Bibliography: Common Core State Standards (page 097 of 130)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Daniel J. Heck, Lydia J. Lewis, Dagoberto Eli Ramirez, Nathan A. Burroughs, Iris R. Weiss, Joan Zaleski, Verneda E. Johnson, Kelly J. Charles, Andrew W. Shouse, and Susan W. Hardwick.

Sandrock, Paul (2013). Literacy through Languages: Connecting with the Common Core, Learning Languages. The Common Core Standards have defined literacy and outlined the mission for English Language Arts in a way that provides a natural fit with the National Standards for Language Learning. Taking advantage of this connection, language teachers can showcase the importance of learning languages by demonstrating how literacy is learned, practiced, and strengthened through standards-based and performance-based language learning. The Standards have guided the critical review and improvement of language programs from prekindergarten through postsecondary levels, teacher preparation programs, and teacher licensure requirements. Language assessments have also been impacted by the standards as institutions look for or design valid evaluations of language performance. Teachers of early language learners are already making connections with content across the entire curriculum. Through content-rich units, teachers add to the impact of language learning as students learn not only a new language, but also learn, review, or reinforce knowledge and skills valuable to other subject areas. How do early language learners practice the three modes of communication and build Common Core literacy? Teachers attain this goal by designing units connected with age- and grade-appropriate content. Rather than teaching a unit on a vocabulary topic like food, students explore food through the lens of making healthy choices or examine food through the causes of famine–identifying where and why people are hungry. Such a thematic focus allows for deeper development of the literacy goals described in the Common Core State Standards. With this approach, language teachers will become valuable allies in supporting literacy initiatives in their schools, and early language learners will benefit.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Second Language Instruction, Second Language Learning, Core Curriculum, FLES

Schmidt, William H.; Burroughs, Nathan A. (2013). Springing to Life: How Greater Educational Equality Could Grow from the Common Core Mathematics Standards, American Educator. In America, education has long been viewed as the main instrument for achieving equality of opportunity. Despite many reform efforts over the past several decades, the US educational system has patently failed to ensure equal access for all to the essential knowledge, skills, problem-solving abilities, and reasoning abilities that are necessary to succeed. Instead, American schools exhibit pervasive inequality. Pervasive inequality is a bold claim, but that's the inescapable conclusion of more than 20 years of examining mathematics and science standards, student achievement, textbooks, standardized tests, and classroom content coverage. In mathematics, for instance, students are exposed to widely varying content not only across states and school districts but within schools. Such inequities in content coverage deny students equal learning opportunities. By the time they enter middle and high school, those students fortunate enough to have been challenged with rigorous, focused, and coherent content in the early grades are placed into courses that continue to challenge them, while their peers who were not exposed to such content are tracked into lower-level courses. And so the differences in learning opportunities that contribute to the achievement gap only continue to grow. These problems aren't found only in lowest-performing schools; the "typical" US student does not receive the content coverage needed to compete with students in other nations. In this article, the authors move from demonstrating the existence of pervasive inequality to considering what to do about it. In particular, they examine the prospects for the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSS-M) to reduce inequalities in opportunity to learn. They discuss why the CCSS-M "could" provide greater equality of educational opportunity, and they offer some ideas about how to overcome the principal obstacles to successful implementation.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Equal Education, Achievement Gap, State Standards

