Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 299 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Liza Loop, Janet Eyler, Norma G. Hernandez, David Corson, Edith W. King, Keith Baker, Louis J. Ferroli, Diane T. Dodge, Kristin Freda, and Gary Gang Huang.

Center for Statistics (ED/OERI), Washington, DC. (1986). Pupil Services in Private Schools, 1983-84. OERI Bulletin. A survey carried out by Westat, Inc., under contract with the Center for Statistics found that up to 73 percent of all private schools offered some kind of special services in 1983-84. Questionnaires were sent to a sample of 2,298 schools meeting the survey criteria. Of these schools 1,869 (81 percent) responded. Catholic elementary/secondary schools far outpaced other private schools in offering remedial reading: 85 percent compared to 62 percent of other religiously affiliated schools and 71 percent of nonaffiliated schools. Diagnostic services were offered by 69 percent of the Catholic schools compared with 49 percent of other affiliated and 60 percent of nonaffiliated schools. Over 64 percent of nonaffiliated schools offered remedial math, followed by Catholic (62 percent) and affiliated (49 percent) schools. Areas sparsely served by private schools were bilingual education (9 percent); English as a second language (18 percent); vocational and technical education (15 percent); and special programs for handicapped students (22 percent). Data is displayed in two tables. Descriptors: Ancillary School Services, Bilingual Education, Catholic Schools, Disabilities

King, Edith W.; And Others (1994). Educating Young Children in a Diverse Society. This text aims to provide information, strategies, techniques, innovative ideas, and encouragement for teachers, administrators, and parents in implementing a diversity perspective to education for children ages 3 to 8 years. Major focuses are on ethnic, gender, and social-class differences, but issues related to special needs children, including the disabled, are not ignored. An introductory chapter considers some basic concerns in diversity education. Chapter 2 focuses on the importance of viewing multicultural education from the perspective of diversity and reports on a study of bilingual education in an early childhood classroom. Chapter 3 considers the importance of developmentally appropriate practices, and Chapter 4 explores historical and theoretical views of multicultural education. Chapter 5 highlights the importance of ethnic, social-class, and gender identity, and leads the way to the examination of culture in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 concentrates on gender awareness. Chapter 8 presents a sociological view of the young child, and Chapter 9 considers the importance of research and evaluation in the teaching of young children. The final chapter examines what the education of young children must accomplish. References follow each chapter. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Cultural Awareness, Cultural Differences, Cultural Pluralism

Loop, Liza (1986). The New Information Technology and the Education of Hispanics. The Promise and the Dilemma. Policy Pamphlet Series No. 1. Intended as a tool to help bring the issue of technology and the education of Hispanic Americans to a practical and positive resolution, this pamphlet is divided into four sections. The first provides background information on and a summary of the proceedings of a one and one-half day seminar held in June 1986. The second section contains discussions of seven facts about and seven findings of research on educational technology and Hispanic Americans, including the role of technology in the schools; teacher preparedness for technology use and multicultural education; the need for equitable funding of educational technology programs for all groups; the danger of focusing on remediation rather than on high achievement; and the importance to Hispanic Americans of bilingual education, school-community linkages, and increased functional and physical access to computers. These discussions lay the groundwork for the third section, which contains suggested policy statements for use in establishing school or organizational policy as well as for use in publications and in meetings. These statements correspond to the following areas: (1) language and culture; (2) the community-classroom connection; (3) training of educators; (4) fiscal responsibility; (5) attitudes toward technology; and (6) access to computing. The final section provides the names and addresses of seminar participants and Tomas Rivera Center scholars.   [More]  Descriptors: Access to Education, Bilingual Education, Computer Assisted Instruction, Cultural Differences

