Bibliography: High Stakes Testing (page 53 of 95)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Robert J. Helfenbein, Paul R. Sackett, Merideth M. McNamee, Pablo C. Ramirez, Marc A. Scott, Marlow Ediger, Karen Walker, Andrea Caroline Bien, Brian S. Connelly, and Jennifer Lynn Cunningham Maeng.

Ediger, Marlow (2001). Assessment and High Stakes Testing. This paper discusses the rationale behind and uses of high stakes testing. Much of the support for high stakes testing comes from a desire to boost student achievement by increasing student and teacher motivation to do well. There are many disadvantages to high stakes testing, including inappropriate use of the test, inadequate test development, and the adverse effects of pressure to perform on students. High stakes tests may not measure what students really need to know or what they are really learning. In many states, schools have not aligned their curricula with the high stakes state-mandated test, and many tests have not been developed to take aspects of the curriculum into account. Students should be evaluated through multiple means, which could include the use of portfolios. Some suggestions are given for portfolio use for learning and assessment.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Educational Assessment, High School Students, High Schools

Bien, Andrea Caroline (2013). Prescribing Proficiency: The Intersection of Teacher, Students and a Mandated Reading Program in One Elementary School Classroom in the Climate of High-Stakes Testing, ProQuest LLC. This dissertation addresses questions about the impact and consequences of current school reforms by examining how mandated packaged reading programs contribute to a commodification of knowledge that is changing conceptualizations of literacy, teaching, and learning. Grounded in cultural-historical theories of literacy and learning, this work draws also on inter-disciplinary theories of race, language, and power in order to empirically examine how mandated reading curricula shape teaching and learning. This classroom-based, qualitative study is important as few studies have closely examined how market-driven reforms that purport to bolster teacher effectiveness and provide greater support to students of color and those from economically struggling families actually "function" for children and teachers in classrooms. My analysis provides evidence that mandated reading curricula, teachers, and students are inextricably linked in an all-encompassing web of reform. I argue that the defining feature of this web is a narrow notion of "proficiency" that is infused into all aspects of literacy teaching and learning from the macro levels of federal, state, and district policy to the micro level of classroom interactions. To support this argument, I marshal evidence to illustrate how ideas and assumptions surrounding "reading proficiency" matter in the everyday teaching and learning lives of teachers and students. This study contributes to critical literacy studies of classroom practice, policy analysis that speaks within and beyond the literacy studies field, and investigations into the complex relationship between teaching and learning pointing to the need for teacher education that prepares novice teachers to successfully navigate the current climate of schooling in ways that connect with, rather than detract from, a focus on deep literacy learning. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com…   [More]  Descriptors: Reading Programs, Required Courses, Elementary School Students, Reading Tests

Yesbeck, Diana Marie (2011). Grading Practices: Teachers' Considerations of Academic and Non-Academic Factors, ProQuest LLC. In the current era of student accountability, coupled with high-stakes testing, schools have focused on the alignment of standardized curriculums and assessments. However, developing standardized grading practices are still under examination. Grading serves as an important responsibility, yet many teachers still find the process a challenge of determining which academic and non-academic factors correctly represent student achievement.   This qualitative study was designed to examine the grading factors teachers consider when determining student final grades. Middle school language arts teachers from one mid-sized suburban school district in Virginia participated in qualitative interviews. The interviews addressed the following topics: (1) the purposes of grades, (2) the grading factors teachers consider when they grade, (3) the teachers' influences in determining their practices, and (4) how teachers' grading practices relate to measurement theory.   Overall results in the areas of the purpose of grades, the use of academic and non-academic factors, teachers' influences, the use of formative and summative assessments, and the need for professional development are consistent with the literature. With respect to how teachers' practices relate to measurement theory, the findings are consistent with the literature from previous studies. This suggests that although measurement theory experts recommend that achievement factors should be the only factors that determine student grades, the results of this study indicate that teachers use a mixture of variables in determining student grades, known as hodgepodge grading.   Recommendations for practice include teacher reflection on determining why they grade, becoming familiar with measurement theory recommendations in terms of using academic factors that measure student achievement, how to use non-academic factors in other ways to support student learning, and providing staff development in the area of grading practices and how practices support measurement standards.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com…   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Grades (Scholastic), Grading, Suburban Schools

