Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 789 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Aaron Wolfgang, Raquel Ward, Austin. Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs. Texas Univ., Dan Vicenti, Paula Matuszek, Isaura Santiago Santiago, Tom Cummings, Austin. Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Billy E. Askins, and Judith Rosenhouse.

Cummings, Tom (1975). Bilingual/Bicultural Law-Related Curriculum at Pine Hill High School, November 1975. For 5 years, Ramah Navajo High School (New Mexico) has researched, produced, and taught a bilingual bicultural law-related-curriculum that emphasizes the pluralistic legal environment in which Navajo students exist. The resulting 4-unit law-related curriculum is compiled from anthropological field data gathered by local legal specialists working with a consulting attorney and is an introduction to law ways, customary as well as formal, that are important as Navajo people meet the problems of contemporary everyday life. The case method is utilized, setting forth disputes, and illustrating how parties to disputes define problems and resolve them. Students participate in bilingual "moot courts" representing both cultures; utilize a bilingual dictionary compiled by the local legal and language specialists; view video tapes of tribal judges, prosecutors, and other legal officers familiar with local disputes; and students then evaluate the program through their comprehension of Anglo American legal concepts expressed in local language (Navaho and English), which is then reviewed by local advocates. Staff development involves training of: legal specialists in field study techniques to develop materials for the classroom; local advocates to give appropriate presentations in the classroom; and parent teachers to assist in classroom preparation, presentation, and evaluation. Descriptors: American Indian Culture, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Case Studies

Vicenti, Dan; And Others (1972). The Law of the People (Dine Bibee Haz'Aannii): A Bicultural Approach to Legal Education for Navajo Students, Volume 4. Volume 4 of a 4-volume bilingual bicultural law-related curriculum examines Navajo community life as it is affected by certain laws. Getting a job, obtaining assistance from welfare and other agencies, and preserving one's individual rights as an employee or as a student are all aspects of daily living with important legal ramifications. This unit explores each of these relationships, as well as important laws that help to shape them. Some of the laws discussed are Social Security, workmen's compensation, unemployment compensations, the food stamp program and other government health and child care programs, as well as child employment regulations in the State of New Mexico. The casebook contains examples of actual instances which are to be utilized in teaching this unit, but it is also suggested that the teacher write the Employment Security Commission and other Federal and State agencies to get forms and applications to be used in the classroom as teaching aids. Video tapes on food stamps and on the fair hearing process are available from the Ramah Bilingual Project (New Mexico), and should also be used in conjunction with this unit. Descriptors: American Indian Culture, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Case Studies

Wolfgang, Aaron, Ed. (1975). Education of Immigrant Students: Issues and Answers. Symposium Series, 5. Questions that confront teachers, administrators, and the many others involved in the education of immigrants are explored here by individuals with diverse backgrounds and points of view. The papers in this volume are written to examine a variety of issues in depth and to provide answers in relation to the education of immigrant students. While most of the contributors are speaking to the experiences of the immigrants in English speaking Canada, many of the issues are the same in French speaking regions. The papers deal with a broad range – from moral, philosophical, and ethical issues to issues in curriculum testing, counseling, teacher training, and multi-culturalism. There are some common threads running through the papers: the commonalities are in stressing the importance of, and ways of, promoting a positive self concept or identity among immigrants within a multicultural context, and seeking ways of facilitating communication between educators and immigrant students. The achievement of these common goals should benefit not only the immigrant but the native born students as well. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Communication Problems, Counseling Services, Cultural Background

Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin. (1975). Texas Migrant Labor. 1975 Annual Report. The Good Neighbor Commission of Texas coordinates the work of the Federal, State, and local government toward the improvement of travel and living and working conditions of Texas migrant laborers and their families. Covering the full spectrum of migrant labor activity directly related to the improvement of the well-being of migrant and seasonal farmworkers, the 1975 annual report chronicles the facts, conditions, and circumstances which focus on the socioeconomic plight of migrant families on a yearly basis. Statistical information which can be useful for the development of programs in addressing the migrant's needs is included. A brief overview of the Texas migrant laborer is given. The report also discusses Texas agriculture and migrant labor, alien labor and immigration, and various selected agencies and programs. Current developments in education education, housing, health, transportation, and labor unions are presented. A review of all the migrant legislation passed and rejected from the 54th legislative session to the present concerning migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the areas of health, education, housing, transportation, and welfare and social services is also presented. Descriptors: Agricultural Laborers, Annual Reports, Bilingual Education, Educational Programs