Eley, Peter M.; Charles, Kelly J.; Leeks, Latonya L. (2013). A New Vision for Professional Development, Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School. High-quality professional development for public school teachers is directly tied to student achievement, teacher quality and retention, and national education priorities (Kroeger et al. 2000). To stay current with the knowledge, skills, and expertise that students need to succeed in the twenty-first century, educators must increasingly retool their instructional strategies and technologies, upgrade the curriculum through new research methods, take responsibility for every student's competence in core content, and improve student-learning outcomes. The Center for Defense and Homeland Security (CDHS) at Fayetteville State University (FSU) in North Carolina has instituted a new research and development initiative. The emphasis is on mitigating natural and man-made catastrophic disasters, as well as recovery, within the United States. This research and development initiative is partnering with industry; higher education; the Department of Defense (DOD); the Department of Homeland Security (DHS); and other federal, state, and local entities. This professional development initiative offered an extensive collaboration with university faculty and public school teachers to enhance educational opportunities for middle-grades students and also to interest students in STEM careers. The initiative was presented to seven local school districts to demonstrate to participating teachers the appropriate curricular connections with the Common Core areas of statistical thinking and content related to homeland security and defense. This work was a collaborative effort between local education agencies (LEA), the FSU School of Education, and the CDHS. The LEAs welcomed the workshop initiative to help them interpret and implement the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics, with a focus on statistics concepts in middle school. This article describes how the workshop was implemented, the participants and subject-matter experts involved, and the strategies and tools that were used to make it a success.   [More]  Descriptors: Faculty Development, Academic Achievement, College School Cooperation, Science Careers

Zaleski, Joan; Zinnel, Vera (2013). Who Writes History? Developing a Social Imagination with Third Graders, Social Studies and the Young Learner. Over her 23 years of teaching elementary school, Vera, a third grade teacher (and co-author of this article), had often fallen into the familiar rhythm of the fall social studies curriculum, with its predictable narrative of discovery, bravery, heroism, and thanksgiving. Her journey to becoming a more reflective, thoughtful, and equitable teacher of young children is the product of her own growth and discovery. During her own studies and professional development, she found herself taking on different perspectives that made her question some aspects of her teaching. In addition, being part of a teacher inquiry group, she was becoming more familiar with global children's literature that would help students think more about their place in the world around them. She found the support from others in the group to create "a pedagogy of joy and justice," where the voices brought into the classroom include not only those of students, but also the underrepresented and marginalized. Vera describes in this article how she chose to rethink her social studies unit on Columbus with her third graders by focusing on the Big Idea, "Who gets to write history?" That is, whose stories are told? What can one learn from listening to others' stories? Ever mindful of adhering to standards (Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects), Vera implemented reading, writing, listening, and speaking experiences to develop concepts of perspective in this unit. As a result of this unit, Vera and her students applied what they discovered about history and their social imagination to other topics throughout the year.   [More]  Descriptors: State Standards, Childrens Literature, Social Studies, Imagination

Thomas, Susan (2013). Improving Vocabulary Acquisition and Reading Comprehension through Cartoon Drawing Instruction Method, ProQuest LLC. Vocabulary knowledge is a crucial component for success in and out of school. For most children, word acquisition hits a plateau in the middle of elementary school, which has a negative impact on their academic achievement. This study evaluated whether the instructional strategy of drawing cartoons improved the vocabulary achievement among 5th grade students. It also examined whether the strategy had an impact on the vocabulary development of economically disadvantaged students. The theoretical foundation of this research came from Vygotsky's zone of proximal development, Dewey's learner-centered environment, and Piaget's constructivism. This quantitative study used a quasi-experimental design of the pretest-posttest control group model with 5th grade children of diverse backgrounds in a school district in the southern United States. Students in the control group learned vocabulary through a traditional method of instruction for 6 weeks, while the treatment group received instruction through an experimental method of drawing cartoons for 6 weeks. A t test was used to measure the differences in the pretest and posttest scores between control and treatment groups. The results showed no significant difference in scores between the treatment and control groups; however, this study's contribution is its careful examination of a strategy aligned with the Common Core State Standards. Teaching vocabulary through different strategies and methods of instruction may promote social change by increasing students' vocabulary and reading skills, thus helping them to be productive in the world regardless of their ethnic and socioeconomic status. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com…   [More]  Descriptors: Vocabulary, Language Acquisition, Reading Comprehension, Cartoons