Garcia Laborda, Jesus (2008). Is the TOEFL Exam Aimed at Everyone? Research Considerations in the Training and Application of the TOEFL Exam Abroad, European Association for Computer-Assisted Language Learning (EUROCALL). In recent years, the Educational Testing System organisation has developed two models of the computer-based Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). However, the computerization of the test has shown a number of problems according to the testees' origin. This paper suggests some of these problems after conducting short interviews with four TOEFL teachers; i.e. problems in delivery, interface design and test taking contextual validity (Weir, 2005). These aspects and those presented in other educational systems need to be addressed in further research. The fact that TOEFL is only a compulsory test for those who wish to pursue further education in the USA cannot prevent ETS [Educational Testing Service] from ignoring the potential problems of the current model in different parts of the world. Thus, further research on this topic needs to be carried out in Europe and elsewhere. This paper also serves as a starting point for countries and institutions that may be considering the implementation of computer or Internet-based applications for high-stakes testing such as university entrance examinations. ["EUROCALL Review" is published by the European Association for Computer-Assisted Language Learning.]   [More]  Descriptors: Computer Assisted Testing, High Stakes Tests, Higher Education, Foreign Countries

Kellermeyer, Steven Bruce (2011). Achievement Gap Projection for Standardized Testing through Logistic Regression within a Large Arizona School District, ProQuest LLC. In the last few decades high-stakes testing has become more political than educational. The Districts within Arizona are bound by the mandates of both AZ LEARNS and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. At the time of this writing, both legislative mandates relied on the Arizona Instrument for Measuring Standards (AIMS) as State Tests for gauging their effectiveness.   This study utilizes the data from a large Arizona District to measure potential achievement gaps in the AIMS Reading and Math Tests at the tenth grade level. Six years of data were compiled yielding 23,846 valid AIMS Reading Tests and 23,640 AIMS Math Tests. Logistic regression and complex samples logistic regression were employed to determine if District Reading and Math scores would reach the 100% required proficiency rating of "Meets" or above by 2014 with affects the graduating class of 2016. The investigation also satisfied the question of whether high schools which are comparable to the demographics of the aggregated District performed similarly to the District in general.   This researcher has shown that an achievement gap can be defined for a District by the legislated disaggregation categories of student achievement for each subgroup according to gender, ethnicity, disability status (special education), English language proficiency, and low-income status. Furthermore, these subgroups made use of odds ratios for probability of passing and failing for the Reading and Math Tenth Grade AIMS Tests.   Discussions include the ramifications of ignoring achievement gaps in subgroups and revealing evidence that individual schools can make a difference in closing achievement gaps. This form of regression may allow an improved method for judging school improvement based on student performance on high-stakes tests. By ranking schools under a universal paradigm that assesses how a school succeeds with each subgroup compared to its own population could distinguish schools that are genuinely reducing the achievement gap compared to schools that simply have many students who are scoring well.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com…   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, High Stakes Tests, Achievement Gap, Reading Tests

Sirotnik, Kenneth A. (2004). Accountability for Promoting Democracy: Replacing a Movement Fueled by Economics and Politics with an Alternative-"Responsibilism", School Administrator. In this article, the author ponders what is becoming of childhood and young adulthood these days, especially in the context of public schooling and the high-stakes testing and accountability mania now apparently in store for children at nearly every grade level. Opposition has emerged from all corners, including both right and left on the political spectrum. It is hard to know who your bedfellows really are. Some are likely those who still see this as outcomes-based education and the work of the devil, intruding into family values and responsibilities. Others find the high-stakes accountability testing and accountability strategies just plain stupid and contrary to what they believe good teaching, learning and assessment ought to be about. In this article the author gives his insights on these issues of outcomes-based education and accountability.   [More]  Descriptors: Accountability, Democracy, Democratic Values, Citizenship Responsibility

