Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 631 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Elaine V. Fauteux, Dennis Terdy, Patricia C. Gandara, Patricia Mendoza, James Burry, Washington Del Green Associates, Marta Samulon, Flora Ida Ortiz, Nancy Dew, and M. Beatriz Arias.

Gandara, Patricia C.; Samulon, Marta (1983). Factors Influencing the Implementation of Language Assistance Programs. A study of the existing local needs, resources, and services for limited English speaking residents of the United States was undertaken to clarify local, state, and federal responsibility for the provision of services. For a small but representative sample consisting of eight school districts serving minority language students, the study provides answers to five questions: (1) What services are being delivered? (2) How do the patterns of service vary by district type? (3) What specific deficiencies in language assistance services are perceived by beneficiary groups and educators? (4) What is the apparent cause of these deficiencies? and (5) Do local beneficiary groups and educators see any need for federal regulation, and if so, what should the rules encompass? Key findings include these: (1) services to language minority students vary enormously among school districts; (2) language assistance services are seldom available in secondary schools despite the growing need; (3) few districts have adequate means for identifying need or assessing when it is appropriate to terminate instruction; (4) districts have serious problems finding qualified teachers and materials for some less common language groups; and (5) programs most favored include those that involve local communities in developing appropriate services. Two broad recommendations are made: that federal regulation is needed to assure that districts do not neglect the education of language minority children, and that the federal government should support research and development to improve language assistance programs.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Delivery Systems, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language)

Ortiz, Flora Ida (1983). Instructional Systems for Bilingual Children. Instructional systems for bilingual children are extraordinarily under the teachers' control. The role teachers actualize and the classroom practices they engage in are determined by the teachers' work-orientations and incentive systems. Work-orientations and incentive systems are fundamental in the resolution of schooling dilemmas, i.e., control, curriculum, and societal. A teacher oriented towards the production of achievement and viewing teaching as the way to socially relate in the organization sees that children do well in school and derives pleasure from teaching. This teacher treats the child as a whole, thinking, rational being. The child's time, the way learning takes place, and the standards for classroom behavior and performance are under the teacher's control. Because this teacher enjoys teaching, presenting knowledge as a process in the classroom is commonplace. He or she views motivation as being at least partially extrinsic in that the teacher must activate it. As the teacher attempts to teach to all and produce achievement, a norm is created within the classroom which reflects an overall system of behavior rather than fragmented activities and expectations. It is through this means that the individual cultural characteristics of the students are integrated into a social system which goes about learning in a bilingual classrom. Thus, the instructional systems for bilingual children are under the teachers' control. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Elementary Education, Hispanic Americans

Crandall, Jo Ann (1985). Directions in Vocational Education for Limited English-Proficient Students and Adults. Occasional Paper No. 109. The United States has a large and rapidly growing population of limited English-proficient (LEP) students and adults. This population presents a distinct challenge to vocational educators. Some insights learned during the past decade suggest beneficial approaches to this problem. Four trends in current second-language acquisition research and language teaching are particularly relevant to the delivery of vocational education to LEP persons. These trends are the development of competency-based, functional, and task-oriented language learning programs; the increasing specialization of language instruction and the concomitant combining of English and content-area instruction; the distinction between communicative and cognitive language skills; and the development of a theory of language that maximizes meaningful input as its basis. A great deal has also been learned during the past few years about refugee and immigrant education programs, namely, that language needs, cultural orientation needs, other educational needs, support services needs, and vocational training needs must be met. In addition, insights have come from bilingual vocational training and instructor training programs, such as program models, bilingual program components, strategies for vocational instruction of LEP students, and coordinated vocational and English-language instruction. However, much more needs to be done in the future. Areas that need further investigation include individual assessment and program evaluation, development of vocational materials and vocational language materials in English and the native language, revision of licensing and certification procedures, and creation of programs to meet the needs of the least and most educated LEP students.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Improvement, Educational Needs, Educational Opportunities