US Department of Education (2013). Race to the Top. District of Columbia Report. Year 2: School Year 2011-2012. [State-Specific Summary Report]. This State-specific summary report serves as an assessment of the District of Columbia's Year 2 Race to the Top implementation, highlighting successes and accomplishments, identifying challenges, and providing lessons learned from implementation from approximately September 2011 through September 2012. Despite the delays, the Office of the State Superintendent of Education (OSSE) has made progress in implementation since Year 1. OSSE continues to leverage Race to the Top-specific task forces to accomplish District-wide work. This includes the development of competitive subgrants and corresponding Requests for Applications (RFAs), and the review of teacher and leader evaluation plans. OSSE has a new Race to the Top Director since January 2012, which has provided stability in leadership across Race to the Top projects. OSSE experienced several procurement delays that directly affected Race to the Top initiatives, including the Enterprise Grants Management System, the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) resource website, statewide longitudinal data system (SLDS), Expanded Growth Measures, and Teacher Preparation Program Scorecard projects. In Year 3, the District plans for its Race to the Top team to play a major role in a tiered system of support for persistently lowest-achieving (PLA) schools, which is aligned with the District's approved Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) flexibility request. OSSE will continue to provide professional development opportunities for educators on implementing the CCSS. It also plans to promote its CCSS resource website and release the Standards Entry Points for Differentiated Learning, a consortium-developed manual for special education teachers. A glossary is included. (Contains 7 footnotes.) [For "Race to the Top. District of Columbia Report. Year 1: School Year 2010-2011. [State-Specific Summary Report]," see ED529308.]   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Academic Standards, Accountability, Achievement Gap

US Department of Education (2013). Race to the Top. North Carolina Report. Year 2: School Year 2011-2012. [State-Specific Summary Report]. This State-specific summary report serves as an assessment of North Carolina's second year of Race to the Top implementation. The report highlights successes and accomplishments, identifies challenges, and provides lessons learned from implementation from approximately September 2011 through September 2012. In Year 2, North Carolina continued the progress it made in Year 1 in all areas of its comprehensive reform plan and reached several implementation milestones. North Carolina made progress in implementing a qualifying evaluation system for teachers and principals by modifying its existing statewide evaluation system, the North Carolina Educator Evaluation System (NCEES). The State also continued to prepare its educators to fully implement the updated North Carolina Standard Course of Study in SY 2012-2013 by providing professional development and disseminating curricular materials. Delays impacted several of the State's Race to the Top initiatives. The Instructional Improvement System (IIS) and Virtual Blended STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) Courses projects were delayed in order to refine project plans and requirements and as a result of lengthy procurement processes; these projects now have condensed implementation timeframes. The State's extensive Year 2 preparations laid the groundwork for full implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and NCEES in Year 3. The State's comprehensive professional development offerings, including more than 90 regional face-to-face sessions and online resources, will support educators as they implement these and other key initiatives. North Carolina will also continue to support teacher and leader pipelines through its Regional Leadership Academies, Distinguished Leadership in Practice program, Teach For America partnership, and the North Carolina Teacher Corps. North Carolina will continue to build readiness in the field for and begin implementing components of its two major technology initiatives, the Cloud and Home Base. A glossary is included. (Contains 9 footnotes.) [For "Race to the Top. North Carolina. Year 1: School Year 2010-2011. [State-Specific Summary Report]," see ED529322.]   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Academic Standards, Accountability, Achievement Gap

US Department of Education (2013). Race to the Top. Maryland Report. Year 2: School Year 2011-2012. [State-Specific Summary Report]. This State-specific summary report serves as an assessment of Maryland's Year 2 Race to the Top implementation, highlighting successes and accomplishments, identifying challenges, and providing lessons learned from implementation from approximately September 2011 through September 2012. Maryland's Year 2 accomplishments included implementing support and monitoring processes for local educational agencies (LEAs) for the purposes of Race to the Top implementation, developing CCSS-aligned model units and lessons, holding summer professional development academies across the State, and providing instructional and leadership support services through the Breakthrough Center to lowest-achieving schools in Baltimore City Public Schools (BCPS) and Prince George's County Public Schools (PGCPS). While Maryland made some progress implementing its Race to the Top initiatives in Year 2, the State struggled to find adequate qualified staff to conduct project activities related to the State's technology and instructional improvement system (IIS) projects. This challenge, along with the State procurement process, led to delays in many projects that had already experienced delays in Year 1. During Year 3 Maryland will continue preparing educators to fully implement the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in SY 2013-2014 and Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) assessments in SY 2014-2015. Building on the model units and lessons that Maryland educators developed for each grade in ELA and mathematics in Year 2, the State will develop additional English language arts (ELA) and mathematics and create social studies and science curriculum resources. Additionally, all LEAs will participate in another pilot of the new teacher and principal evaluation system in Year 3 in preparation for full implementation in SY 2013-2014. The State's Curriculum Management System and Learning Management System, both key aspects of its IIS, will also be available for use in Year 3. A glossary is included. (Contains 13 footnotes.) [For "Race to the Top. Maryland Report. Year 1: School Year 2010-2011. [State-Specific Summary Report]," see ED529320.]   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Academic Standards, Accountability, Achievement Gap

