduation and university matriculation. It provides such student services and activities as short on-campus college/engineering orientation programs; tutoring; academic, university, and career counseling; field trips; summer enrichment and employment programs; and scholarship incentive awards. The undergraduate program supports minority students through the Hispanic Engineering Professional Advisory Committee and the Hispanic Engineering Organization, the Native American Program/College of Engineering, and the College of Engineering tutoring program available to all engineering freshmen. Comprehensive tabular data indicate student ethnic breakdowns for program participation, college enrollment, degree received, and sex. Figures for corporate contributions and federal funding are included. Descriptors: American Indians, Black Students, College Preparation, Engineering Education

McCarty, T. L.; And Others (). Of Mother Earth and Father Sky: A Photographic Study of Navajo Culture. Utilizing 52 black and white photographs, the book tells a story about the Navajo people, their hopes and problems, the strategies they have adopted to cope with the problems, their interactions with each other and with the land, and their feelings about the land which provides a basis for their livelihood. Part of a series of curriculum materials for Navajo and other Native American students, the book commences with a brief narrative of the Navajo's historical background. This brief narrative covers the Navajo's oral account of their emergence from a series of underworlds, presence in Dinetah ("Navajo homeland") in northern New Mexico, expansion into northeastern Arizona, conflicts with the settlers and other tribes, return to and resettlement of 3.5 million acres within their former range, and attempt to develop new economic alternatives. Next, the book provides 48 photographs depicting people, the land, the sky, and plant and animal life (e.g., a Rough Rock moonrise, cacti in bloom, juniper trees, the canyon walls of Rough Rock Springs, homestead of a Rough Rock councilman, a mud oven, goats and cattle, rock formations, and various community leaders). The book concludes with brief information about the photographer and a listing of 12 references. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indian History, American Indians, Community Leaders

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor. (). Oversight Hearings on Indian Education. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session (September 3, 5, 1980). The hearings dealt with Office of Indian Education (OIE) administration of the Indian Education Act, especially the part A entitlement grant process. Representatives from Title IV projects and Indian organizations (All Indian Pueblo Council; Gallup-McKinley County, New Mexico, Public Schools; Oregon Indian Education Association; Robeson County, North Carolina, Compensatory Indian Education Project; North Carolina Consortium on Indian Education; Native American Resource Program; Indian Parent Committee, Waterford, Michigan) noted problems with the administration of the fiscal 1980 grant process, including poor cash flow, reduced involvement of Indian parents with their children's education, reduced funding because of the program's "cost guide," local program cancellation, ambiguous certification forms, inconsistent and contradictory rulings, lack of technical assistance, and poor communications. Department of Education and OIE representatives responded to critical testimony, stressing their offices' commitment to Indian Education and describing a new organizational arrangement to help create important links among different Federal programs serving American Indians. They outlined past operations and recent changes (regarding technical assistance, the cost guide, and application quality reviews) to promote improved operations regarding title IV part A. The project and organization representatives outlined some as yet unsolved problems within the Department of Education and OIE. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indians, Elementary Secondary Education, Federal Aid

Immerman, Michael A. (). The Effect of Eliminating Time Restraints on a Standardized Test with American Indian Adults. To investigate the effect of time restraints on the diagnostic test scores of Native American students entering Bureau of Indian Affairs schools, two groups of students at Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI) in Albuquerque, New Mexico, were given the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test, (Blue Level), 1977 edition. The test scores indicated that the experimental group, with no time restraints, scored higher than the control group, which was required to finish the test under the time restrictions imposed by the test's authors. Also, a smaller percentage of students in the experimental group was assigned to the remedial reading laboratory. Therefore, it was recommended that the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test be given to SIPI students without the time limits suggested by the test's authors for the following reasons: (1) it would allow the SIPI students the additional time necessary for a second language speaker to interpret the question both in the specific Indian language and English; (2) it would minimize group testing which creates an aura of competition and is not encouraged in many Indian cultures; (3) it would allow an individual to be tested without constant monitoring by an instructor; (4) it would not emphasize "time stress" which is avoided in many Indian cultures; (5) it would remove the additional test anxiety created by time limits. Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, American Indians, Comparative Analysis

Lopez, Maria Cristina; And Others (). Menopause, a Self Care Manual. Written for women from the three main cultural groups in New Mexico (Native American, Hispanic, and Anglo), this pamphlet discusses the causes and symptoms, some remedies for the symptoms of menopause, and presents ideas for organizing support groups to help middle-aged women and their families deal with menopausal problems. Explanations of the female reproductive system and the role of hormones precede a discussion of common symptoms which some women experience during the menopausal years and some of the misconceptions about negative reactions. Possible treatments to alleviate symptoms include estrogen replacement therapy, Kegel exercises, natural and home remedies, diet and exercise, and proper medical attention. Discussions of birth control include various methods of contraception and sterilization and the possible advantages and disadvantages of each. Based on experiences of the authors with previous groups, steps are given for organizing and conducting supportive workshops which can provide women with knowledge about the realities of menopause. A bibliography and a list of sources for relevant pamphlets are also included. Descriptors: Cancer, Contraception, Developmental Stages, Discussion Groups

