Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 305 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Boston. Bureau of Equal Educational Opportunities. Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Edward J. Frischholz, Washington Department of Education, Milo Kalectaca, Eleanor Jones, Trenton. New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Patty Garcia-Hashas, Denise McKeon, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development. Texas Education Agency, and Sheila Lehman.

Jones, Earl; Jones, Eleanor (1982). Redwood City School District ESEA Title VII Bilingual Project LEARN. 1981-1982 Annual and Longitudinal Report. The Redwood City School District Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title VII Bilingual Education Program offered instruction in English and Spanish through an integrated approach, to take advantage of students' strengths and help them progress as rapidly as possible in concept development while they acquire English proficiency. The limited English proficiency (LEP) students were identified first through the Home Language Survey, and those who spoke Spanish were administered the English and Spanish version of the Language Assessment Scales in 1981. Those classified as limited or non-English speaking were enrolled in the program with parental consent. Fluent English-speaking pupils were recruited to provide a non-segregated envioronment. The Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills English and Spanish examinations were administered. Project Leyendo, Escribiendo, y Aprendiendo Rapidamente y Naturalmente–Reading, Writing, and Learning Rapidly and Naturally (LEARN)–demonstrated unusually positive results. LEP students approached the national norm in English reading, language, and mathematics; they also were near the norm in Spanish reading and mathematics. The progress was substantial and more than is generally encountered in a large program. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Basic Skills, Behavioral Objectives, Bilingual Education Programs

McKeon, Denise (1987). Different Types of ESL Programs. ERIC Digest. The organization of English as a second language (ESL) programs varies greatly, according to the student population, individual student characteristics, and district resources. They can be broadly categorized as either stand-alone ESL or ESL-plus. In general, stand-alone programs group limited-English-proficient (LEP) students together and instructs them in a manner similar to that used in foreign language classes. The program focus is primarily linguistic. ESL-plus programs may include a component of special instruction in and about English, but also provide content area instruction, in English or the first language. They generally occupy more or all of the instructional day. Stand-alone program types include pull-out programs, instruction during a regular class period, and a variation on the pull-out program bringing together students from a number of schools in a resource center. ESL-plus program types include bilingual education, structured immersion, sheltered English or content-based, and high-intensity language training programs. Choosing a program design for a given set of circumstances is complex, but the best program organization (1) is tailored to meet the students' linguistic, academic, and affective needs; (2) provides LEP students with the instruction necessary for progress through school at a rate similar to their native English-speaking peers; and (3) makes the best use of district and community resources.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Demography, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language)

Lehman, Sheila; Frischholz, Edward J. (1983). Project Parents: Awareness, Education, Involvement Program. O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1981-1982. The Project Parents: Awareness, Education, Involvement Program is an educational program which is conducted by the New York City Schools and involves 144 parents with children in elementary level bilingual education programs or eligible for such programs. While the focus of the program is on parents, its goal is the enhanced educational achievement of the children. Through a structured program of classes, workshops, and technical assistance, as well as a variety of participatory experiences, parents receive instruction in English as a second language, preparation for the General Equivalency Diploma, and lessons in effective communication. Also emphasized in the program are staff and curriculum development. Assessment of the program in its second year shows that (1) the project is received positively by school administrators and other staff members; (2) the program seems conceptually well-grounded, genuinely innovational, and potentially able to address the unmet needs for participation, training, and support among parents of bilingual children, with great success; (3) classroom sessions and workshops are well structured; (4) staff members function at a high level of professionalism; and (5) the parental participation component of the program is highly successful. Suggestions for full implementation, instructional materials, and other workshop evaluation materials are included in this report.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Curriculum Development, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language)

District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. (1983). Comprehensive Education Plan: "Improving the Quality of Teaching and Learning." School Year 1983-84. This document presents in detail the master plans for the 1983-84 school year of the District of Columbia public schools. Priority areas were identified as instruction, management improvement, planning, quality assurance, resource development, and community relations. General statements of long-range objectives and achievement indicators are outlined for each of these areas. Desired learning outcomes are discussed. An analysis of test results is presented with identification of systemwide target areas for improvement. Descriptions are given of development in instructional programs in the areas of: (1) competency-based curriculum; (2) educational technology; (3) public/private partnerships; (4) career development; (5) adult, continuing education and staff development; (6) special education and pupil personnel services; and (7) bilingual education. Efforts currently underway in working with educationally disadvantaged children are described. Program summaries are given for basic skill development and educational improvement and support services. Statements on long-range goals from the offices of the educational policymakers for the District of Columbia are presented. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Competency Based Education, Curriculum Design, Educational Objectives

