Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 296 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Sonia Nieto, Washington District of Columbia Public Schools, Bilingual Resources, Grace E. Laverty, NY. Community Service Society of New York, Buck R. Rex, John A. Hubert, Carole Edelsky, Margaret Wehner, and Elizabeth Sherman Swing.

Nieto, Sonia (1977). Developing Curriculum for the Bilingual Classroom: Toward Defining the Role of the Teacher. It is proposed that the role of teachers in bilingual education curriculum development is essential. The assumption is that pre-packaged curricula, programs, and materials cannot be effective because student and community needs differ from one situation to the other. Therefore, those persons involved in each situation should be the ones to develop the curriculum. In order to assume a central role in the curriculum development and implementation process, teachers need to develop skills in curriculum development as well as a critical consciousness. The first set of skills includes awareness of curriculum development as a decision-making process, the ability to perceive student needs and community culture, and skills in the instructional aspect of curriculum development. The second factor, critical consciousness, is viewed as a political act because it has to do with questions of power and powerlessness. A suggested framework for the process is the "curriculum collective," a core group of teachers and parents. This group would define itself, its tasks, and its political perspective. Teachers would interact with the collective as they implement the curriculum developed by the group. Assessment of the program would be on-going and effected through meetings among teachers, the collective, and the larger community.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Change Strategies, Community Action, Cultural Awareness

de Ortego y Gasca, Felipe (1979). America o Aztlan? Los Chicanos En El Ano 2001 (America or Aztalan? Chicanos in the year 2001). The future, more than any time in the past, will require of Chicanos a collective effort if they are to preserve their legacy of language and culture for their children. To prepare for the year 2001, Chicanos should be aware of future concerns and take action to address them. Chicanos could best realize national visibility and importance by identifying with the large Hispanic diaspora and by forging coalitions with other ethnic American groups. A promotion of research and development activities by Chicanos should be undertaken, and a Chicano center for the study of public policy should be established. Chicanos should develop their own communication system, a system that would include high-circulation newspapers and journals, as well as radio and television stations. Chicanos must now undertake the kinds of education and training that will prepare them for roles beyond that of teachers of bilingual education. A genuine grass roots Hispanic organization with a national voice must be established. The future must be contended with, for it will not go away; and, Chicanos must develop a system of skills that will make them functional existents of the time that is to come.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Change Strategies, Community Action, Essays

McConnell, Beverly (1981). Plenty of Bilingual Teachers. This paper is a description of an Individualized Bilingual Instruction (IBI) program which was nationally validated by the U.S. Department of Education and listed in their directory of "Educational Programs That Work." It provides information on the technology of the IBI program, the type of curriculum selected and how the staff was selected and trained, as well as information on teaching methods and classroom organization. This discussion includes instructional elements that relate particulary to the bilingual/bicultural needs of the children served and more general instructional techniques adapted from other successful educational programs, many of which are not bilingual. These notions are discussed in the context of the following headings: (1) history of the IBI program, (2) how the IBI curriculum and training model evolved, (3) key elements in the program, and (4) program elements related to specific issues in bilingual education. A final section is devoted to a description of a longitudinal evaluative study of the program, a parallel program arrangement in Washington state and Texas. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Elementary Education, English (Second Language), Individualized Instruction

Bilingual Resources (1981). Bilingual Resources. [American Indian Education Special Double Issue]. The double issue of the journal, "Bilingual Resources," presents nine articles pertaining to American Indian education in various perspectives, poetry by four American Indian poets, and identifies 27 publications about American Indians. Subjects of articles include: evaluation and recognition of narrative competence within peer group interactions of Navajo 10- and 11-year olds; the need for Native American language to ensure liberation of Native people; description of materials production for an experimental summer course teaching sixth graders (White Mountain Apache) literacy in their own language; discussion and suggestions on how to handle teaching problems with Indian students; the importance of language in the mobilization of American Indians for goals of political self-determination and cultural autonomy; the imitation of European models in the Native programs of bilingual education; and a look at positive aspects of future Native education emphasizing the importance of "process" and "content." The section, "Tips for Teachers," addresses curriculum development for an American Indian classroom and American Indian education legislation. Citations for publications (books, charts/prints, periodicals, audiovisuals) include a brief description, availability source, language used in publication, type of book and length, intended level, and cost.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indian Literature, Annotated Bibliographies, Artificial Languages