Burry, James (1985). Documenting Evaluation Use: Guided Evaluation Decisionmaking. Evaluation Productivity Project. This paper documents the evaluation use process among districts using the Guide for Evaluation Decision Makers, published by the Center for the Study of Evaluation (CSE) during the 1984-85 school year. Included are the following: (1) a discussion of research that led to conclusions concerning the administrator's role in evaluation use; (2) a characterization of project objectives and how they grew out of research findings; (3) a description of the process of locating and selecting districts to implement the guide; (4) a description of each evaluation context (the use-affecting factors which emerged at each site, the application of the guide by administrators to promote use, success in applying the intended evaluation uses); (5) a discussion of implementation issues; (6) a synthesis of the results across sites; and (7) suggested implications for future practice. Appendices include a factor pattern for evaluation use, worksheets, organizing strategies from the guide, a letter of invitation and a project description, and questionnaires for evaluation.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Role, Bilingual Education Programs, Decision Making, Discipline Problems

Arias, M. Beatriz; Bray, Judith L. (1983). Equal Educational Opportunity and School Desegregation in Triethnic Districts. ECS Working Paper LEC-83-14. The legal and historical concerns regarding education for minorities other than Blacks–with an emphasis on the story for Hispanics–are the subject of this paper. It is argued that although the same legal rules apply to Hispanics as apply to a Black minority, language isolation requires a different approach. Non-Black racial minorities have a right to a meaningful education with special attention to language needs. This special attention, however, cannot be used to permanently segregate Hispanic and other language minority children. It is argued that only older students–those well skilled in their native tongue–benefit from English as a Second Language programs, while younger children do better in an integrated setting. The paper concludes that the goals of integration and attention the language needs of these children are compatible.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Desegregation Litigation, Educational Discrimination, Elementary Secondary Education

Mylona, Martha D. (1984). Notebook on Computer Literacy Training. A Plan for Computer Literacy Training for School Personnel. This document is designed to assist educators, trainers, instructional designers, program planners, and Title VII program directors involved in the computer education of bilingual children. The presented information will assist in identifying target learner needs in the area of computer utilization and applications. The document describes an initial effort for computer literacy training directed towards the specific needs of a specific group of teachers and teacher assistants at the Silvia School Local Educational Agency (LEA) in Fall River, Massachusetts. The target population consisted of a group of learners who are elementary school teachers and teacher assistants involved in the teaching of bilingual (Portuguese/English) children. The methodology selected for instructional curriculum mapping for each unit of training is a combination of the procedural and hierarchical approaches. This was determined by the nature of the topics of the curriculum, which involved such domains of learning as verbal information, intellectual skills, motor skills, cognitive strategies, and implicit attitudes throughout the curriculum. A needs analysis was the first critical step in identifying the content to be addressed during the short-term computer literacy training. The document includes the following sections: Preface; Rationale; Front-End Analysis; Goals and Objectives; and Training Program Outline. Appendices include: Sample Needs Assessment Instruments, Courseware Evaluation Protocol, News Release, Certificate of Participation, and Sources and Resources.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Computer Literacy, Curriculum Design, Curriculum Development

Colman, Rosalie M. (1981). English As a Second Language and the Salad Bowl Concept. World Education Monograph Series, Number Four. The salad bowl concept is discussed and the increasing importance of teaching English as a second language (ESL) is examined in this paper. When melting pot theory failed to preserve the values of cultural creativity and diversity of America's many immigrant groups, a new and better idea was born–the notion of the salad bowl. This concept implies that each individual from a different cultural background is encouraged to retain his or her own uniqueness while adding special flavors to enhance the whole. The salad is made richer by the number and variety of its ingredients. The ingredients in the vast salad bowl must have the "dressing." All U.S. citizens must be able to communicate in English as well as their mother tongues. English as a second language cannot simply be poured over the top of the salad. American English is a difficult language and requires time to learn. The dilemma is how to obtain the expertise needed to instruct the many new people who continue to come here and to find the funds needed to support this vital work. Educators have made much progress in two areas: (1) teaching Americans to recognize the value of international understanding based on language fluency, and (2) methods and techniques for teaching ESL. The most effective ESL teachers are the people who have themselves learned a second language. Regarding teaching methods for ESL, eclectic approaches drawn from methods such as the grammar-translation method, the audio-lingual method, and the functional-notional method seem to be the best procedures presently known. ESL teaching has become so critical that many colleges and universities have begun special programs to prepare ESL educators.   [More]  Descriptors: Acculturation, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Cultural Differences