Martin, William E., Jr.; O'Connell, Joanne Curry (). Pueblo Indian Vocational Rehabilitation Services Study. As part of a study to improve delivery of services to disabled Native Americans residing in the 18 Pueblos of New Mexico, this report specifies the methods used to develop the interview instrument and the training activities that were conducted, presents results obtained from interviews with 117 disabled Pueblo residents, and makes recommendations for future Division of Vocational Rehabilitation (DVR) initiatives. Five categories of issues/needs emerged from the interview data: communications, jobs, transportation, relocation, and resources. Recommendations developed for the DVR to address these needs include: (1) continue liaison between the Pueblos and DVR counselors through a continued/expanded role for Rehabilitation Technicians; (2) develop/implement an awareness program in the Pueblos regarding rights and needs of disabled individuals; (3) plan/implement meetings to provide information to department counselors regarding the Pueblos and their unique cultural characteristics to improve counselors' effectiveness; (4) identify major employers in the Pueblos and conduct an educational awareness program targeted at potential employers; (5) adopt a strategy of interaction that results in a consistent/predictable schedule of on-site office hours to facilitate access to vocational rehabilitation counselors; and (6) establish community councils within the Pueblos that have representation from state and local service providers, tribal officials, and consumers of services. [More] Descriptors: Adult Education, Adults, American Indian Education, American Indians

Stout, Steven Owen (). English Non-Uniformity: A Non-Adult Form of Ethnic English. The paper examines interpretive aspects of English non-uniformity among fifth and sixth grade Native Americans at Laguna Elementary School, Laguna, New Mexico. Speaker assessments of instances of uninflected "be" are ordered to form an implicational scale. The variability in the students' assessment pattern is compared to previous inter-ethnic testing and scaling. Considerable lack of mid-range progressions is documented in the response population. Two polar groups of students are identified by the patterning of their assessments. Although social variables are reported not to condition this non-uniformity, the addition of assessments from adult community members fills in mid-range progressions. This suggests either that non-adults can start at two ends of the constructed English continuum and still converge in a common lectal area as adults, or that rapid linguistic change has caused non-adults to diverge from adult patterns or standards. Practical aspects of non-uniformity and developmental or change stages thereof are potentially far-reaching for curriculum planning, development of instructional strategies and techniques of measurement and evaluation. Additional kinds of questions are raised, and data sources necessary for further interpretive exploration are identified. Descriptors: American Indians, Bilingualism, Child Language, Dialect Studies

Civikly, Jean M.; Plax, Timothy G. (). The Effects of Information Exposure Activities on Attitudinal Changes Among Co-Culturals: Some Preliminary Findings. To examine the effect of various activities and interactions on the attitudes of members of co-cultures toward each other was the purpose of this study. The research was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, semantic differential scales were developed for the measurement of attitudes toward co-cultures. Each of five sets of scales was used to measure perceptions of a different cultural group: black, Chicano, native American, Anglo, and Filipino. The data were collected from 89 students enrolled in basic speech communication courses at the University of New Mexico. The students were randomly selected and instructed to indicate their feelings about each cultural group as accurately as they could for each scale. The findings indicated that similar factor structures were found when measuring the perceptions of co-cultures together or separately. In the second stage, attitudinal changes across activities and cultures were measured. A group of six Anglo and six Chicano subjects engaged in a series of four co-cultural activities, and subjects also responded individually to attitude scales. The findings indicated that there is no difference in the effects of certain co-cultural information activities on attitude changes toward other cultures. [More] Descriptors: Attitudes, Communication (Thought Transfer), Cultural Differences, Cultural Influences

Norris, Robert (). Assessing Knowledge of Cultures. The procedures used in a study to determine how well a group of American Indian college students understood their traditional and modern cultures and a college Caucasian culture were explained in this paper. The sample consisted of 111 Indian students enrolled in the University of New Mexico. The students were tested in the areas of knowledge of the decision-making process in a traditional Indian culture, knowledge of a modern college culture, and knowledge of the decision-making processes for a Native American college student as they might differ from those of the older, more traditional Indian culture. The results were then compared with the answers of experts in the cultures. In analyzing the test results, it was found that no appreciable difference occurred because of sex, amount of Indian blood, tribal affiliation, or class in school. The students comprised a homogeneous group for the representation of the values of the present generation culture. When the students were asked to respond as they themselves felt, they indicated a high degree of reliance on their own opinions; but when they were asked to respond as though they were members of a particular culture, they tended to rely more on other people to help them make decisions. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, College Students, Cultural Awareness, Decision Making

Shainline, Michael (). High School Dropouts 1986-87. District Report. The district dropout rate for the Albuquerque Public Schools (APS) for school year 1986-87 was 8.03 percent. Because the New Mexico State Department of Education changed the categories for reporting the reason why a student dropped out, it is difficult to compare this figure to the 1985-86 rate. At the end of every school year the State Department of Education requires that each diploma-granting high school in the state complete and submit a High School Dropout Report. Information provided in the report must include the following: (1) number of high school dropouts at each grade level, categorized by gender, ethnicity, and reason for dropping out; and (2) the 180-day membership at each grade level, categorized by gender and ethnicity. Analysis of the data includes the following: (1) the dropout rates by ethnic group were: White, 6.95 percent; Black, 8.47 percent; Hispanic, 9.61 percent; Native American, 9.68 percent; and Asian and others, 6.18 percent; (2) dropout rates for ninth through twelfth grades were 6.54 percent, 8.51 percent, 9.46 percent, and 7.72 percent, respectively; and (3) males dropped out at a rate of 7.99 percent, while females dropped out at a rate of 7.98 percent. Statistical data are reported on 7 tables and 6 graphs. Descriptors: American Indians, Asian Americans, Black Students, Dropout Characteristics