Matuszek, Paula; And Others (1977). Evaluation Design 1977-1978 ESEA Title VII Bilingual Program. A design for the evaluation of ESEA Title VII bilingual programs in the Austin Independent School District is presented. The following topics are included: (1) Evaluation Design Review Form; (2) decision questions including the actual questions addressed on three levels: the Office of Education-Level, the system-level and the project-level; (3) a narrative summary describing the program itself and the evaluation; (4) an information sources summary that includes the population, evaluation questions referenced, date collected and analysis techniques; (5) a summary of the data to be collected in the schools; (6) the evaluation time resources allocation summary; and (7) program planning sheets for each level.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Course Evaluation, Curriculum Evaluation, Educational Assessment

Askins, Billy E.; And Others (1976). Responsive Environment Early Education Program (REEEP): First Year Evaluation Study. Year-End Evaluation Report, 1975-76. Formerly the Responsive Environment Program for Spanish American Children, REEEP is an educational intervention program for 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old "high risk" (of low birth weight and with various handicaps) Spanish American children. Goals of REEEP, an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title III program, are to: prevent school failure with an intervention program which includes early identification and remediation of developmental learning deficiencies and to integrate handicapped children into the regular school program; provide in-service training to selected early childhood and kindergarten teachers and aides employed by various New Mexico school districts; and disseminate information concerning the program. Evaluation of the instructional activities was based on a pre-posttest design using standardized tests which measured language development in Spanish and English, school readiness, and self concept and personality development. In-service training and dissemination activities were subjectively evaluated using site-visits, observations, records, and self-reports by the staff. Major findings included: students made significant gains in language development in Spanish and English and in general school readiness; students developed and/or maintained a positive self concept and substantially developed in various dimensions of personality growth; and an outstanding in-service training program was provided.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Academically Handicapped, Bilingual Education, Demonstration Programs

Ward, Raquel; And Others (1974). Interviews of Bilingual Teacher Aides. November 1974. ESEA Title VII Bilingual Project. Formative Evaluation Report No. 5. A summary report is presented of interviews with 28 bilingual teacher aides who work in ten elementary Schools Austin Independent School District. The interviews were conducted to provide data to assist the project staff in assessing ongoing activities of the aides as well as specific process objectives. They were designed, therefore, with a two-fold purpose, namely to determine in what activities the aides were involved and to determine in what areas the aides needed help. The following areas of particular interest were identified for the interviews: (1) understanding of their role and responsibilities; (2) the kind of inservice training desired; (3) the greatest needs in the classroom; (4) help needed from the project staff; (5) time spent on various activities in the schools; (6) planning strategies; (7) subject areas usually taught in Spanish and English; (8) percentage of time used for each language; (9) daily and weekly schedules; and (10) general comments on the bilingual project. Results for each of the fifteen questions in the interview form are given, with a brief discussion of each. In addition to several specific conclusions, it is noted that, generally, averages for the aides reveal levels of performance comparable to those in the Title VII Project's proposal. A copy of the interview form and a list of additional comments are attached.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teacher Aides, Educational Assessment, Educational Needs

Vicenti, Dan; And Others (1972). The Law of the People (Dine Bibee Haz'Aannii): A Bicultural Approach to Legal Education for Navajo Students, Volume 2. Volume 2 of a 4-volume bilingual bicultural law-related curriculum deals with the evolution of a Navajo legal system. Navajo "law" was referred to by Navajos as "religion", thus Anglos viewed the Navajo as having no "law." Because of the complexity of this topic, it is suggested that the first sections covering this view be read and digested by teachers and professionals only, who then convey sufficient information to give the student a flavor of Navajor law, thus laying the basis for discussions of other units that focus on specific disputes. Among subjects covered in the first section are: Anglo influence on Navajo law; the Indian Bill of Rights; Navajo torts; "Navajo Legal Vocabulary: A Critical Analysis" defines and compares Navajo and Anglo terms such as law; the system and its players–a Navajo view; the parties and their functions; and roles (judge, jury, police). The third section deals with legal institutions and roles on the reservation as they have evolved, such as the: Navajo Tribal Police; courts and judges (including an interview with The Honorable Judge Tom B. Becenti, Courts of the Navajo Tribe); and role of the lay advocate (which includes interviews with Peterson Zah and Leonard B. Jimson). It is suggested that teachers have the students read and discuss the interview section. Descriptors: American Indian Culture, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Case Studies