Helfenbein, Robert J., Jr. (2004). New Times, New Stakes: Moments of Transit, Accountability, and Classroom Practice, Review of Education, Pedagogy & Cultural Studies. In order to understand the relationship between high-stakes testing and its synonymous projection on history as the "age of accountability," Stuart Hall's Policing the Crisis (Hall, Critcher, Jefferson, Clarke, & Roberts, 1978) provides an interesting parallel depiction of the response of the dominant forces in the power structure to changing social and political relations. This essay proposes that the rise of high-stakes testing in American education primarily follows the model of a "law and order" response to a crisis in authority of hegemonic power. What the power structure describes as problematic may or may not actually exist. The complexity of the argument lies in the notion that a crisis in authority does not necessarily correspond to a crisis in materiality. This is not to say that the public consciousness simply accepts the rhetoric of social and political forces, for indeed the rhetoric must correspond to some conception within the public understanding of schools and society. However, crises can be manufactured and policed in the interests of pursuing political goals. The argument of this essay proceeds from the position that: (1) there is not a material crisis in public education (at least not in the way it is currently depicted); (2) there is, however, a crisis in authority stemming from the unforeseen effects of the marketization of education; (3) primary definers have manufactured a sense of crisis at least since 1983 with the intent to serve political goals; and (4) high-stakes testing represents the beginnings of a law and order response to the implications of a changing socio-economic structure on education.   [More]  Descriptors: Rhetoric, Power Structure, Testing, Public Education

Picower, Bree (2011). Resisting Compliance: Learning to Teach for Social Justice in a Neoliberal Context, Teachers College Record. Background/Context: This study examines education in the context of neoliberalism and how current educational policies such as high-stakes testing and mandated curriculum create schooling environments hostile to social justice education. Relying on education for liberation literature, teacher education for social justice scholarship, and work on critical pedagogy, this study explores how new teachers who teach from a social justice perspective navigate the challenges of their first year in teaching. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: This study asks, What strategies do new teachers use to stay true to their vision of teaching for social justice despite the challenges they face in their school environments? Population/Participants/Subjects: During the course of the study, 4 of the 6 participants were full-time classroom teachers. The 2 other participants were still taking education classes while student- and assistant teaching. All worked in a variety of urban elementary schools. Intervention/Program/Practice: The participants were all members of a social justice critical inquiry project (CIP) group that met at the university from which they graduated. Research Design: This was a qualitative study that used design-based research. Data Collection and Analysis: Data were collected from three sources: transcripts from audio and videotaped CIP sessions, ethnographic interviews with participants, and participants' written reflections. Data were analyzed using grounded theory method. Findings/Results: The teachers developed four strategies for teaching for social justice. First, by participating in a critical inquiry project, the teachers supported each other by building a safe haven that protected their vision. Second, the participants camouflaged their critical pedagogy by integrating it with the mandated curriculum, which allowed them to teach from a social justice perspective without rousing the concerns of their administration. The third strategy was to develop their students as agents of change. Finally, in a few instances, the teachers went public with their work by rejecting or speaking against policies that they felt were not in the best interests of their students. Conclusions/Recommendations: Although these four strategies allowed participants to successfully create critical classrooms, they did not impact the larger neoliberal forces that maintain unjust schooling experiences. This has implications for teacher education, and the author suggests recommendations for schools of education.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Grounded Theory, Schools of Education, Critical Theory