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs. (). Oversight of the Indian Education Act. Hearing before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on Oversight of the Indian Education Act (Phoenix, AZ, December 6, 1984). The Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs met in Phoenix, Arizona, to hear the testimony of tribal witnesses in order to obtain tribal participation in the committee's national Indian policy. Thirty-seven representatives of tribal education organizations spoke about the Title IV programs of the Indian Education Act and the elementary and secondary education programs of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). In general, testimony concerned the need for continued and increased funding to insure equal educational opportunities for Native American students and the relationships among public, contract, and BIA programs for Indian students. Topics included the impact of parent participation and cultural education components of Title IV, school attendance boundaries, school closure and consolidation, the poor condition of BIA facilities, and the need to attract and retain qualified BIA teachers. This report contains the witnesses'summary remarks before the committee followed by their complete prepared statements and other material submitted for the record. The majority of witnesses represented Navajo organizations in Arizona and New Mexico. Other tribes represented included Pueblo, Papago, Hopi, Apache, and Pima. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indian Reservations, American Indians, Cultural Education

President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC. (). Mental Retardation: Prevention Strategies That Work. The report by the President's Committee on Mental Retardation reviews the current state of knowledge in the area of biological and environmental prevention of mental retardation and describes programs on the frontiers of research or service delivery. Section I examines programs that are effectively preventing mental retardation through biomedical intervention. Subsections consider genetics (including genetic counseling and screening of newborn infants), perinatal intensive care, and immunization. Programs at Columbia University, Memphis (Tennessee), and the Rose F. Kennedy Center for Mental Retardation and Human Development are noted. Considered in Section II are environmental prevention programs with discussion of preparation for parenthood, programs for mothers and children, mother training programs, infant and toddler stimulation, home teaching programs, Head Start, and elementary school programs. Project Impact, a program to help low income and minority individuals prevent mental retardation and a Taos (New Mexico) program to prevent mental retardation among native Americans are highlighted. Multifactorial conditions such as teenage pregnancy, nutrition, and lead poisoning are the focus of Section 3. Highlighted are two programs at the University of Alabama. Prevention resources are considered in the final major section and include the University Affiliated Facilities' activities in mental retardation research centers, and maternal and child health prevention programs and special initiatives. States with particularly good programs in the areas of prevention, genetic screening, and early casefinding are identified. Also included are the previous recommendations on prevention by the Committee, a summary of the report, and the Committee Resolution on Prevention which advocates a vigorous national prevention effort. [More] Descriptors: Biological Influences, Biomedicine, Delivery Systems, Demonstration Programs

Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Rural Health Policy. (). Rural Health: The Story of Outreach. A Program of Cooperation in Health Care. Rural Health Outreach is a federal program of demonstration grants designed to encourage organizations to cooperate in delivering health care services to rural Americans. Thirteen programs utilizing innovative collaborations between state agencies, schools, nonprofit organizations, hospitals, volunteers, and the private sector are described a year into their work. On Virginia's Delmarva Peninsula, check-ups were provided to middle school students at school. In North Dakota, ambulance volunteers received training. A consortium of community mental health centers in 13 Oregon counties accessed help from specialists via satellite. Mobile prenatal care was provided in two northwestern Pennsylvania counties. Alaska Natives were trained to be physician assistants in their rural villages. In- and out-patient hospice services were established in Grundy County, Iowa. An Ohio school district provided mental health counseling to students and families at school or home. A family planning service was upgraded to provide full-time primary care service at two sites on Oahu (Hawaii). Financial counseling and aid was provided at public health sites throughout western Wisconsin. A new telecommunications network enabled physicians at Maine health centers to update their learning and consult one another. Native American culture was incorporated into mental health therapy addressing high alcoholism and school dropout rates in a New Mexico town. A northeast Oklahoma consortium coordinated and complemented the region's elderly services. Health education programs in schools combated teen pregnancy and a new van transported clients to clinics for prenatal care in two Alabama counties. Descriptors: Access to Health Care, Agency Cooperation, Allied Health Occupations Education, Child Health

Peshkin, Alan (). Places of Memory: Whiteman's Schools and Native American Communities. Sociocultural, Political, and Historical Studies in Education. "Indian High School" is a nonpublic off-reservation boarding school in New Mexico serving over 400 American Indian students. The large majority of the students come from the 19 Pueblo tribes, whose governors appoint school board members with authority to hire all personnel. The Bureau of Indian Affairs provides funding but acknowledges Pueblo rights to local control. Based on 3 years of qualitative research at Indian High School, this book focuses on the lives of Pueblo adolescents in school and seeks to explain why they achieve only limited academic success, despite the school's relatively abundant resources, its congenial atmosphere for Indian students, the good intentions of school personnel, and the aspirations of parents and students. A central theme in this exploration is the dual-world character of students' lives. At home, Pueblo students learn to place their tribal communities at the center of their loyalty, affect, responsibility, and support. But they attend a school whose origins and rationale are in non-Indian society. It is a school designed for becoming effective in mainstream America, an effectiveness that Pueblo students and their parents accept as requisite for their economic well-being. However, this process of becoming economically effective is problematic and ambiguous for Pueblo students as it often clashes with traditional cultural ideals that are at the heart of Pueblo communities' struggle for cultural survival. Contains 193 references and subject and author indexes. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, Cultural Differences