Holtzman, Wayne H., Jr.; Mendoza, Patricia (1984). Decision Models to Assist in Assessment Procedures for Bilingual Exceptional Children. The reasons for overrepresentation of Hispanic children in the learning disability service category are examined, and two assessment models designed to accommodate the needs of limited English proficient (LEP) and bilingual exceptional children are analyzed. The first model, a modification of J. Tucker's model, proposes parent consultation at every stage of the assessment process and relies on a variety of different types of data from different sources. P. Mendoza's Coordinated Service Delivery Model is also described, and its advantages are noted to include delineation of procedural safeguards at the preassessment stage to validate referral of culturally/linguistically different students or LEP students. This model emphasizes determination of specific levels of language proficiency through a comprehensive language assessment. It is suggested that an integration of two models holds the most promise. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Cultural Differences, Decision Making, Elementary Secondary Education

Fradd, Sandra H.; And Others (1985). Meeting the Educational Needs of Limited English Proficient Students: Policy Issues and Perspectives. Teacher Training Monograph No. 1. Teacher Training Project for Bilingual & English to Speakers of Other Languages Teachers. This teacher training monograph examines education and policy issues as they relate to the education of limited English proficient (LEP) students. Federal involvement in educational policy on behalf of both handicapped and linguistically different children is traced from the 1960s to the present. Litigation influencing legislation on behalf of these students and issues of educational services is examined, and four cases involving the rights of LEP students are discussed. Major legislation covering LEP, minority, and handicapped students is described. The responsibilities of school districts with LEP students are outlined. These include: (1) taking steps to locate the students; (2) testing for special education placement in students' native language; (3) using placement teams with persons coversant in the students' native language; (4) meeting the language needs of LEP parents; (5) altering programs to meet LEP student needs.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Court Litigation, Disabilities, English (Second Language)

Del Green Associates, Washington, DC. (1983). A Review of Research Affecting Educational Programming for Bilingual Handicapped Students. Final Report, Volume 1. The first (containing chapters 1 through 5) of two volumes begins a review of research regarding educational programming for bilingual handicapped students. The following major topics are addressed: (1) demography (socioeconomic ties, geographic location/residential patterns); (2) assessment (legal mandates, nondiscriminatory assessment); (3) cognitive-linguistic development and language-culture ties; (4) teacher training (critical competencies, characteristics of current training programs, model training programs); and (5) curriculum and instructional methods (locus of control and learned helplessness, second language acquisition). Chapters typically include recommendations for policy, references, and a substantial annotated bibliography.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Cultural Influences, Curriculum, Demography

D'Alu, Maria Jose Miranda de Sousa (1982). Matematica 2. Manual do Professor (Mathematics 2. Teacher's Manual). This teacher's manual accompanies a mathematics textbook for second graders, written in Portuguese. Developed from objectives set forth by the National Portuguese Materials Development Center, it follows closely the objectives and methodology of major curricula used in schools of the United States. Consideration was given to the Portuguese child's environment, since this factor is felt to exert a definite influence on the learning process. Attention was also placed on the affective domain, as well as on the moral and cultural values of the child. The thirteen chapters deal with: numeration (0-999); addition with and without regrouping; subtraction with and without regrouping; commutative and associative properties; length, time, weight, capacity, and temperature measurements; money; geometric figures, perimeter, and graphs; fractions; multiplication; divisibility; and word problems. For each lesson, the guide presents (in Portuguese): objectives, introduction, activities, sample exercises, practice exercises, review, and evaluation.   [More]  Descriptors: Answer Keys, Bilingual Education, Computation, Elementary Education