Santiago, Isaura Santiago (1978). A Community's Struggle for Equal Educational Opportunity: Aspira v. Bd. of Ed. OME Monograph Number Two. A consent decree which grew out of a court case brought against the New York City Board of Education by Aspira, a Puerto Rican community agency, resulted in many changes in policies affecting the education of children of limited English-speaking ability in New York City schools, particularly during the two years following the signing of the agreement in 1974. This study (1) analyzes the complexity of institutions and forces that were involved in determining language-of-instruction policies and practices in New York city public schools prior to the suit, (2) places within a historical framework the efforts of Aspira and the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund (PRLDEF) to change language of instruction policies, (3) reconstructs the issues regarding the education of children of limited English-speaking ability raised during the suit's litigation, and (4) summarizes the impact of the consent decree on specific policies related to the implementation of the bilingual program which was stipulated, including policies regarding minimum educational standards, language assessment and grouping, personnel, finance, and parental rights. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Board of Education Policy, Board of Education Role, Community Influence

Askins, Billy E.; And Others (1978). Outreach Activities (Replication and Training Services) of the Responsive Environment Program for Spanish American Children (REPSAC). Final Evaluation Report, July 1, 1977-May 26, 1978, Third Year. The outreach activities component of the Responsive Environment Program for Spanish American Children (REPSAC), an extremely successful early childhood bilingual intervention program in Clovis, New Mexico, enabled the project to provide replication services to various local education agencies requesting such services. During 1977-78, student services were provided on-site at the replication centers (7 school districts and 3 Head Start Centers, all located in isolated areas in New Mexico). A specially designed and equipped motor coach took training to the replication centers. This training was evaluated by an external evaluation team via classroom visits; site visits with administrators, teachers, and aides; self-evaluation questionnaires from the trainees and trainers; and a review of various records/logs maintained by the outreach team. A follow-up study of former REPSAC students, who in 1977-78 were in grades 4-6, was conducted. Findings included: learning aptitude scores (IQ) remained relatively stable from the initial testing in the fall of 1971 to the testing in the spring of 1978; English language development scores gained substantially after the first year of intervention and again at the end of the second year of intervention; Spanish language development scores showed the greatest amount of fluctuation since the initial testing in 1971; the test results indicated that 90% of former REPSAC students were in regular classrooms and 10% in special education classes; and 2 students had been retained 1 grade and 5 students had required special assistance.  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Academically Handicapped, Bilingual Education, Elementary Education

Vicenti, Dan; And Others (1972). The Law of the People (Dine Bibee Haz'Aannii): A Bicultural Approach to Legal Education for Navajo Students, Volume 3. Volume 3 in a 4-volume bilingual bicultural law-related curriculum concerns Navajo traditional law as it pertains to the family, and compares these laws and customs to those of Anglo society. Case histories (gathered using anthropological field techniques) were compiled by paraprofessional legal advocates, and provide materials to be used in classrooms for role playing and discussions. Legal aspects that affect Navajo family members are presented and compared to those of the Anglo law and cover such areas as: marriage; parent and child relationships; divorce–division of property, custody of children, and their support; role of family members in the division of labor; and inheritance patterns–water rights, land, houses, livestock. The type of land Navajos live on are described in terms of: reservation lands (majority live on reservations); satellite reservation areas; allotted lands (individually owned); Navajo tribal trust lands; United States Government lands; lands leased by the tribe; and tribal ranches. Teachers are encouraged to have the students (high school or college level) read and discuss the materials and use them for role playing, as well as compare their own family customs to those presented in the text. Descriptors: American Indian Culture, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Case Studies