Eyler, Janet; And Others (1982). Resegregation: Segregation within Desegregated Schools. Resegregation is the process by which students are separated into racially or ethnically isolated groups within desegregated schools. Resegregation may result from the traditional practice of sorting students into apparently homogeneous groups through ability grouping and tracking and through student selection for compensatory education, special education, and bilingual education. The degree to which these practices enhance resegregation is determined by: student assignment procedures that overrepresent minority children in lower academic groupings and underrepresent them in higher academic groupings; minority overrepresentation in school enrollment; the practice of pulling children out of the regular classroom; and the extent to which individual children have multiple eligibility, or qualify for several categorical programs. Discipline practices characterized by the disproportionate suspension of black students also contribute to resegregation. To reduce within-school resegregation, schools must adopt alternatives in current practices. Assessment for student grouping should be based on different kinds of information and should be properly interpreted, instruction should be organized to encourage integration among heterogeneous student groups, and discipline methods should emphasize keeping students in school rather than suspending them. Finally, more research is needed for further progress in reducing resegregation.   [More]  Descriptors: Ability Grouping, Bilingual Education, Compensatory Education, Desegregation Methods

Corson, David (1993). Language, Minority Education and Gender: Linking Social Justice and Power. Injustices in language policy and practice in education are examined, focusing on three groups that appear to be most affected by unfair language policies in education; women and girls; minority social groups; and minority cultural groups, distinguished from minority social groups in that the former usually possess or identify with a language that is not the majority language of the society and which reflects a very different culture. The first two chapters look at the interplay between language policy and power, and language policy and social justice, both individual and collective. Chapter 3 discusses language policy and minority culture, including issues of identity, cultural values and discourse norms within majority culture schooling, and the importance of school interactions, classroom environment, and teacher practices. Chapter 4 discusses bilingual education and related issues of policy, curriculum, assessment, and decision-making. The fifth chapter looks at language varieties and styles, both standard and non-standard, in minority social groups. In chapter 6, these aspects of gender are addressed: research on the discourse of men and women and of girls and boys, and the link between language and gender injustice in schools. The final chapter suggests how unwanted language policies in education can be replaced with desirable ones. (MSE) Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Democratic Values, Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education

Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich (1994). Negotiating Power: Critical Literacy Practices in a Bilingual Classroom. A study investigated the interpersonal dynamics occurring in an ungraded bilingual education class of native Spanish-speaking students in an ungraded primary classroom (with 10-12 students each from grades one, two, and three) at Garamond Elementary School in a working class community southeast of Los Angeles, California. Six classroom sessions were taped for discourse analysis focusing on the language patterns used by students and the ways students positioned themselves through language in relation to each other. One session was conducted entirely by students. Data were also drawn from observation, student and teacher interviews, and written work spanning six months. Analysis of the data suggest two common patterns of verbal expression: (1) a direct, argumentative form in which individuals overtly position themselves, in relation to other students, as for or against particular arguments; and (2) introduction of new ideas into discussion without argumentative positioning, often in the forms of helpful suggestions or comments. The class session conducted by students, late in the year, illustrates these two dynamics and the fact that the students have internalized a basic framework for argumentation. Similar patterns also appeared in teacher-led classes and were influenced by the teacher's participation. It is proposed that such interactions are influential in helping students organize thinking and use language in specific ways, and can influence literacy development and self-expression. A brief bibliography is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Classroom Communication, Classroom Environment

Baratz-Snowden, Joan; And Others (1988). Parent Preference Study. Final Report. A national survey of parents of school aged Asian, Puerto Rican, Mexican American, and Cuban students was conducted to examine what educational preferences language minority parents have regarding the role of English and non-English (home) language in the instructional process. A second purpose of the survey was to determine what factors are associated with parents' choices. The survey contained four general areas of inquiry, including: (1) items relating to parents' perceptions of, and attitudes toward, school programs and practices; (2) items relating to parents' general aspirations for their children and those related specifically to education and language learning; (3) items related to language use and to parent involvement in their children's schooling; and (4) parent demographic characteristics. Survey findings established that parents support bilingual education in its most generic sense–giving extra help to students in order to facilitate their learning English–but generally do not go much beyond that in differentiating among types of bilingual programs. Although there were large and pervasive differences among the ethnic groups in terms of the level of their support for certain instructional strategies, parents did support special language programs for language minority children. Contains 35 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Asian Americans, Bilingual Education, Demography, Educational Quality