Kalectaca, Milo; Salas, Dennis (1982). American Indian Language Development Institute – 1982: Synthesis and Analysis of Data Volume I. The 1982 American Indian Language Development Institute, sponsored by the Center of Indian Education and Bilingual Education Service Center at Arizona State University, provided training for eight Title VII projects during the summer of 1982. Training included developing an orthography for nine tribal languages, establishing each language as a viable means of perpetuating tribal heritage and identity, and using each language as an effective means of building English language skills in students through the transferral process. A parent training component was also conducted for five parents from each of the projects participating. The component offered training in policy and decision-making processes, education methodology, curriculum and materials development, process of evaluation, and other aspects to assist in parent involvement. Participants and staff/consultants evaluated the institute a success and provided suggestions for improvement for the two forthcoming years. Participating Title VII projects were Peach Springs (Hualapai), Supai (Havasupai), Sacaton (Pima), Sells (Papago), Santa Rosa (Papago), San Simon (Papago), Duckwater (Shoshone), and Fort Duchesne (Ute). Background information is provided on the administration, staff/consultants, 38 participants, and instructional climate. Appendices contain evaluation instruments used to evaluate the Institute and pictures of the participants.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indian Languages, Bilingual Education, Cultural Background

Christner, Catherine A.; And Others (1986). 1985-86 Overlap Study, Spring, 1986. The Austin (Texas) Independent School District undertakes its annual Program Overlap study to examine the numbers of students being served by special or compensatory programs. In 1985-86, these programs served 13,817 students at 79 elementary and secondary schools. Programs or student groups included: (1) 1- and 5-year Migrant Students Served by a Migrant Teacher; (2) 1- and 5-year Migrant Students Not Served by a Migrant Teacher; (3) Education Improvement and Consolidation Act Chapter 1 Regular Program; (4) Chapter 1 Schoolwide Project; (5) State Compensatory Education–Elementary; (6) State Compensatory Education–Schoolwide Project; (7) Bilingual Education; (8) English as a Second Language Program for Limited-English-Proficient (LEP) Students; (9) LEP Bilingual Instruction as Part of Special Education; (10) Hispanic LEP Students in Title VII Project Schools; (11) Special Education; (12) Teach and Reach Program–Reading and/or Mathematics; and (13) PLUS Supplemental Program, in reading and/or mathematics. Of the total, 11,460 (82.9%) students were served by one program; 2,081 (15.1%) by two programs; and 276 (2%) by three or four programs. Comparison with figures from the three previous years show a trend toward slightly larger percentages of students enrolled in two or more programs. Tables present duplicated and unduplicated counts of students participating in each combination of programs, by individual school and across all schools, including new categories for some eligible students who are not served.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Compensatory Education, Elementary School Students, Elementary Secondary Education

Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Planning, Budget, and Evaluation. (1985). Annual Evaluation Report, Fiscal Year 1985. U.S. Department of Education. This report, a guide to 95 programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education, covers activities current as of September 30, 1985. Program profiles identify the enabling legislation, funding since 1981, the purpose of the program, and for some programs eligibility, strategies, and subprograms. Also specified for each program are: program objectives for fiscal year (FY) 1985, progress and accomplishments, costs and benefits, program effectiveness, highlights of activities, and a list of supporting studies and analyses. Any studies of the program that are planned or in progress are also listed, along with information contacts. The directory covers: 21 programs under the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, 5 programs under the Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs, 25 programs under the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, 7 programs under the Office of Vocational and Adult Education, 24 programs under the Office of Postsecondary Education, and 13 programs under the Office of Educational Research and Improvement. A summary of evaluation contracts active during FY 1985 is provided in an appendix. For each contract, the following data is supplied: the funding amount, brief description of the contract, the contractor's name and contract number, start and end dates, and project officer's name. An index to the 95 programs is appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Bilingual Education, Contracts, Educational Research

Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Planning, Budget, and Evaluation. (1986). Annual Evaluation Report, Fiscal Year 1986. U.S. Department of Education. A guide to 99 programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education, covering activities as of September 30, 1986, is presented in this 16th annual report to Congress. Program profiles identify the enabling legislation, funding since 1981, the purpose of the program, and for some programs eligibility, strategies, and subprograms. Also specified for each program are: program objectives for fiscal year (FY) 1985, progress and accomplishments, costs and benefits, program effectiveness, highlights of activities, and a list of supporting studies and analyses. Any studies of the program that are planned or in progress are also listed, along with information contacts. The report covers: 21 programs under the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (e.g., Education of Disadvantaged Children); 5 programs under the Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs (e.g., Transition Program for Refugee Children); 27 programs under the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (e.g., Handicapped State Grant Program); 7 programs under the Office of Vocational and Adult Education (e.g., Basic Grants to States); 24 programs under the Office of Postsecondary Education (e.g., Pell Grants); and 13 programs under the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (e.g., Territorial Teacher Training Assistance Program). For evaluation contracts active during FY 1986, information is appended on: the funding amount, brief description of the contract, the contractor's name and contract number, start and end dates, and project officer's name.  An index to the 99 programs is also included.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Bilingual Education, Contracts, Educational Research

Schuyler, Nancy; Garcia-Hashas, Patty (1986). A Look at Programs for Limited English Speakers. Austin Independent School District 1985-86. Executive Summary. An examination of the effectiveness of programs for limited-English proficient (LEP) students in the Austin Independent School District (AISD) derived information on LEP student counts, programs and services for LEP students, program costs, and LEP student achievement. Information indicated that the count of LEP students was growing (3,042 in 1985-86), especially in kindergarten and first grade. Services provided to LEP students include transitional bilingual education and English as a second language (ESL). Bilingual/ESL certified teachers provided services to both Hispanic and Vietnamese students. Although the supply of certified teachers was increasing, staffing did not always match needs. Bilingual aides were assigned to assist with program implementation, but were not cost effective when compared with increases in student achievement. Since all LEP students could not be tested in English, English achievement could not be measured accurately; however, it appeared the AISD's bilingual/ESL program was helping LEP students' proficiency. Spanish-speaking LEP students remained below the national average, but were improving. Vietnamese students achieved above the national average in mathematics and language and were closing the gap in reading. Instructional remedies must be sought, however, to prevent gains of less than 1 grade equivalent per year for Spanish LEP students in grades 2 and 4.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teacher Aides, Bilingual Teachers, Cost Effectiveness

Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston. Bureau of Equal Educational Opportunities. (1984). Boston School Desegregation. Report No. 2 to the United States District Court, District of Massachusetts, Volume I. This monitoring report on desegregation in Boston public schools covers a six-month period of school operations and is based upon data collected throughout the fall of 1983. First, the previous report (ED 236 277-278) is reviewed and updated, and the desegregation agenda for 1984 is discussed. Findings are then presented for each of the 12 monitoring areas enumerated in the Orders of Disengagement entered by the Federal District Court Judge in December 1982. These areas are (1) student assignments, (2) staff desegregation, (3) special desegregation measures in specific schools, (4) special education, (5) bilingual education, (6) vocational and occupational education, (7) transportation, (8) facilities, (9) school safety and security, (10) student discipline, (11) institutional pairings (with colleges, universities, and cultural institutions), and (12) parent and student organizations. For each of these areas, the Court mandate is re-stated, the information-gathering process is described, findings are presented for each component objective, and commendations and recommendations are presented. Finally, brief notes are added on the dispute resolution process (which was invoked five times during the monitoring period covered) and the procedure for modification of outstanding desegregation orders (which was not invoked during this period). Descriptors: Bilingual Education, College School Cooperation, Compliance (Legal), Conflict Resolution

New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. (1985). New Jersey's Design for Educational Excellence. New Jersey has proposed state and local programs to help solve educational problems in the areas of the teaching profession, student performance, and educational leadership. To continue a supply of talented teachers, the state has developed initiatives such as a minimum salary increase, a recruitment program for top high school graduates, reformed certification standards and procedures, financial incentives and professional recognition, and new guidelines for seniority. In the area of student performance, New Jersey has increased the rigor and scope of its graduation test, established new English standards for bilingual education, and instituted several programs to improve student behavior. Higher standards for educational leadership have also been set at the state and local levels. For example, the State Department of Education has been reorganized, regional curriculum service units have been set up, the local district monitoring system has been refined, new standards for effective management and financial practices have been put in place, new programs in science, math and computer, and vocational education have been designed, and initiatives to address deficiencies at the district and individual school level have been proposed. Through these reforms, New Jersey has dedicated itself to facing today's educational problems today. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education, Curriculum Development, Educational Change