Askins, Billy E.; And Others (1976). Outreach Activities (Replication Services) of the Responsive Environment Program for Spanish American Children (REPSAC). Evaluation Report, November 29, 1974-June 30, 1976. In 1975-76, an outreach activities component enabled REPSAC (a highly successful early childhood bilingual intervention program) to provide replication services to various local education agencies requesting such services. Training was taken to the replication centers by a specially designed and equipped motor coach. During the year, the Fort Sumner, Artesia, and Carlsbad (New Mexico) school districts requested replication services. In addition, the Clovis-Portales Bilingual Early Childhood Program made replication, with training sites in Clovis and Portales. Teachers and aides were trained through visits by the outreach training team and a workshop at the parent center. Evaluation was conducted via: objective evaluations of the formal course; classroom visits; site-visits with administrators, teachers, and aides; self-evaluation questionnaires from the trainees and trainers; and a review of various records/logs maintained by the outreach training team. A follow-up of former REPSAC students in grades 1-4 was conducted. Findings included: teachers gained a good understanding of handicapping conditions and of how to adequately screen their children; the training workshop had a positive effect on the participants' teaching behavior; and the follow-up study indicated a downward trend for Spanish language development, a slightly upward trend for English language development; and a rather stable trend for learning aptitude.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Academically Handicapped, Bilingual Education, Early Childhood Education

Texas Univ., Austin. Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs. (1977). Federal Policies for Equal Educational Opportunity: Conflict and Confusion. Policy Research Project Report Number 23. This study examined conflicting Federal directives and gaps in Federal education policy from the perspective of the local school district, with the objective of determining problem areas in Federal policies and practices and developing a set of recommendations for change. Five areas of policy, finance and administrative procedures were examined: (1) Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA); (2) bilingual and bicultural programs, particularly Title VII of ESEA; (3) the Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA); (4) the policies of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR); and (5) directives of Federal court orders affecting the cities studied. The study was based primarily on two types of sources: (1) interviews with local officials and representatives and with HEW officials in regional and Washington offices; and (2) analyses of laws, regulations, documents and published materials that deal with Federal policies and procedures involving Title I, bilingual programs, ESAA, OCR, and court-ordered desegregation. The districts included in the study were Oakland, California; Montgomery County, Maryland; Denver, Colorado; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; and Corpus Christi, Texas. The recommendations developed represent an attempt to mesh the two major Federal approaches to equal educational opportunity–desegregation and compensation. The case studies indicate that the fragmentation of the Federal effort raises problems at the local level which minimize attempts to achieve equal educational opportunity. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Case Studies, Civil Rights, Compensatory Education

Rosenhouse, Judith (1977). A Method for Teaching English as a Second Language and its Evaluation. This paper describes the experience of two children, native-speakers of Hebrew, in a language center in England. The language center provides a total immersion program in English for a multi-lingual population of children aged 5 to 12 years. The small-group and individualized instruction, the instructional materials and facilities, and the close attention of the teachers contribute to a favorable learning atmosphere. Another advantage of the center is the elimination of feelings of inferiority. The older child, aged 10, spent one year in the center; the other, aged 8, spent a year and a half there before going into a regular school program. The following aspects of their language study are briefly discussed: (1) the center's method of teaching the English sound system, grammar and vocabulary; (2) the children's progress in learning the language; and (3) three tests given to the children to check their linguistic competence one year after they left the center. One conclusion drawn is that the favorable learning atmosphere at the center and "full immersion" in the environment contributed to the rapid learning of English by the two children.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Cultural Influences, Elementary Education

Vicenti, Dan; And Others (1972). The Law of the People (Dine Bibee Haz'Aannii): A Bicultural Approach to Legal Education for Navajo Students, Volume 1. Volume 1 of a 4-volume bilingual bicultural law-related curriculum is made up of legal case histories from traditional Navajo tribal and state court cases dealing with consumer problems and personal property disputes. These case histories, which were compiled by local legal specialists, provide "role playing" situations (buying a car, dealing with the trader) for Navajo high school and college students who exist in a pluralistic legal environment, and are a guide for others who deal with the Navajo people and their legal problems. Objectives of the consumer education volume include helping the student to: understand his own traditional law ways for handling consumer and property disputes and compare these to the Anglo law ways; recognize different informal dispute resolution techniques; understand how tribal and state courts can be used to get consumer protection; and understand the principles involved in contractual agreements, mortages, etc. Teaching devices include role playing in English and Navaho (in the classroom as well as in the community); use of the casebook (supplemented by video tapes); and community involvement (forming consumer cooperatives, investing in savings and loan associations). Evaluation (by paraprofessional parent teachers, local advocates, and students) is based on the ability of the students to understand Anglo legal concepts of dispute resolution and to express them in terms of local law ways. Descriptors: American Indian Culture, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Case Studies

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