Terdy, Dennis (1984). "So What Do You Do in There Anyway?". There is a widespread lack of understanding of what bilingual and English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction consist of, and the day-to-day classroom operations are not easy to explain. Both bilingual and ESL instruction have seen rapid expansion in recent years, and the instructional and curricular approaches have been refined. It has been found that rather than emphasizing only discrete language skills, ESL teachers need to provide learning strategies that will apply to the acquisition of language skills beyond the specialized bilingual or ESL program. Sources are suggested for learning strategies in oral language, reading, and writing, as well as for articulation of the specialized program with mainstream instruction. Bilingual and ESL instructors have three basic responsibilities at all levels, to: (1) know fully the methodologies and curricula of the respective fields; (2) know and teach strategies in the essential skill areas of listening, speaking, reading, and writing; and (3) know what skills students need upon exit from the instructional program. Descriptors: Articulation (Education), Bilingual Education, Educational Objectives, Educational Strategies

Fauteux, Elaine V.; And Others (1984). La famille, l'automne, l'identite, l'ecole (The Family, Autumn, Identity, and School). Curriculum Guide: Levels K, 1, 2, 3. The curriculum guide for a series of French language lessons includes four units graded for levels K, 1, 2, and 3. The units cover the topics of the family, autumn, identity, and school. In each unit there are four graded lessons. Each lesson contains a set of objectives for the lesson, followed by a series of exercises matched to the objectives. The exercise for each objective consists of teacher notes on materials needed, description of a demonstration the teacher is to perform, a number of specific activities for applying the concept or material addressed, and one or more evaluation techniques. When applicable the lesson also includes vocabulary and phrase lists. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Curriculum Guides, Elementary Education, Family Life

Dew, Nancy (1984). The Exceptional Bilingual Child: Demography. This investigative report analyzes 1978-83 enrollment data from two national studies, selected state studies (California, Florida, Massachusetts, and New Jersey) and local school district studies (New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago) in order to determine the prevalence of exceptional bilingual students, examine general trends, and report recommendations for future data collection. Among the variables cited as affecting the accuracy of prevalence rates for culturally and linguistically diverse exceptional (CLDE) students are changing CLDE definitions, misdiagnosis, sampling error, the role of the individual school in referral and placements, and reluctance to stigmatize CLDE students as handicapped. Review of the national studies leads to such findings as that district size and racial composition correlate to disproportionate special education enrollment, and that districts with the highest disproportion levels tend to have the smallest proportion of students in bilingual programs. Among conclusions of the analysis of the state studies is that where the Hispanic population makes up more than 1% or more of the state's total population there is a trend toward underenrollment of Hispanics in gifted and talented programs and over-enrollment in classes for the mentally retarded. Analysis of the local district studies also revealed a disproportionate representation of limited-English-speaking or non-English speaking pupils in special education programs. One of 11 recommendations is that the school districts should collect and analyze information regarding the number of referrals to special education by language proficiency level within each ethnic group. Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingual Students, Cultural Differences, Demography

Brownsville Consolidated Independent School District, TX. (1986). El Arco Iris (The Rainbow): a Bilingual Prekindergarten Instructional Television (ITV) Project. An exemplary prekindergarten television program, developed by the Brownsville, Texas Independent School District, is described. The program, intended for Spanish-speaking four-year-olds, is an alternative to providing an in-school program necessitating classrooms, teaching staff, materials, and equipment. The program prepares students for formal schooling, promotes parent participation, emphasizes the importance of education, and promotes maximum language development in both Spanish and English. The unique requirement of the program is parent participation. Parents and children attend the viewing of an instructional videotape and then are grouped separately; aides reinforce the lesson's objectives with the children while other aides discuss the lesson with parents and demonstrate at-home enrichment activities. Each videotape has three components: a lesson, storytelling, and a home activity. A video character acts as a friend to the children and elicits responses and questions during the viewing. The program's effectiveness is illustrated by increased attendance in subsequent regular classes, improved performance on standardized tests, and higher than average performance in subsequent grades among program participants. Sample one-week children's and parents' lesson plans, the instructional television schedule, a list of lessons, and a list of television network participating stations are included. Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Demonstration Programs, Educational Television, English (Second Language)

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