Gale, Nancy (). Strong Tribal Identity Can Protect Native American Youth. How Can We Help?. Research suggests that Indian youth who identify strongly with a specific tribal culture or with family members who maintain traditional Indian values are much less likely to be at risk for alcohol and drug abuse. This booklet describes four tribal programs that seek to increase the tribal identity of adolescents. Each of these programs emphasizes a sense of belonging among participants and sponsors activities that are drug and alcohol-free. On the Wind River Reservation (Wyoming), Shoshone and Arapahoe teenagers have built a living history village. Youth who have learned their tribal traditions dress in traditional clothing and operate the village as a tourist attraction. At Fort Peck Reservation (Montana), Assiniboine and Sioux youth give away star quilts made by their families during traditional ceremonies. Both giving and receiving a quilt are great honors. In San Juan Pueblo (New Mexico), several adults teach young people traditional dances, drumming, composing, language skills, and costume and moccasin making. The community dance group has performed internationally, and former dancers have become community leaders and new role models for youth. For two years the Gila River Indian Community (Arizona), with support from United National Indian Tribal Youth, has operated the Akimel O'Odham/Pee-Posh Tribal Youth Council. This 14-member youth council is a replica of the tribe's governing body and has the responsibility of advising tribal officials. [More] Descriptors: Adolescents, American Indian Culture, Community Programs, Identification (Psychology)

Baldwin, Barbara, Ed. (1995). Pathways from Poverty, Western Wire. Articles in this theme issue are based on presentations at the Pathways from Poverty Workshop held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, on May 18-25, 1995. The event aimed to foster development of a network to address rural poverty issues in the Western Rural Development Center (WRDC) region. Articles report on outcomes from the Pathways from Poverty workshop including team plans for addressing poverty in their area; the importance of social capital in building community; Native American economic development efforts that incorporate sustainability and cultural relevance; the effect of capitalism on the Palau islands; how sharing resources has enabled low-income families in American Samoa to maintain economic stability; demographic, economic, and educational factors that affect the status of Latinos in the United States, with implications for the American economy; a study of single-parent families and welfare reform; rural minorities and the relationship between employment and poverty; and the importance of rural studies in gaining understanding of rural poverty. Articles include: (1) "Pathways from Poverty" (Jane Brass); (2) "Social Capital" (Marie Cirillo); (3) "The Circle of Development and Indigenous Peoples" (Sherry Salway Black); (4) "Palauan Perspective" (Ayano Baules); (5) "Poverty: A Matter of Values" (Carol S. Whitaker); (6) "Focus on Latinos" (Refugio I. Rochin, Jose A. Rivera); (7) "Is Marriage the Solution? The Single-Parent Family and Welfare Reform" (Janet M. Fitchen); (8) "Employment Hardship and Rural Minorities" (Leif Jensen); and (9) "The Social Scientist and Rural America" (Emery N. Castle). The journal also includes updates on projects sponsored by WRDC and upcoming conferences. [More] Descriptors: Adult Education, Capitalism, Change Strategies, Community Development

McKenney, James F. (). AACJC/Metropolitan Life Foundation Registered Nurse Shortage Project: Status Report. The American Association of Community and Junior Colleges's Nurse Shortage Project was designed to alleviate the nurse shortage by helping community colleges improve recruitment, retention, and graduation in nursing programs through direct mini-grants, with a special emphasis on Tech Prep/Associate Degree initiatives between secondary schools and community colleges. Mini-grants of an average $8,000 were awarded for the following projects: "Minority High School Apprentice Program in Nursing" (Florida Community College [CC] at Jacksonville); "Promoting Career Opportunities in Nursing to the Minority and Male Population of Galveston" (Galveston College, Texas); "Hocking Technical College Career Ladder Nursing Opportunity Program" (Ohio); "2 + 2 High School/College Nursing Education Program" (Kauai CC, Hawaii); "Language Enrichment for Nursing Students" (LaGuardia CC, New York); "Salish Kootenai College Project for Recruitment and Retention of Native Americans in Associate Degree Nursing" (Montana); "Production of Two High Interest, Four-Minute Videos to Recruit Under-Represented High School Students into Nursing" (Santa Barbara City College, California); "A Proposal to Facilitate the Upward Career Mobility of Licensed Practical Nurses to Complete the Associate Degree and Registered Nurse Requirements" (Umpqua CC, Oregon); "Nursing Tech-Prep Career Ladder Completion Project Emphasizing Minority/Male Success" (Washtenaw CC, Michigan); "Registered Nurse Shortage Project at Wytheville CC" (Virginia); "A Project to Increase Admission, Retention, and Graduation Potential of Minority Nursing Students" (CC of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania); "Marshalltown High School – Marshalltown CC Tech Prep Nursing Curriculum Project" (Iowa); "Multiple Entry Nursing Career Ladder" (Monroe CC, New York); "Accelerated Curriculum–Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) to Registered Nurse (RN)" (New Mexico Junior College). This status report provides a 1- to 2-page summary of the objectives and results of the 10 Round One college projects, and brief summaries of the proposals for the 9 Round Two projects. [More] Descriptors: Articulation (Education), Career Ladders, Community Colleges, Cooperative Planning

Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div. (). [Statistical Profiles and Characteristics of the American Indian Population: 1980 Census.]. This packet includes six statistical profiles of American Indians and Alaska Natives based on the 1980 census, and a report on 1990 census plans for Native Americans. Three general profiles outline statistics on: (1) the American Indian population as a whole; (2) selected characteristics of American Indian men; and (3) selected characteristics of American Indian women. Each of these profiles contains bar graphs illustrating statistics on total population, regional population, media age, educational attainment, families maintained by men and women, unemployment rates, labor force participation rates, median family income, poverty rates, and occupations. The first profile also provides statistics on population distribution of American Indians in the United States as a whole and in the 10 largest American Indian reservations. "A Statistical Profile of the American Indian Population for the Top Ten States with the Largest Number of American Indians: 1980" compares many of the above items for California, Oklahoma, Arizona, New Mexico, North Carolina, Washington, South Dakota, Michigan, Texas, New York, and the United States. "A Statistical Profile of the American Indian Population for the Top Ten Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs) with the Largest Number of American Indians: 1980" compares data for the metropolitan areas of Los Angeles, Tulsa, Oklahoma City, Phoenix, Albuquerque, San Francisco, San Bernadino, Seattle, Minneapolis, and Tucson. "Educational Characteristics for the American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut Population in the United States: 1980" details information on school enrollment by age and educational level and on high school and college graduates by age and sex. "1990 Census Plans for American Indians and Alaska Natives" outlines outreach and planning efforts, the tribal and village liaison program, goals for census data products, the local review program, and geographic issues. Descriptors: Alaska Natives, American Indian Reservations, American Indians, Census Figures

Shainline, Michael (). Cohort Survival and Withdrawal Study District Report. At the completion of the 1986-87 school year, the Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public Schools (APS) conducted a cohort survival and withdrawal study to follow-up 5,976 students who had begun the ninth grade within the district in 1983-84. Current records were matched with those from the 1983-84 school year to determine whether members of the identified cohort had graduated, were still enrolled within the APS, had dropped out, or had transferred to another school district. Findings indicate that: (1) 61.8% of the students had graduated from the APS; (2) 7.9% were still enrolled in the APS program; (3) 19.6% had dropped out (21.3% of the identified males and 17.9% of the females had dropped out); (4) although 8.4% more males than females began the ninth grade in the APS in 1983-84, 8.6% more females than males graduated by the end of the 1986-87 school year; (5) Eldorado High School had the highest percentage of students who had either graduated or were still enrolled, followed by Sandia and Valley high schools; and (6) Albuquerque High School had the lowest percentage of students who had either graduated or were still enrolled, followed by West Mesa and Highland high schools. The cohort dropout rates by ethnicity were: Asian and other–12.9%; Anglo–16.3%; Black–22.9%; Hispanic–23.8%; and Native American–29.3%. Ten percent of the cohort had transferred to other school districts; 24% of these students transferred to districts within the state, while 76% transferred outside the state. Three data tables and three graphs are provided. Descriptors: American Indians, Asian Americans, Black Students, Cohort Analysis

Pavel, D. Michael; Colby, Anita Y. (). American Indians in Higher Education: The Community College Experience. ERIC Digest. The educational approaches, programs, and services developed for American Indians at both tribal colleges and non-tribal community colleges can be used as models by other institutions seeking to serve minority populations better. The community college is an important avenue for American Indians pursuing postsecondary degrees; in 1988, 50,400 of the 92,000 American Indians enrolled in higher education were attending two-year colleges, and associate degrees constituted nearly 40% of the total number of degrees conferred to American Indians in 1989-90. While several of the 25 tribal colleges award baccalaureate and master's degrees, and one is a university, these institutions, like community colleges, are among the most community-responsive in higher education. The success of tribal colleges can be attributed to their combining distinctive cultural elements with a pragmatic approach to education. Because instructors act as agents of Indian history, language, and culture, students learn that their communities' beliefs have great value, while simultaneously acquiring the skills necessary for future educational and occupational endeavors. Tribal colleges also experiment with culturally conscious approaches to instruction, emphasizing visual and cooperative learning. Among the non-Indian community colleges that have been especially responsive to Indian students are: (1) San Juan College (New Mexico), which has developed a set of interrelated services that attract and retain American Indians; (2) American River College (California), which has created the Mathematics, Engineering, and Science Achievement/Minority Engineering Program; and (3) Truman College (Illinois), which has developed the Institute for Native American Development. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indians, College Role, Community Colleges