Lombardo, Maria (1981). The Construction and Validation of Listening and Reading Components of the English as a Second Language Assessment Battery. This research was designed to construct and validate an effective, reliable, criterion-referenced test–the English-as-a-Second Language Assessment Battery (ESLAB)–for assessing the English skills of secondary students learning English as a second language (ESL) in bilingual education programs. The ESLAB for receptive language was validated first. This decision was based on the fact that individuals acquire competence before performance and that the receptive area precedes the expressive area in the acquisition of language. A modification of Cohen's model was used as a theoretical base. The validation procedure for the receptive skills (listening and reading) included item analysis, establishment of reliability, and the confirmation of test validity. It was concluded that the receptive area tests are valid measures of language proficiency. The significance of the study lies in the following: (1) It provides information on methodology for constructing and validating a criterion-referenced assessment battery; (2) the ESLAB has been prepared and pilot tested; and (3) the data support the contentions of interrelations among language areas. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Criterion Referenced Tests, English (Second Language), High School Students

District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. (1977). Public Schools of the District of Columbia, 1977 Annual Report. This report focuses upon the efforts of public school educators and administrators in Washington, D.C., to improve teaching and learning through a comprehensive educational plan. One of the goals in this plan was defined as the promotion of academic excellence for the attainment of knowledge, competencies, and skills. Special education projects undertaken or expanded in an effort to meet this goal included programs for the handicapped, bilingual education programs, career development, environmental education, and special programs for talented and gifted students. A systematic plan for the continuous assessment and evaluation of educational needs and achievement was also a goal of the plan, as was the improvement of service and efficiency of operations in the major support areas of management services. Also discussed here are public relations and communications issues, and labor and equal employment concerns. A major focus of the plan consisted of ensuring the active participation of all components of the Washington public schools in the implementation of systemwide competency based curriculum. Activities and materials designed to bring this about are described. Descriptors: Administration, Administrative Organization, Annual Reports, Bilingual Education

Ortiz-Franco, Luis (1980). First Glances at Language and Culture in Mathematics Education. This document highlights points made in papers presented in the two scheduled sessions devoted to issues in mathematics education affecting minority students at the 1980 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) conference. The first meeting was part of the official NCTM conference program. The second meeting was sponsored by the National Institute of Education (NIE). Points from a total of three papers presented over the two meetings are discussed. A paper concerned with verbal problem solving in mathematics among Chicano students is the first to be summarized, as it was only discussed at the NCTM session. The other two were further discussed at the NIE-sponsored meeting. Broad areas of ideas from both these papers are combined in a summary that reviews the following topic areas: bilingual education, curriculum, teaching and teacher training, ethnography, testing, and basic research. It is noted that there is a general lack of replications of research studies with minority students on findings and practices that are from mathematics education research that focus on the majority. It is felt the absence of such replications adds to the dubiousness of purportedly generalized outcomes, and needs to be remedied.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Cultural Differences, Cultural Influences

Rex, Buck R. (1980). District 30 Title VII Bilingual Program. Evaluation Report, 1979-80. This is the evaluation of the final year of a five year bilingual education program funded under Title VII and carried out in elementary schools of Community School District 30, Queens, New York. The program is described as (1) involving content instruction and materials development in Spanish and Greek, as well as an English as a Second Language component; (2) developing curriculum materials in Italian; and (3) offering training in language and teaching methods to the regular school staff. The report also includes: (1) a description of curriculum development activities undertaken during the 1979-80 school year; (2) assessment of student achievement objectives in the areas of language competency, mathematics, social studies, and science, and participation in classroom and extracurricular activities; (3) classroom observations by the evaluators; and (4) an evaluation of teacher training activities and parent involvement under the program. Based on the overall evaluation, the Title VII program in District 30 is judged as having been highly successful.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education, Curriculum Development, Elementary Education