Johnson, La-Trice (2013). English Language Arts Scores among Sixth Grade Students Enrolled on an Elementary versus Middle School Campus, ProQuest LLC. A K-12 school district located in southern California was faced with overcrowding at 1of its middle schools for the 2011-2012 school year. This project study was designed to explore if an elementary or middle school campus was best in supporting students' academics while they were in transition to 6th grade middle school. Maslow's hierarchy of needs was the theoretical foundation used to explore the 6th grade achievement of students who transitioned into a middle school environment, compared to students who remained within an elementary environment. Guiding questions sought to find if there was a significant difference in ELA scores among elementary versus middle school campus. As a causal-comparative study, random sampling took place among 1,536 participants between 2 campus types. Instrumentation was an English language arts (ELA) district assessment for 6th grade. Data collected comparing scores on the ELA were analyzed with a t test. Findings showed that students attending 6th grade at the elementary campus scored significantly higher on the ELA than students attending 6th grade at middle school campuses. The findings resulted in the creation of a final project, a Service-Learning Academy for 6th grade students at the elementary campus. The academy's goals are to encourage academic achievement with Common Core State Standards, build self-esteem, and leadership qualities while shaping global learners in promoting social change. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com…   [More]  Descriptors: Language Tests, English, Language Arts, Scores

Fleming, Laura (2013). Expanding Learning Opportunities with Transmedia Practices: "Inanimate Alice" as an Exemplar, Journal of Media Literacy Education. The proliferation of digital and networking technologies enables us to rethink, restructure, and redefine teaching and learning. Transmedia storytelling takes advantage of the rapid convergence of media and allows teachers and learners to participate in rich virtual (and physical) environments that have been shown to foster students' real emotional engagement with the process of learning. Transmedia learning applies storytelling techniques across multiple platforms to create immersive educational experiences that enable manifold entry and exit points for learning and teaching. By utilizing constructivist and connectivist precepts in the application of these techniques, we can create pedagogies that are transformative on many levels. Encapsulating these notions in the concept of the Transmedia LearningWorld (TLW) allows educators to combine the exciting affordances of the digital technologies with real-life experiences and truly learner-focused pedagogies to produce profoundly productive and powerful learning experiences. In the US, the advent of Common Core State Standards is pushing schools and districts across the country to consider carefully the requirements for digital learning, including aspects of personalization, interoperability, taking our understanding of eLearning beyond a narrow focus on digital content, and encouraging significant shifts in pedagogical thinking and practice. The application of transmedia techniques and, in particular, the recognition of the power of the TLW give teachers tools that allow them to reach every child, including otherwise "reluctant" learners, and indeed that allow children themselves to drive their own learning. The digital novel "Inanimate Alice" is a proven example of a transmedia resource that can immerse students in an intense and motivating learning experience over time. Transmedia techniques leverage the power of collective intelligence in learners, and they enable educators to weave the narrative of curricula through media in a seamless and wholly interactive and participative fashion.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Opportunities, Multimedia Materials, Story Telling, Media Literacy

