Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 301 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Richard L. Light, Los Angeles. California Univ., Catherine M. Lee, Charles H. Herbert, Robert M. Offenberg, Rosa Maria Gonzalez, John C. Wilkinson, Thomas R. Holland, Suzanne Sockey, and Grant Von Harrison.

California Univ., Los Angeles. (1971). Workpapers: Teaching English as a Second Language, Volume V. This is the fifth volume of work papers on the teaching of English as a second language. The topics are varied and cover a large area of related subjects. The titles in this volume include: "The Interaction of Dialect and Style in Urban American English,""Trends in English Abroad,""Some Thoughts on Bilingual Education for Mexican American Children in California,""A Lecture on Reading,""Composition: Control and Communication,""Application of Question and Answer Drills to Group Work,""Two Functions of English Articles,""Instant TESL: or, The Possibilities of Short-Term 'Training',""A Language Aptitude Test for the Japanese (GTT),""Transfer and Interference as Special Cases of Induction and Substitution,""Difficulty, Contrastive Analysis, and Predictability,""Problems in ESL and TESL at UCLA: A Seminar Report,""Cockneys and Cockney Rhyming Slang: Some Unscientific but Affectionate Observations from the Notebook of a Sabbatical Traveller,""Phonetics vs. Phonemics in the ESL Classroom: When Is Allophonic Accuracy Important?,""Experience, Knowledge, and the Computer,""notes," and "A Reading Program for ESL Primary Students." Abstracts of masters theses are also included.   [More]  Descriptors: Applied Linguistics, Aptitude Tests, Bilingual Education, Computers

Offenberg, Robert M.; And Others (1972). Let's Be Amigos: Title VII Bilingual Project. Evaluation of the Second Year 1970-1971. The "Let's Be Amigos" bilingual education program seeks to meet the needs of both Spanish-speaking pupils living in the Philadelphia community and English-speaking pupils living in linguistically diverse neighborhoods. This document presents an evaluation of the three curriculum formats used in the program during the second year. The Model A program uses a team-teaching approach, in which an English-speaking and a Spanish-speaking teacher work with a pair of classes, each having English- and Spanish-speaking pupils. For language instruction in each language, the groups are homogeneous; the groups are mixed for joint activities. The Model B program, not fully implemented, makes use of itinerant, second language specialists working with homogeneous Latino and Anglo classes in second language instruction. Mother-tongue instruction is provided by native speakers. Ideally, both classes would participate in joint activities. In the Arriba program, pupils who have begun their education in a Spanish-speaking area and who need or wish to study in Spanish study science, mathematics, and social studies in Spanish and English as a second language in grades three through twelve. This report describes the objectives and procedures of each program and provides a detailed evaluation of each. For an evaluation of the first year, see ED 046 295. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Educational Objectives

Robinett, Betty Wallace (1972). The Domains of TESOL. The domains of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) are those spheres of concern involving persons who speak languages other than English or dialects of English other than the standard. This clientele has been classified traditionally in terms of programs in English as a foreign language, English as a second language, English as a second dialect, and bilingual education. This paper suggests a classification of these various groups by a configuration which differentiates yet relates them to each other by placing them along a continuous line running from one extreme, that of the non-English speaker, to the other extreme, that of the speaker of standard English. It is suggested that each program is an individual operation distinguished from others by variables such as student population, motivation, and teaching and administrative personnel. It is noted that heretofore methods and materials developed principally for one group (English as a foreign language) have been used for populations in various programs, and it is suggested that the TESOL organization should encourage research in linguistics, sociolinguistics, and psycholinguistics which will perhaps aid in the development of new strategies of teaching for all the programs which exist in the TESOL domains. Descriptors: American Indians, Applied Linguistics, Bilingual Education, Cultural Pluralism