McNamee, Merideth M. (2011). The Impact of Brain-Based Instruction on Reading Achievement in a Second-Grade Classroom, ProQuest LLC. School accountability and high-stakes testing often shift classroom focus from the use of engaging learning activities that promote critical thinking and creativity to simple test preparation practices. Using brain research as a guide, educators may be able to improve test scores, while still providing a balanced education that promotes critical thinking. The purpose of this study was to determine if students who participated in a literature unit based on brain research would have improved reading achievement as measured by the Sunshine State Standards Reading Diagnostic Assessment (SSS-RDA). An experimental group of 25 second-grade students participated in the brain-based literature unit; whereas the control group of 19 second-grade students participated in traditional teaching practices. After the SSS-RDA was administered as the pretest, the experimental group participated in the 12-week intervention while the control group received traditional reading instruction. The SSS-RDA was again administered as the posttest. Dependent sample t-tests were used to document that significant pre/post gains were only observed within the control group. Independent sample t test was used to compare pre/post gains across the experimental and control groups. The reading achievement gains of the experimental group were not significantly different than the gains of the control group. Further analysis of the descriptive data led to the conclusion that a ceiling effect in SSS-RDA pretest scores in the experimental group may have impaired documenting gains in that group. Implications for social change include further understanding the efficacy of brain-based instruction. Theoretically, brain-based instruction allows for creative instructional methods that can lead to improved reading achievement; however, adequately sensitive assessment measures are required to explicitly document its effects.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com…   [More]  Descriptors: Test Preparation, State Standards, Pretests Posttests, Social Change

Cocke, Erin F.; Buckley, Jack; Scott, Marc A. (2011). Accountability and Teacher Practice: Investigating the Impact of a New State Test and the Timing of State Test Adoption on Teacher Time Use, Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness. There is much debate over the impact of high stakes testing as well as a growing body of research focused on both the intended and unintended consequences of these tests. One claim of both the popular media and education researchers is that high stakes tests have led to curricular narrowing–the idea that school time is increasingly allocated to tested subjects to the detriment of non tested ones (Dillon, 2006; Center for Education Policy, 2006; West, 2007). In order to investigate the effects of testing on the allocation of instructional time, the authors analyze changing trends in reported teacher time use in situations where testing in new subjects has been recently added. This study uses the three most recent waves (1999-2000, 2003-2004 and 2007, 2008) of the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) data to explore the how the addition of tests in science and social studies over time have impacted teacher time use within states. This exploration of the impact of a state test in science and social studies on teacher time use indicates that for states that added a test in science there is a small impact of this test on reported teacher time use in science. In addition, there is no significant impact of a new test in social studies on teacher time use in social studies. These results are in contrast with prior work finding a significant impact of a test in social studies and science on reported teacher time in these subjects (West, 2007). One obvious conclusion is that the content of what teachers are teaching matters and is driving change in student test scores rather than the actual time spent teaching each subject. However, this small impact could also be due to the lack of federal pressure currently associated with social studies and science tests, as these tests do not yet impact whether a school meets Average Yearly Progress. Teacher behavior may understandably be more responsive to high pressure accountability than to accountability without sanctions attached.   [More]  Descriptors: High Stakes Tests, Accountability, Context Effect, Teacher Behavior