Gorlewski, Julie (2013). Research for the Classroom: Standards, Standardization, and Student Learning, English Journal. In this era of hyper-accountability, teachers are under ever-increasing pressure to demonstrate their worth–often using evidence that is far removed from what seems to be in the best interests of the students. Terms such as "value-added," "evidence-based," and "data-driven" dominate discussions about teaching effectiveness. More and more, teachers are evaluated on the basis of instruments that are developed far from classrooms and implemented with tightly regulated, top-secret procedures. Standards involve the development of clear, meaningful expectations. The concept of standards is desirable; no one would opt for low standards or no standards. Standardization, on the other hand, implies distance, objectivity, and fairness. Standardization connotes a one-size-fits-all approach, upholding the notion that "fair" and "equal" are synonymous. In the contemporary world of education, the two terms–"standards" and "standardization"–are often used interchangeably. This confuses the issue, and the author asserts that it has negative effects on teaching and learning and, therefore, on teachers and learners. As Common Core State Standards saturate experiences of education in the United States, it is important for teachers to clarify their understanding of the differences between standards and standardization to ensure that the implementation of the former does not result in some dreadful consequences associated with the latter. In this column, the author attempts to untangle the two terms and then considers the effects of each on teachers and students.   [More]  Descriptors: Classroom Research, Accountability, State Standards, Academic Standards

Schell, Emily M.; Mohan, Audrey; Roth, Kathleen J.; Barton, Keith C.; Bockenhauer, Mark H.; Bower, Bert; Gray, Paul T.; Hardwick, Susan W.; Johnson, Verneda E.; Lewis, Lydia J.; Ramirez, Dagoberto Eli; Rice, Gwenda; Rivet, Ann; Shouse, Andrew W.; Smith, Janet S. (2013). Road Map for 21st Century Geographic Education: Instructional Materials and Professional Development, Geography Teacher. Never before in human history has it been more important for a person to be geographically literate. But the unsettling reality is that many teachers and most students are not yet geographically literate. Currently, American students are not even provided opportunities to learn enough geography to understand the very basic aspects of the world in which they live. Without explicit intervention and a dedicated focus on geographic literacy by educators, curriculum developers, and policymakers, U.S. children will be unable to thrive in the global marketplace, unlikely to connect with and care for their natural environment, and unsure about how to relate to people from other parts of the world. One thing is abundantly clear; if American children hope to participate in democracy and play a strong leadership role in the world, they must possess geographic knowledge, understandings, and skills. The Instructional Materials and Professional Development Committee of the Road Map project gathered to identify the needs for geography education in this twenty-first century. These needs span every grade level in the nation's formal and informal education systems in public and private education. These needs extend beyond the stand-alone geography course and exist in science, technology, mathematics, social studies, arts, and English language arts courses as well. These needs can and should be addressed through carefully designed and properly implemented instructional materials and professional development. This article provides ten important recommendations for educators, developers, policymakers, and funders to seriously consider in supporting student learning, teacher learning, and large-scale collaboration and change in the field of geography education through instructional materials and professional development. Each recommendation is presented in the full report with a core argument and supporting research, vignettes of each recommendation in practice, examples of alignment with Common Core State Standards, additional information about recommended strategies or principles, and recommended readings.   [More]  Descriptors: Instructional Materials, Geography, Professional Development, Geography Instruction

US Department of Education (2013). Race to the Top. Delaware Report. Year 2: School Year 2011-2012. [State-Specific Summary Report]. This State-specific summary report serves as an assessment of Delaware's Year 2 Race to the Top implementation, highlighting successes and accomplishments, identifying challenges, and providing lessons learned from implementation from approximately September 2011 through September 2012. Despite some implementation challenges and delays during the second year of the grant, Delaware has made significant strides toward accomplishing its Race to the Top goals. Delaware Department of Education's (DDOE's) performance management processes improved the quality of the State's implementation of its plans in Year 2. DDOE provided support to its local educational agencies (LEAs) to assist them in developing and implementing their Race to the Top plans. Developing student growth measures for non-tested grades and subjects proved more challenging than anticipated, requiring the State to delay full implementation of Delaware Performance Appraisal System II (DPAS II) for one year from school year (SY) 2011-2012 to SY 2012-2013. This delay affected other areas and projects that depend on teacher effectiveness ratings, such as Human Capital Analytics and the Talent Transfer Initiative. In Year 3, Delaware plans on fully implementing DPAS II and incorporating student growth measures for teachers of non-tested grades and subjects. It will fully implement the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and college readiness programs including the Middle School Preparation Program. The Education Insight Portal will be available to all educators, as well as principals, district administrators, and DDOE staff. Delaware will continue to strive for continuous improvement by refining its programs based on educator feedback and its project management processes. A glossary is included. (Contains 9 footnotes.) [For "Race to the Top. Delaware Report. Year 1: School Year 2010-2011. [State-Specific Summary Report]," see ED529310.]   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Academic Standards, Accountability, Achievement Gap