Gonzalez, Rosa Maria (1996). Bilingual/ESL Programs Evaluation, 1995-96. Publication Number 95-01. An evaluation of the bilingual education (BE) and English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) programs provided to limited English proficient (LEP) students by the Austin Independent School District (AISD) (Texas) looks at enrollment rates and trends and student achievement within the programs. In 1995-96, AISD enrolled 10,290 LEP students, about 14 percent of the district's total enrollment. Of these 92 percent were Spanish speakers and 3 percent Vietnamese speakers. Most (9,059) were served by BE and ESL programs; parents of 1,231 refused services (refusals). Cost per served student was $204 above the regular district allocation. Both number and percentage of LEP students has increased yearly for 8 years. Achievement of LEP students, measured by standardized tests, is generally below state and national comparison groups. Students participating in and exiting BE/ESL programs showed better academic progress, dropped out less often, and had fewer disciplinary problems than others. LEP students served had higher grades, attendance rates in secondary school, and fewer discipline problems than refusals.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education Programs, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language)

Light, Richard L. (1969). On Language Arts and Minority Children. Education for minority group children has been completely inadequate through the failure of educators to understand sympathetically the children's linguistic and cultural backgrounds and through the erroneous emphasis upon replacing "poor speech habits" rather than adding a second dialect (standard English). To help reduce the gap between ideals proclaimed by national educational advisors and actual conditions, the USOE supplies funds for several programs: (1) the Bilingual Education Act provides for instruction in a child's first language as well as in standard English, thus assuring status for his own culture; (2) the Career Opportunities Program promotes the recruitment and training of low-income and minority group high school graduates for work with disadvantaged youth; and (3) the Triple T Program trains the trainers of teachers and other educators, and implements permanent changes in institutions which have failed to prepare educators of minority children–especially in the language arts. Those working with children whose first language is not standard English must have an understanding of the nature of language and the cultural, social, and classroom factors of second language learning.   [More]  Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Bilingual Teachers

Harrison, Grant Von; Wilkinson, John C. (1973). The Use of Bilingual Student Tutors in Teaching English as a Second Language. Bilingual education, as an approach to the problem of preparing the American Indian child for entry into American public schools, has not proven satisfactory due to a lack of properly certified teachers and a tendency to thrust too much upon the child too fast. In response to this problem, a tutorial system has been devised in which bilingual, upper-grade-elementary Indian children are used as tutors for kindergarten and first-grade Indian children. Procedures to establish this system are: Phase I–to identify the critical vocabulary to meet students' needs; Phase II–to devise diagnostic tests based on the critical vocabulary to indicate individual student requirements; Phase III–to develop training materials, audio-visual materials, and home study materials for the students' tutors and to select and train adult tutor supervisors; Phase IV–to select and train bilingual student tutors and to conduct student diagnostic testing; Phase V–to assign bilingual tutors to individual students and implement instruction; and Phase VI–to conduct a post-assessment of the structured tutoring learning process, to revise the specific tutoring model for use with Navajo children, and to revise the general tutoring model to optimize it for use in second language instruction.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indians, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Bilingual Teacher Aides

Thonis, Eleanor (1971). The Dual Language Process in Young Children. Problems attributed to dual language learning in early childhood have been exaggerated and may be the result of a failure to control significant research variables. The relationship between a child's acquisition of a language and his ability to think must be better understood for closer investigation of the effects of dual language learning. Several conditions do appear to be conducive to promoting dual language acquisition. It seems that the two languages should be kept in separate contexts so that coordinated language systems might develop. The best language models must be available in both languages. A rich and varied background of environmental encounters is important as are acceptance of the child's uniqueness, respect for his native language, appreciation of his cultural heritage, and attention to his specific language requirements. Curriculum design for early childhood bilingual education should take these conditions into account and encourage improved oral language ability and introductory literacy skills in the native language, intensive oral language development and readiness for literacy in the second language, and access to knowledge in the stronger language.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Child Language, Cognitive Processes

Herbert, Charles H., Jr. (1972). The Bilingual Child's Right to Read. This document presents some ideas about initial reading instruction in bilingual education. The bilingual programs created in 1969 seek the creation of equal educational opportunities through the use of instruction in a native language to children who speak a language other than English. Such programs attempt to teach two languages concurrently and to deal with subject matter instruction in both languages. The problem of teaching reading skills to accompany the oral language skills is a current topic of research. One reading theory states that the ability to understand what is read depends upon the child's experience with like subject matter as well as his comprehension of the language in which it is written. The "Initial Reading in Spanish" project produced a detailed, descriptive analysis of procedures used to teach Spanish-speaking children in Mexico to read in their native language. Evaluation of student achievement in the experimental use of the Mexican reading instruction methods in the United States indicates success in learning to read in both Spanish and English.   [More]  Descriptors: Beginning Reading, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Children