Spolsky, Bernard (). American Indian Bilingual Education. Navajo Reading Study Progress Report No. 24. Bilingual education programs have been established in such Native American languages as Aleut, Yupik, Tlingit, Haida, Athabaskan, Cherokee, Lakota, Navajo, Papago, Pomo, Passamaquoddy, Seminole, Tewa, and Zuni. These programs include the: Choctaw Bilingual Education Program, Northern Cheyenne Bilingual Education Program, Lakota Bilingual Education Project, Rough Rock Demonstration School Bilingual/Bicultural Project, Ramah Navajo High School Bilingual Education Program, Papago Bilingual Education Program, Seminole Bilingual Project; San Juan Pueblo Tewa Bilingual Project, and Wisconsin Native American Languages Project. These programs are funded by three main sources of Federal funds–the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I, the 1968 ESEA Title VII (Bilingual Education Act), and Title IV of the 1972 Education Amendments (Indian Education Act). A model proposed for the description and analysis of bilingual programs tries to map all relevant factors onto a single integrated structure and to suggest some of the lines of interaction (see RC 009 343). This report describes 17 of the currently existing Native American Bilingual Education programs. Using the proposed model (which is briefly described) as a guide, the differences among the 17 programs are discussed. [More] Descriptors: Alaska Natives, American Indian Languages, American Indians, Bilingual Education

Leonard, Olen; Loomis, C. P. (). Culture of a Contemporary Rural Community: El Cerrito, New Mexico. Rural Life Studies: 1, November 1941. Located on the Pecos River in San Miguel County, El Cerrito (New Mexico) was a culturally stable rural community. Almost a cultural island, its inhabitants were of native or Spanish American stock, descendants of conquistadores who mixed their blood with that of the indigenous population. Religion and the Catholic church had a profound influence on the people. This was shown in their thinking, attitudes and values, and day-to-day activities. The family had a strong influence on the community. When the village was first settled, it was completely surrounded by enough grass land to support sheep and cattle to afford the people an independent livelihood. The community was almost a complete and independent socioeconomic unit, depending on the outside world for a market for its wool and to supply certain material items not produced or made at home. However, over the last quarter-century, El Cerrito had suffered severely due to loss of a large portion of the land which supported it. Loss of local resources failed to disturb the village or its people while outside employment offered a substantial wage. It was only after this resource also gave way that continued existence of the old way of life was threatened. Its preference for cultural isolation and its lack of technological knowledge did not allow El Cerrito to meet the competition of other producing areas. [More] Descriptors: Adjustment (to Environment), Community Characteristics, Community Study, Cultural Context

Edington, Everett D. (). Educational and Occupational Aspirations and Expectations for Native American Youth in New Mexico. Levels of educational and occupational aspiration and expectation of 139 male and female, rural, New Mexican, American Indian youth (sophomores and seniors) were examined. Utilizing questionnaires and fixed-choice stimulus questions, data were gathered to determine: educational and occupational aspirations and expectations; goal deflections for education and occupation; male and female differences for educational and occupational aspirations, expectations, and deflection; 10th and 12th grade comparisons for educational and occupational aspirations, expectations, and deflection; and the existence of interactions among grade level and sex on educational and occupational aspirations, expectations, and deflection. Results indicated: female educational aspirations were stable for 10th and 12th grades, while male aspirations at the 10th grade level were significantly below those of female sophomores and senior males (the same trend was operative for the educational expectation measure and there was no significant goal deflection); both male and female senior occupational aspirations were significantly higher than those of the sophomore group, but while there were no significant differences between the groups, there was significant goal deflection among senior females; educational and occupational aspirations and expectations within each group did not deflect significantly except among female seniors. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Aspiration, College Seniors, Comparative Analysis

Save the Children, Albuquerque, NM. (). Caring, Coping, Change: Challenges for the 80's. A Report of the National Indian Child Conference (4th, Albuquerque, New Mexico, September 12-16, 1982). The report of the fourth National Indian Child Conference (1982), sponsored by Save the Children, contains a statistical portrait of the American Indian child, synopses of 7 major presentations and 64 workshops, recommendations, a conference evaluation, and lists of conference staff, presenters, and tribal representation. Topics of major presentations are traditional Indian medicine; ways to teach children a Native American perspective; microcomputers in education; trends in education; Save the Children; family day care; and leadership. Workshop topics include self-esteem, creative writing, community planning, cultural awareness/preservation, handicapped children, suicide prevention, mental health programs, parenting, bilingual education, adult education, child abuse, fund raising, local school boards, teenage pregnancy, preventative health education, early childhood education, gifted children, and substance abuse and therapy. Recommendations presented are for increased funding for Indian Child Welfare Act programs; improved communication between federal agencies affecting Indian children; opposition to closure of the Southwestern Indian Polytechnical Institute and other Indian schools; dissemination of information regarding the 1982 Indian Housing Act to Indian communities; continued pre-kindergarten programs through Indian Student Equalization Programs; increased community involvement in planning preventative health education curriculum; school-age parenting classes and child care in Indian communities; and encouraging use of native foods through the schools. Descriptors: Adult Education, Alcohol Education, American Indian Education, American Indians