Maeng, Jennifer Lynn Cunningham (2011). Differentiating Science Instruction: Success Stories of High School Science Teachers, ProQuest LLC. This study investigated the characteristics and practices of high school science teachers who differentiate instruction. Specifically teachers' beliefs about science teaching and student learning and how they planned for and implemented differentiated instruction in their classrooms were explored. Understanding how high school science teachers differentiate instruction fills a gap in the literature.   Participants included 7 high school science teachers purposefully selected from 4 different schools located in three school districts in a mid-Atlantic state. Data was collected during the spring of 2010 and fall of 2011 and occurred in two phases. For all 7 participants, data included one one-hour semi-structured interview and field notes from a minimum of four 90-minute classroom observations. Each classroom observation was scored using the validated Differentiated Instruction Implementation Matrix-Modified (DIIM-M), which evaluated participants' proficiency in differentiating instruction. The DIIM-M was analyzed using descriptive statistics and triangulated with field notes.   This analysis led to the identification of a single teacher, Diane, for in-depth case study. Case study data included approximately two hours of semi-structured interview responses, 37.5 hours of classroom observations of Diane's Ecology and Biology classes, relevant instructional materials, and other artifacts. This variety of data allowed for triangulation of the evidence. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative approach (Lincoln & Guba, 1985).   Results indicated that Diane consistently integrated complex learning profile differentiation strategies; however, she differentiated less frequently for readiness and interest. Technology-enhanced formative assessment played an integral role in planning and implementing lessons differentiated for readiness. Diane's content knowledge, self-efficacy, administrative support, and alignment between beliefs and the philosophy of differentiated instruction promoted differentiation practices. Lack of planning time and professional development and a high-stakes testing culture were barriers to full enactment of differentiation.   These findings suggest that differentiated instruction is feasible in high school science classes with professional development and encouragement from administrators. Most significantly, this study provides practical strategies for in-service science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction and recommendations for professional development and preservice science teacher education. Future research should explore student outcomes and ways to support effective formative assessment and readiness differentiation among high school science teachers.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com…   [More]  Descriptors: High Schools, Self Efficacy, Formative Evaluation, High Stakes Tests

Walker, Karen (2003). Improving Test Scores. Research Brief, Education Partnerships, Inc.. What strategies can improve test scores? According to research done by Amrein and Berliner, who studied 18 states with high stakes testing, their conclusion was that students did not necessarily score higher and often remained at the same level prior to the introduction of the high stakes testing. In other research done by Carnoy and Loeb, their findings indicated that students did better on national tests when there was a high level of accountability from the districts to the adults who were working with the students. Based on the results from states that have had high stakes testing, there are some issues and items of concern that will most likely arise when they are initiated. These include: (1) Scores will most likely rise the first 3-4 years because of the added attention on spending a great deal of time on test preparation; (2) Where bonuses to teachers have been offered, that has not proven to be successful due to issues such as varying groups of students each year and high student mobility rates; and (3) For those schools that had been identified as being low performing, how successful have the sanctions been in terms of higher student achievement? One recommendation made was that instead of schools being compared year-to-year, that students be compared to themselves to assess individual growth.   [More]  Descriptors: Testing, Standardized Tests, Test Preparation, Educational Improvement

Sackett, Paul R.; Borneman, Matthew J.; Connelly, Brian S. (2009). Responses to Issues Raised about Validity, Bias, and Fairness in High-Stakes Testing, American Psychologist. We are pleased that our article prompted this series of four commentaries and that we have this opportunity to respond. We address each in turn. Duckworth and Kaufman and Agars discussed, respectively, two broad issues concerning the validity of selection systems, namely, the expansion of the predictor domain to include noncognitive predictors of performance and the expansion of the criterion domain to include additional criteria (e.g., creativity). We agree with these arguments, noting that they expand on points made in our original article. Wicherts and Millsap rightly noted the distinction between measurement bias and predictive bias and the fact that a finding of no predictive bias does not rule out the possibility that measurement bias still exists. They took issue with a statement we cited from Cullen, Hardison, and Sackett (2004) that if motivational mechanisms, such as stereotype threat, result in minority group members obtaining lower observed scores than true scores (i.e., a form of measurement bias), then the performance of minority group members should be under predicted. Our characterization of Cullen et al.'s (2004) statement was too cryptic; what was intended was a statement to the effect that if the regression lines for majority and minority groups are identical at the level of true predictor scores, then a biasing factor resulting in lower observed scores than true scores for minority group members would shift the minority group regression line to result in under prediction for that group. We do agree with Helms's call for studying the reasons why racial-group differences are found and encourage this line of research; however, we view the study of racial-group differences and the study of determinants of those differences as complementary. We thank the authors for contributing these commentaries and for stimulating this discussion. Duckworth (2009) and Kaufman and Agars (2009) discussed important issues regarding expanding the predictor and criterion domains. Wicherts and Millsap (2009) correctly noted distinctions between predictive and measurement bias and used stereotype threat as a mechanism to discuss these issues. Helms (2009) raised several issues regarding the validity and fairness of standardized tests. In all cases, we welcomed the opportunity to discuss these topics and provide more detail on issues relating to high-stakes standardized testing.   [More]  Descriptors: High Stakes Tests, Reader Response, Error of Measurement, Test Bias