ACT, Inc. (2013). The Condition of College & Career Readiness 2013: National. For nearly a decade, ACT has measured student progress in the context of college readiness. This report is ACT's annual report on the college readiness of the high school graduating class of 2013. The data in this report provides insights to catalyze and guide efforts to improve college and career readiness for the next generation of young people now making their way through the US education system. In 2013, 54% of the graduating class took the ACT¬Æ college readiness assessment. The increased number of test takers over the past several years enhances the breadth and depth of the data pool, which provides a comprehensive picture of the current graduating class in the context of readiness levels, and offers a glimpse of the emerging educational pipeline. This report reflects the following modifications that were prompted by results of the 2012 ACT National Curriculum Survey¬Æ: (1) Reformatting the ACT College Readiness Standards–Language was reformatted to better facilitate comparison between the ACT College Readiness Standards and the Common Core State Standards; (2) Updating the ACT College Readiness Benchmarks–Routine monitoring of the predictive validity of the benchmarks indicated a need to update the Reading and Science Benchmarks; and (3) Changing ACT aggregate reporting practices to now include college-reportable scores for accommodated students–Beginning with the "ACT Profile Report: Graduating Class 2013" and "The Condition of College & Career Readiness 2013," ACT summary reports include results from all ACT-approved accommodated administrations that result in college-reportable ACT scores. Notes pertain to the following: (1) ACT¬Æ College Readiness Assessment; (2) ACT National Curriculum Survey¬Æ; (3) ACT College Readiness Benchmarks; (4) ACT College Readiness Standards; and (5) Career Fields and Projected Job Openings.   [More]  Descriptors: College Readiness, Career Readiness, National Curriculum, Standards

Heck, Daniel J.; Weiss, Iris R.; Pasley, Joan D. (2011). A Priority Research Agenda for Understanding the Influence of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Technical Report, Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA. The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) were developed as part of a broader effort coordinated by the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers to develop common state standards in key subjects. Released in 2010, the CCSSM are intended to provide a blueprint for the mathematics that students should learn, and when they should learn that mathematics, to ensure that they are well prepared for college and careers when they graduate from high school. States, districts, schools, and teachers may choose to follow, or not follow, that blueprint; and those that do will likely differ in how they interpret it, what they plan to do about it, and their capacity to implement their plans. As a result, and because of considerable differences among school contexts and student populations, common standards are not likely to lead to the same results, either in implementation or in impacts on students. The goal of this project was to suggest a set of priorities for research that would provide the field with a reasonably broad and deep understanding of the influence of the CCSSM, including whether, how, and under what conditions the initiative results in improved student learning in grades K-12 and enhanced college/career readiness. This report provides background information on the CCSSM and on a framework for investigating the influence of standards developed by a committee of the National Research Council. The report then describes how we went about developing a priority research agenda; and concludes with the resulting recommendations for research on the influence of the CCSSM. The following appendices are included: (1) Potential Pathways of Influence: Teacher Preparation Domain; (2) Sample Indicators of Alignment; (3) Lines of Inquiry and Review Feedback; (4) Contributors; and (5) Other Research Areas of Interest for Understanding the Influence of the CCSSM. (Contains 5 footnotes, 1 table, and 2 figures.) [This report was written with the assistance of William O. Fulkerson, Adrienne A. Smith, and Shayla M. Thomas.]   [More]  Descriptors: Research Needs, Agenda Setting, State Standards, Influences

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