Hyer, Sally (). One House, One Voice, One Heart: Native American Education at the Santa Fe Indian School. This book and a related museum exhibition grew out of a student oral history project on the history of the Santa Fe Indian School, 1890-1990, and the role of the school in the development of Indian communities in New Mexico. Numerous interview excerpts and photographs portray life at the school during historical periods covered in four chapters: 1890-1929, 1930-45, 1946-62, and 1963-90. The first chapter describes how the school's original purpose, education and acculturation of American Indian (primarily Pueblo) children, was pursued through forced attendance, military-type training, hard work, and removal from all things Indian. In the 1930s, the institution began to be seen as a community school, and Indian students came to the school out of choice rather than coercion. By the 1930s, reforms in federal policy resulted in improved conditions due to funding increases; the abolition of marching; updated vocational education programs; classes in American Indian art, culture, and history; student self-government; and Indian representation on the staff. After World War II, there was a national shift back to an assimilationist approach to Indian education, but the school had become a local tradition by then; the nostalgic comments by students and teachers do not reveal these national policy shifts. In 1957, the vocational program was abolished, and in 1962, the school was closed and turned over the to the Institute of American Indian Arts in spite of protest from school employees and the All Pueblo Council. In 1977, the newly reorganized All Indian Pueblo Council contracted with the Bureau of Indian Affairs to operate the Albuquerque Indian School and in 1981, successfully petitioned to relocate the school to the Santa Fe Indian School. The final chapter describes current conditions and student opinions of the school. Also included are an essay "The Path to Self-Determination: American Indian Education, 1940-1990" (Margaret Connell Szasz), many photographs, a description of the oral history project, recommended reading and viewing, a selected bibliography, and an index. Descriptors: Acculturation, American Indian Education, American Indian History, Boarding Schools

Ortiz, Roxanne Dunbar, Ed. (). American Indian Energy Resources and Development. University of New Mexico, Native American Studies, Development Series No. 2. One of a series of scholarly books published each year in the field of American Indian economic development, this volume contains two articles regarding the development of American Indian energy resources. In the first article, Richard Nafziger traces the exploitation of American Indian tribes by energy corporations whose main goal is overall profit maximization, achieved by such strategies as monopolizing supplies and markets, exercising political power, and transnational corporation formation. In contrast, tribal goals are to maximize local economic benefits from a particular mine while minimizing environmental, social, and cultural costs. Nafziger suggests strategies for challenging the energy industry's enormous power. In the second article, Lorraine Turner Ruffing reviews the limited progress of individual Indian tribes and of collectives (such as the Council of Energy Resource Tribes) in obtaining a fairer share of their mineral wealth. She notes the many obstacles facing the Indians, including the power of transnational corporations, the system of American contract law, American misconceptions of the energy crisis, and Indian reluctance to share information among themselves. Ruffing suggests the formation of a coherent Tribal-level mineral policy as a significant strategy for increasing Indian income and control over mineral development. A guide to resource materials is included. Descriptors: American Indian Reservations, American Indians, Developing Nations, Economic Development

Egelston-Dodd, Judy, Ed. (). Windows – 97 on the New Standards. Monograph of Collected Papers from the Annual Conference of the Association of College Educators–Deaf and Hard of Hearing (23rd, Santa Fe, New Mexico, March 7-10, 1997). This collection of 19 papers focuses on implications of the professional standards recently developed jointly by the Council for Exceptional Children and Council on Education of the Deaf (CEC/CED). The following papers are included: (1) "Introduction: Helping the Professorate Implement the Standards" (Judy Egelston-Dodd); (2) "CED Standards: Meeting Diverse Needs through Collaboration" (Kathee Christensen); (3) "Using Cases and Case Methods in Teacher Preparation in Deafness" (Mary Compton and Susan Shroyer); (4) "Distance Learning through Telelinking" (Karen L. Dilka and Deborah Haydon); (5) "Model of Formal Collaboration between Two State Universities: Meeting the Challenge of the CEC/CED Standards" (Susan Easterbrooks and Joan Laughton); (6) "A Framework for Exploring Students' Personal Cultures: A Tool for Use in IEP Development" (Ruth Fletcher and Doris Paez); (7) "Multicultural Education Applications for Teachers of the Deaf: Creating Culturally Responsive Curricula" (Barbara Gerner deGarcia); (8) "Teacher Trainees' Classroom Communication Preferences" (Tom Jones); (9) "Results of a National Survey of Reading Instruction" (Carol LaSasso); (10) "Test-Taking Abilities of Deaf Students: A Missing Component of the Curriculum" (Carol LaSasso); (11) "Parents as Partners: Preparing Deaf Children for Bi-Bi Programs" (Carol LaSasso and Melanie Metzger); (12) "Visual Activities Using the Internet: Enhancing Experiential Learning, Concept Development and Literacy" (Pamela Luft); (13) "Using Electronic Dialogue Journals To Model Whole Language Procedures" (Pamela Luft); (14) "Teacher Subject Matter Competencies in Mathematics: Where Do We Go From Here?" (Claudia Pagliaro); (15) "Parental Improvement: Deaf versus Hearing Children" (Gerald Powers); (16) "Speech/Language Pathologist or Teacher of Deaf/Hard of Hearing: Who Is More Qualified To Serve?" (Gerald Powers and Christopher L. Schwilk); (17) "Can I Read between the Lines: An Outsider's Reflection on the CEC/CED Standards" (Rosemary Saur); (18) "The Relationship between ASL Skill and English Literacy" (Michael Strong and Philip Prinz); and (19) "Multicultural Needs of Students Who are Deaf: The Bilingual Experiences of a Deaf Native American" (James Woodenlegs). Individual papers contain references. Descriptors: American Indians, American Sign Language, Concept Formation, Curriculum Development