Ramirez, Pablo C. (2011). The Intentionality of Critical Pedagogical Teachers in Public Schools: Passion, Constraints, and Contradictions, ProQuest LLC. This research study examined the role of critical pedagogical teachers within the education system. Public school teachers in the past ten years have been placed in a vulnerable position due in part to the high stakes testing within the federally mandated No Child Left Behind Act of 2002. Classroom teachers are instructed by school administration to increase test scores, especially state standardized test scores. Orfield (2005) and Nieto (2002) suggest that teachers are placed, with much tension and pressure, to increase test scores and this, in turn, impacts their daily instruction. Teachers have voiced that test preparation and test readiness have limited their teachings of other subjects (Vinovskis, 2009). To address this limitation placed on teachers, this research study examined specifically the practices of critical pedagogical teachers who have worked towards negotiating these tensions and potential barriers. Critical pedagogical teachers are defined as teachers that empower students by valuing students' culture, language and voice in the classroom setting. According to Darder (1991) and Bartolome (2007), critical pedagogy in the classroom is a method for encouraging and empowering students in the public school system.   To document and address this focus, this research study employed an interpretive research approach, utilizing multiple case studies. Interpretive Research was used to examine critical pedagogical teachers' ideology and their practices in the classroom and community. There were five participating elementary teachers. The methodology used within the research study included teacher autobiographies, interviews, classroom and community observations. The study aimed to define the characteristics of critical pedagogical teachers, and documented the manner in which critical pedagogical teachers negotiate their practice in the educational system.   The results revealed five major themes across teachers: (1) advocacy of voice, (2) intentionality of action, (3) foundation of trust, (4) transformative resistance and (5) negotiation of practice. The data results showed that across the five teachers, the levels of tension varied due to institutional constraints and contextual factors in the school community. In addition, the data revealed that the five critical pedagogical teachers in this study are on diverse journeys in their quest for social justice in education.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com… US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]   [More]  Descriptors: Test Preparation, Social Justice, Critical Theory, Public Schools

Ellis, Joanetta Dowell (2011). Middle School Mathematics: A Study of Three Programs in South Texas, ProQuest LLC. In 2010, the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) began its seventh year of testing (Texas Education Agency, 2009a). High stakes testing is a reality. This study considered the impact on mathematics achievement based on the mathematics program students were receiving during their middle school years. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant difference in three mathematics programs used within one south Texas school district and its impact on student performance as measured by TAKS. Barns, Been, Lapan, Papick, Reys, and Reys (1998), in their study on middle school mathematics, "call for research on the impact of middle school curricula on student achievement to establish a research base to help teachers and districts make wise curricular decisions" (p.5).   The study looked at TAKS scores for sixth and seventh graders at six middle schools. The TAKS scores from the mathematics portion of the exam were collected for the academic years 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. This was a non-experimental causal-comparison research study using ex-post facto data to conduct trend analysis with the goal of determining the impact of three math programs, Texas MathWorks, Connected Mathematics, and the state adoption Glencoe, on student performance on TAKS.   It is essential that districts are reassured that student achievement in mathematical concepts is positively affected by the use of a strong mathematics program. The intent of this study was to guide decisions by administrators and teachers in recommending sound instructional math programs to their local school boards for approval. The use of a strong mathematics program increases TAKS math scores and prepares students for future success in higher mathematics. It is the belief of the researcher that data from this study will lead to better curriculum decisions that will benefit students, be cost effective, and sustain student learning as they progress into higher mathematics courses, and make south Texas students competitive in the world marketplace.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com…   [More]  Descriptors: Middle Schools, Mathematics Achievement, Testing, Program Effectiveness

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