Sancho, Anthony R. (1972). Spanish: A New Approach to Bilingual Programs. The child in the bilingual education situation must be aware of the two languages involved as two separate systems corresponding to the two distinct cultural entities that are part of his environment. The child must learn to separate, yet identify with, each system as a useful and necessary means of communication. The teacher-directed method is being used currently to teach Spanish as part of a bilingual curriculum. According to this method, children receive teacher-directed instruction in Spanish as a native language and Spanish as a foreign language, in bilingual switching, and in rhetoric to teach effective speech in both languages and an awareness of human emotions in both cultures. Another method currently being used is the small group process which groups together children with varied language abilities, backgrounds, and academic skills. It is based on the theory that children from different language backgrounds, if exposed to one another's language in a bilingual setting which encourages and reinforces both languages equally, will develop the second language naturally and easily, while improving the first language.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Child Language, Classroom Techniques

Light, Richard L. (1974). Issues in Teacher Preparation for Cross-Cultural Education. This paper discusses some of the background rationale for bilingual education and raises issues concerning personnel training, with indications as to how these issues have been dealt with in the program at SUNY-Albany. In the preparation of bilingual educators, the relationship between the educator's cultural, linguistic, and ethnic background and his ability to work effectively with students of the same background in an educational program must be considered. Although it is an immeasurable advantage to have a native member of a particular culture as teacher, the qualification of being a native speaker is not sufficient by itself. Above all, an excellent knowledge of the subject matter is required. Courses of instruction should be varied to meet the needs of bilingual classroom teachers as well as second-level bilingual educators, such as supervisors, curriculum coordinators, or project directors. There must be a balance between theoretical courses and practice-centered activities in the curriculum for bilingual educators. Inaccurate views regarding the language of minority students must be corrected, and the need for linguistic knowledge about the systematic nature of all dialects must be recognized. Teachers trained for work across cultures must understand that language variations arise through social and cultural forces and are not the result of laziness or stupidity. Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Bilingual Teachers

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services. (1976). Language Learning: An Open Door to the World. This position paper states that it is the responsibility of Pennsylvania's Department of Education to make foreign language (FL) study part of the core curriculum and to develop well-articulated programs that make mastery of a foreign language possible for every student, in order to prepare him to meet the challenge of today's complex society. In summarizing the value of FL study for today's student, the following recommendations are made: (1) FL study is best begun in elementary grades, via audiolingual methods; (2) English as a Second Language should be included in the curriculum for non-English-speaking children; (3) bilingual education should be included in the curriculum where one language or dialect group is sufficiently represented; and (4) non-Western as well as Western languages should be considered for inclusion. The second part of the paper presents a continuum and evaluative criteria intended to help school districts plan, implement, and evaluate their FL programs, from Kindergarten through Grade 12.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Career Planning, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language)

Valencia, Atilano A. (1969). Identification and Assessment of Ongoing Educational and Community Programs for Spanish Speaking People. A Report Submitted to the Southwest Council of La Raza, Phoenix, Arizona. Synoptic reports on 16 selected educational and community programs for Spanish-speaking people are presented in this document. Each report consists of a brief description of the project, an assessment of the program, and recommendations for dissemination and implementation of the project model. Programs reviewed include: (1) The Good Samaritan Center's Bilingual Education Program, San Antonio, Texas; (2) Bilingual Follow Through Project, Corpus Christi, Texas; (3) The Coral Way Bilingual Program, Miami, Florida; (4) Teaching Spanish To The Spanish-Speaking Child–A Western States Small Schools Project in Pecos, New Mexico; (5) ESL/Bilingual Demonstration Project Center, San Diego, California; (6) The San Antonio Bilingual Demonstration And Dissemination Center, San Antonio, Texas; (7) Laredo Bilingual Program, Laredo, Texas; (8) Spanish Arts Program For Mexican Americans, Merced, California; (9) Teacher Excellence For Economically Deprived and Culturally Differentiated Americans, San Antonio, Texas; (10) Teacher Education Program, University of Southern California, Los Angeles; (11) A Video Oral English Instructional Approach For Non-English Speaking Adults With A Spanish Surname, Albuquerque, New Mexico; and (12) Proteus Adult Training Center, Visalia, California.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Community Programs