Rodriguez-Brown, Flora V. (1986). A Sociolinguistic Perspective of Language Proficiency of Limited English Proficient Students. A study investigated the relationship between relative language proficiency and the types of questions produced by bilingual children in different settings and situations, taking into account the whole language repertoire in both languages and in different settings. The subjects were six third-graders in a self-contained maintenance bilingual education program in a midwestern city. Video- and audio-taped data collected in the classroom, at home, and in the park were analyzed. The data show that the children produced the same question repertoire previously found in English monolingual children and adults. Children asked more questions in the language in which they were more proficient. Certain question types appeared only in children who were proficient in a language, while other question types were characteristic of the speech of limited-proficiency children. The use of question types was found to vary across classroom activities. Further study of use of different speech acts, in relation to relative proficiency and within a sociolinguistic framework, will enhance the design of holistic models for describing bilingual children's language behavior across settings and situations.   [More]  Descriptors: Adults, Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingualism, Comparative Analysis

Hernandez, Norma G.; Descamps, Jorge A. (1986). Review of Factors Affecting Learning of Mexican-Americans. A review of more than 500 empirical studies conducted since 1970 on the achievement of Mexican Americans identified prior claims supported and/or refuted by data, isolated promising hypotheses for further investigation or educational implementation, and made recommendations for improvement of schooling, school-home relations, and teacher preparation. The review found widely accepted stereotypes about Mexican Americans' lack of internal locus of control, reluctance to compete, depressed intelligence, field dependence orientation in learning, and failure to acculturate to be false. Factors found to be associated with increased achievement included language usage, bilingualism, bilingual education, positive self-concept, home independence training, and school/classroom affective climate. Findings indicated that teacher warmth and enthusiasm and absence of authoritarianism and punitiveness significantly impact academic achievement of Mexican American students; cooperative learning environments produce greater academic gains than competitive or individualistic learning environments for all students; students in low-track high school classes receive less educational opportunities than students in heterogeneous groups; and the fact that the self-concept of Mexican Americans does not appear to increase either with succeeding generations or with the age of the individuals suggests that these students are not mastering their environment and are not surrounded by nurturant significant others in school or in the community. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Acculturation, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism

Dodge, Diane T.; And Others (1984). A Trainer's Guide to Building English Proficiency. The trainer's guide, designed to be used in conjunction with a classroom teacher's handbook and resource guide for educators involved in planning and implementing bilingual education programs for new populations of limited English proficient (LEP) students, contains two parts. The first part addresses school administrators and examines the decisions and tasks required at each stage of the process of change, including awareness, problem-solving, system-building, program implementation, and institutionalization. The second part addresses those who support teachers and outlines strategies to assist teachers in adapting instruction and materials for LEP students, including approaches to teacher training (resource centers, workshops, in-classroom assistance, staff meetings, seminars and courses, and newsletters), learning about cultural issues and first and second language acquisition as they relate to the LEP student, assessing the LEP student, defining goals and objectives for the LEP student, selecting teaching strategies and classroom management techniques, selecting/adapting/developing instructional materials, and evaluation of the training. An index concludes the document.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Role, Bilingual Education Programs, Change Strategies, Classroom Techniques

Huang, Gary Gang (1992). Self-Reported Biliteracy and Self-Esteem: A Study of Mexican American 8th Graders. This study examines the relationship between proficient bilingualism or biliteracy (proficiency in reading and writing in both Spanish and English) and the self-esteem of Mexican American students. The concept of proficient bilingualism has not been widely used to examine bilingual education's noncognitive functions, in particular its effect on the self-esteem of Mexican American students. This study analyzed data from the 1988 National Education Longitudinal Survey. The sample included 1,034 Mexican, Mexican American, and Chicano eighth graders with a Spanish-English bilingual background. Based on self-report, students were categorized as either biliterate, English monoliterate, Spanish monoliterate, or oral bilingual. A set of 13 questions that measured self-esteem were factor analyzed, generating three subdimensions (self-deprecation, self-confidence, and fatalism). Controlling for students' sociodemographic background, school experience, academic performance, and status among peers, analysis revealed: (1) Mexican American children who saw themselves as biliterates had the highest self-confidence as compared to monoliterates and oral bilinguals; (2) English monoliterate children had lower fatalistic attitudes than other children; (3) self-reported Spanish monoliterates seemed disadvantaged in the three measures of self esteem; and (4) there was a strong interactive effect between parents' education and children's birth place (U.S. or foreign) on biliteracy identity. This paper includes data tables. Contains 40 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Bilingualism, English (Second Language)