Defino, Maria E.; Jenkins, Vivian (1985). State Compensatory Education: Final Technical Report, 1984-85. This report documents the purpose, procedures and results for each information source used in the evaluation of the 1984-85 State Compensatory Education (SCE) program in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District. The majority of this document presents seven appendices, each devoted to an aspect of the program: (1) Management Information System; (2) School Characteristics and SCE Achievement Gains; (3) Teacher Service Report; (4) Counselor Service Report; (5) Project Achieve; (6) Planner Logs; and (7) Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE). The results indicate four major positive findings. First, in response to the central information need created by the 1984 legislation (House Bill 72) regarding Annual Performance Reports to the Texas Education Agency, a series of computer screens was developed containing school statistics on as many as 23 variables. Second, seventh grade TBE participants made strong gains in the reading, language, and mathematics subscales of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS). Eighth grade (TBE) students made greater than expected gains in reading and mathematics ITBS subscales. Third, all SCE-eligible, Hispanic Limited English Proficient students had access to bilingually certified classroom teachers. Fourth, crisis interventions accounted for only 4% of the total number of counselor interventions. Major findings requiring further action involve teachers' use of pull-out formats; whether full focus was on the funded target population; and Project Achieve's lack of visibility.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Achievement Gains, Basic Skills, Bilingual Education Programs

Curiel, Herman (1987). Legalizing the Status of English: A New Form of Oppression for Language Minority Groups. The English-only movement, which promotes a Constitutional Amendment that would make English the official language of the United States, represents a threat to the Constitutional rights of non-English speaking citizens. This nation's founders–faced with a linguistically and culturally diverse population–did not see a need to mention language choice at all either in the Declaration of Independence or the Constitution. From the colonization period to World War I, bilingual schooling was common. World War I fostered nationalism and isolationism in the United States, and the existing cultural pluralism shifted toward cultural assimilation. The modern revival of public bilingual education in the United States evolved in the 1960's in the context of minority rights. The 1980's have seen a return to nationalism, isolationism, and low tolerance for cultural differences. In this political climate, a small but growing group of legislators, backed by a private organization known as U.S. English, has launched a campaign to eliminate the public use of non-English languages. The English-only proponents are not just fearful–they are confused, and they have not learned from history. What keeps the U. S. society together is tolerance for cultural, religious, social, political, and even linguistic differences.   [More]  Descriptors: Acculturation, Bilingual Education, Civil Rights, Constitutional Law

Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development. (1987). Science Framework, Kindergarten-Grade 12. This publication is designed to aid school administrators, curriculum planners, and teachers in implementing the science education program in Texas public schools. The framework organizes instruction for kindergarten through grade 12 around certain widely accepted processes of science. These processes are reflected in the identified essential elements of instruction the State Board of Education requires school districts to offer. Each essential element has subelements that provide content for particular grades and courses. The essential elements and subelements provide opportunities for students to be involved in concrete activities in kindergarten through grade 6 and in laboratory and field activities in grades 7-12. In addition, the framework encompasses science programs for special student populations, including special education, gifted and talented education, compensatory education, bilingual education, and migrant education. The document is divided into four major sections: Overview of the Science Program, Elementary Science, Secondary Science, and Special Student Populations and Science. The appendices contain examples of alternative assessment procedures and basic materials and equipment lists. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Course Content, Course Descriptions, Elementary School Science

Duran, Richard P.; And Others (1985). Language Factors and Hispanic Freshmen's Student Profiles. College Board Report No. 85-3. This study investigated the role of language factors as potential determinants of Hispanics' educational progress. Language background factors included exposure to, use of, and proficiency in both Spanish and English, and the students' perceptions of those factors. They were studied in relation to standardized measures of college aptitude and achievement. Data were drawn from a survey of Hispanic freshmen in 17 four-year colleges. The information gathered related to language background and high school academic experiences, employment and extracurricular activities in high school, educational aspirations, family background, college entrance examination scores, place of birth, language usage, bilingual education, proficiency in English and Spanish, and academic interactions in college. Correlations were made between survey responses and test scores. The principal findings were that: a large number of questions not included in the College Board's Student Descriptive Questionnaire (SDQ) were more highly related to test scores than the existing SDQ question relating to language use; questions probing language preference and self-ratings of English proficiency were the best predictors of verbal test scores; many language survey questions improved prediction of test scores by ten points or more when combined with the existing SDQ question; and the importance of the questions in prediction varied by language group, with survey questions being most important for Puerto Ricans. Appendices contain a general outline of communication skills and the survey instrument and accompanying materials.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education, College Entrance Examinations, College Freshmen

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