Evans, G. Edward, Comp.; And Others (1977). Bibliography of Language Arts Materials for Native North Americans. Bilingual, English as a Second Language and Native Language Materials 1965-1974. The 1007-item bibliography includes works which have been or might be used in native language education, bilingual education or English as a Second Language education for Native North Americans. Only English language materials whose main purpose is language instruction and all available materials written wholly or partially in Indian or Eskimo languages are included. Entries are presented alphabetically under the native language group for which they were developed. Within each native language, materials are subdivided into bilingual materials (both English and the native language); materials monolingual in the native language; materials monolingual in English; and materials of which the language composition is unknown, because neither the materials nor an adequate description of them was available. Interfiled with the specific language entries are sections covering materials developed for an area which includes more than one language group: Eskimos, Indians of California, Indians of the Subarctic, and Indians of the Southwest. Following the specific language section are three sections containing materials not addressed to specific native language groups of areas: General Bilingual, General English as a Second Language, and General Language. Appendices list materials developed for or useful in language learning and the language arts curriculum of CITE (Consultants in Total Education), an ESL program. Also included is a brief review of Indian education programs as supported by the American government. Descriptors: Alaska Natives, American Indian Languages, American Indians, Annotated Bibliographies

Holland, Thomas R., Ed; Lee, Catherine M., Ed. (1969). "The Alternative of Radicalism": Radical and Conservative Possibilities for Teaching the Teachers of America's Young Children; Proceedings of the National Conference of the Tri-University Project (5th, New Orleans, January 29-31, 1969). This report of the Fifth National Conference of the Tri-University Project is introduced by Paul Olson and contains speeches by (1) Virgil E. Boyd, who presents Chrysler Corporation's job-oriented educational program, (2) Don Davies, who calls for the equilization, individualization, and humanization of education, (3) Donald H. Smith, who explains the educational significance of the "street"–its culture, influence, and importance–in the lives of inner-city children, (4) Jerome S. Bruner, who discusses the "divisive dichotomies" present in education–e.g., old versus young, society versus individual, and order versus innovation, (5) Kenneth Boulding, who relates the economic process to education, and (6) Wayne Booth, who challenges the profession to educate Americans to be critical thinkers. Materials include responses to the six speeches, and the reports and transcriptions of committee discussions on such topics as community control, inner-city education, bilingual education in literature and composition, implementation of new ideas and programs, and three of education's specific regional problems, (the Mexican-American in the Southwest, integration in the South, and conservatism in Appalachia).   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Community Influence, Economic Factors, Educational Development

Wilde, Judith; Sockey, Suzanne (1995). Evaluation Handbook. This handbook offers extensive guidance in evaluating programs under the Improving America's Schools Act of 1994, particularly bilingual education programs under Title VII. It is divided into five sections. The first provides an overview of the handbook and some useful definitions. The second section provides background information about and definitions of evaluation, assessment, and analytic techniques. Various types of evaluation are described and guidelines for managing an evaluation are suggested; working with an external evaluator is also addressed. The third section assists in planning the evaluation: writing and modifying objectives that are measurable, creating management timelines; selecting assessments that will measure learner success in a manner that is sensitive to their language, culture, and gender as well as to program needs; and selecting scoring methods. Section four deals with implementation of an evaluation: ensuring timelines are met; training staff to assist in the evaluation; collecting data; analyzing data; and the specific requirements of the legislation. The final section deals with writing the report: interpreting analyses; presenting results; making recommendations; and writing a complete and accurate report. Substantial support materials for each section are appended. Contains 79 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Compliance (Legal), Cultural Awareness, Elementary Secondary Education

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