Baker, Keith; Rossell, Christine (1993). Blinded by Theory in the Search for Effective Programs for LEP Students: A Call for Testing New Research Hypotheses. The value of transitional bilingual education (TBE) is discussed in the context of two competing theories of second language learning: (1) first language (L1) knowledge facilitates second language (L2) learning, and (2) the best way to learn English is to maximize time spent using it. First, the facilitation theory is examined in light of recent research and found to be flawed. Two significant national studies are shown to have findings contradicting it. The English time-on-task theory is then explored and found lacking, with evidence drawn from the same two studies. It is argued that the theory fails because it does not consider important mediating variables in program effectiveness. A third study is cited, one that suggests some variables explaining the success of TBE with less English-language time-on-task, including nature of time spent in an English language environment and psychological effects of providing some respite between exposures to the target language. Two new hypotheses are proposed, to be tested by research. The hypotheses are: (1) native language instruction should be minimal and used only in early instruction, and (2) teachers who are familiar with but not fluent in the child's native language are better teachers of limited-English-proficient students. In addition, a new experimental design is recommended. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Strategies, Educational Theories, Elementary Secondary Education

Freda, Kristin, Comp. (1992). Electronic Resources in Education: An Annotated Guide to Resources in Primary and Secondary Education. This resource guide was compiled as an aid to education libraries (i.e., libraries that support teacher training and education). It is intended as a tool for teachers, administrators, professors, students of education, and librarians. The focus of the listing, which covers the most important and useful electronic resources currently available in the field, is on elementary and secondary education, including special education, bilingual education, child development, and exceptional child education; resources in the areas of child abuse, mental health, and sociology are also included. A total of 35 resources are divided into 6 major categories: education specific sources, interdisciplinary sources, directory sources, sources of foreign materials, sources of assessment, and participatory sources. Information on the provider, type of database, file size, timespan covered, update frequency, target audience, database content, sources of information, availability, and print counterpart is presented for each resource. Internet resources and education journals online are also listed, and a directory of 29 providers and 13 vendors is included. A list of 8 sources used to compile the guide and 13 sources for further reading and assessment completes the document.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Child Abuse, Child Development, Database Producers

Karmun, Mamie (1977). Ipnatchiami (Stories About Deering). Intended for use in a bilingual education program, this document is printed in both Inupiat and English. It is a collection of 32 very short tales about life in Deering, Alaska, and was developed and prepared by Marie Karmun, an Inupiat language teacher. It is printed in large type, written in simple words, and illustrated. Most of the stories are presented from a child's point of view. Two of the stories tell of a landing field that was built near the village and of an airplane whose parts first came by ship and then were assembled. Other stories describe artifacts and fossils found in the area. The children also tell of making noise outside of a newlywed couple's home with the hope they will be given candy so they'll go away. Some of the tales are concerned with the mining history of the area and mention the abandoned town of Candle, an old dredge, and a gold mine that is worked each summer. Other tales deal with roadbuilding, diamond baseball, the supply boat, the railroad, the school, and an old superstition about the devil's light on the mountain. Descriptors: Alaska Natives, Bilingual Education, Books, Childrens Literature

Ferroli, Louis J. (1991). Developmental Spelling and the Transfer of Literacy Skill among Primary Grade Bilinguals. A descriptive study examined: the relative influence of native language (L1) literacy skills and second language (L2) oral proficiency on students' ability to read and spell in the second language. A second dimension of the study examined students' second language misspellings in order to identify examples of positive and negative transfer of L1 spelling knowledge. Pretests in reading, oral language, and spelling in L1 (Spanish) and L2 (English) were administered to 48 second- and third-grade students in a transitional bilingual education program. Samples of English spelling were collected for 20 weeks. The English spelling test was readministered as a posttest. Information on demographics and the nature of the instructional program was collected to facilitate comparison to other populations of second language learners. Results indicate that L1 literacy skill and L2 oral skill made equal and separate contributions to L2 literacy learning. Phonological knowledge of L1 spelling was found to transfer only positively. By contrast, subjects' conceptual understanding of L1 spelling was found to transfer in both positive and negative ways.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, English (Second Language), Error Patterns

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