Rodriguez, Richard F. (). Project BESTT: Bilingual/ESL Special Education Teacher Training. This final report describes the activities and outcomes of Project BESTT (Bilingual/ESL Special Education Teacher Training), a federally-funded program that provided training to 25 certified special education teachers selected from four rural school districts currently serving bilingual, minority group elementary children with disabilities. The immediate goal of the training program was to provide participating school districts with a quality trained cadre of bilingual special education personnel able to meet the unique cross-cultural and special education needs of culturally and linguistically diverse students in public school settings. The 25 participants included 7 Caucasians, 16 Hispanics, and 2 Native Americans. Two of the participants have an identified disability. The Project BESTT training curriculum involved the integration of bilingual, English as a Second Language (ESL), and special education course work into a 36 semester-hour, interdisciplinary, competency-based program of study leading to the Masters of Arts degree in Bilingual/Special Education. The program of study included a field experience. An evaluation of the training found that post-training scores of participants were higher on measures evaluating awareness of the educational needs of culturally and linguistically diverse students than teachers who had not participated. An appendix contains information on teacher competencies, course work, and training curriculum. [More] Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingual Students, Bilingual Teachers, Cultural Awareness

Pacific Training and Technical Assistance Corp., Berkeley, CA. (). Social Services: By and For Native Americans. Proceedings of a Conference of Eight Indian Research and Demonstration Projects (Santa Fe, New Mexico, June 7-9, 1978). Four panel presentations in full text are presented commenting on the following: an overview of national Indian strategy; goals and strategies of eight demonstration projects; a review of current federal legislation; and making services for American Indians culturally relevant in child placement, family support, and child care. Representatives, on the first panel, spoke on policy development in relation to human services for American Indians, presented the status of the Administration for Public Services, provided an overview of 11 Title XX projects, and described the role of the National Tribal Chairmen's Association in conducting the child welfare study. Project directors on the second panel described projects that deliver services (Ute Mountain Tribe, Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe, Boston Indian Council), are preparing to deliver services (Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, Michigan Inter-Tribal Council, Bureau of Social Services in Washington, D.C.) and focus on training and technical assistance to tribal leaders (Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona, North Carolina Commission on Indian Affairs). The third presentation outlined provisions of Title IV-B Child Welfare Services and Title XX of the Social Security Act. Presenters on the fourth panel reiterated the importance of cultural relevancy to better serve American Indians. Descriptors: American Indians, Child Welfare, Federal Legislation, Program Development

Edington, Everett; Hays, Leonard (1978). Differences in Family Size and Marriage Age Expectation and Aspirations of Anglo, Mexican American and Native American Rural Youth in New Mexico, Adolescence. In 1975, questionnaires were given to 587 sophomores and seniors in 12 rural high schools. Findings included significant differences between ethnic groups on expected and desired family size and marriage age; but no differences between age groups. Descriptors: Age Differences, American Indians, Aspiration, Cultural Differences

New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. Coll. of Education. (). An Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Education Materials. Items in the largely annotated, March 1979 bibliography are examples of American Indian resources housed at the American Indian Bilingual Education Center (AIBEC) Materials Bank and are included in the bibliography solely for their educational and historical value. The resources are appropriate for professional research and as supplementary classroom materials. The bibliography includes approximately 400 items organized by subject, source, or genre: (1) professional books; (2) guides to American Indian education; (3) audiovisual aids; (4) materials for the Native American Materials Development Center Navajo Bilingual-Bicultural Kindergarten Kit and Supplementary Navajo Teaching Materials; (5) Navajo readers; (6) resources for multicultural education, English as a second language, American Indian education, and values clarification; and (7) materials from the National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, ERIC, and the National Dissemination and Assessment Center. Most sections are organized alphabetically by title, and include item cost, publisher's address, and a brief description. Some citations also indicate appropriate grade level, language, and publication date. There is an extensive alphabetical list of publishers and distributors of American Indian materials. Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indians, Annotated Bibliographies, Audiovisual Aids

Hale, James A. (). A Model Program for Training Personnel to Develop Solutions to Major Educational Problems in the Indian and Mexican-American Communities. Final Report. The program's objective was to train a cadre of research and development specialists with competencies to strengthen and institutionalize organizational assessment and program development within higher education institutions serving large numbers of Chicano and Native American students. The project's two major thrusts were: (1) project management and consortium arrangements and (2) articulation of curriculum objectives, content, and activities. Faculty members and administrators from 17 2-year and 4-year "developing" institutions of higher education located in the Southwestern United States participated. The research training program consisted of: (1) an entry skills diagnostic test administered prior to the start of formal instruction; (2) a formal academic training phase; and (3) a practicum or followup phase conducted at the parent institution and at the Educational Testing Service. Both "enroute" and terminal performance measures were used in the program's evaluation. Although the model was deficient along some lines, it proved to be useful in identifying the major dimensions of a training program. This report contains documentation of the program objectives, activities, and evaluation and the results of testing a transportable training model. External evaluator's reports (pre-post, comparative, and summative) are included in the form submitted. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Change Agents, Consortia, Educational Development

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