Laverty, Grace E. (1980). Analysis of Bilingual/ESL Needs Questionnaire. This is an analysis of a needs assessment questionnaire consisting of 17 questions on the needs and programs for limited English proficient (LEP) pupils in Pennsylvania, which was distributed to all public and parochial schools in the state. The analysis is based on 77% of the total forms sent. The returned forms were sorted into three groups: those with LEP enrollment, those with no LEP enrollment, and those with LEPs but no program. The statistics revealed that a substantial majority of Pennsylvania schools have no LEP pupils, and only about 17% of the total districts and schools have programs in bilingual education or English as a Second Language (ESL). The majority of schools with LEP pupils do provide a program to assist pupils in increasing their English language proficiency. The major needs expressed by the districts were for ESL and bilingual teachers, counselors, psychologists, social workers, administrators, and clerical staff. A need was expressed also for state leadership in supplying in-service workshops for all levels but especially for primary staff. A copy of the needs questionnaire is provided as an appendix. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Data Analysis, Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education

Wehner, Margaret (1988). Bilingual Secondary School Project, Final Evaluation Report, 1987-88. The final evaluation of Columbus, Ohio's 2-year bilingual education program for limited-English-speaking Indochinese children in grades 6-12 is presented. The program provided intensive instruction in English as a second language (ESL) and native language assistance in content area subjects. Students were pre- and post-tested to determine program effectiveness. The report describes the program structure, objectives, and evaluation process, and presents the evaluation results. Of the 390 students served, over half were in high schools, with the remainder in middle schools. Most had been in the United States less than 3 years and over a third had had no prior schooling. The project attendance rate was high, with an average of 5.8 hours of instruction per student per week in class, mostly for ESL instruction. The program had mixed results, with most, but not all, academic objectives being achieved, while others could not be assessed. Gains were found in oral language, reading, and mathematics. A need for continuing educational opportunities for this growing population is stressed.   [More]  Descriptors: Asian Americans, Bilingual Education Programs, English (Second Language), Federal Programs

Hubert, John A. (1980). Problems in Language Proficiency Assessment: A Review of the Language Assessment Battery (English, Level I). Questions are addressed pertaining to the Language Assessment Battery (LAB), currently the only single battery that meets all of the state of Connecticut criteria for an instrument to determine which pupils must be offered bilingual education. Normed on an English dominant population, the primary purpose was to obtain its psychometric characteristics for pupils of limited English proficiency. Other purposes were to determine its selection accuracy, and to examine it as a measure of English achievement within a bilingual program. Validity was also reviewed. The psychometric portion of the study used 195 K-2 Hispanics in a bilingual program. Scale structure, internal consistency reliability, and item statistics were analyzed. The other investigations used the publisher's information. The problems encountered were instructive for the makers of this type of test. Psychometrically the test is sound except for the low reliabilities and poor item statistics of the reading and writing subscales in K and grade 1. Those scales at those grades also have little content validity. Standard error of measurement is very poor in terms of percentile rank near the cut scores used for selection. Establishment of standards of construct validity for this new type of test are recommended. Descriptors: Audiolingual Skills, Bilingual Education, Hispanic Americans, Item Analysis

Swing, Elizabeth Sherman (1980). Bilingualism and Linguistic Segregation in the Schools of Brussels. Publication B-95. This study examines the role of schools as the primary agency for change in a bilingual country (Belgium) where a subordinate language group has emerged as the political and economic equal of the traditional power structure. The focus is on schools in Brussels, a city which has become a bilingual island surrounded by Dutch-language territory. The first part of the book explores the bilingualism of the country, and the second part studies the evolution of linguistic separatism. Specifically, the following points are treated: (1) bilingualism and the native language imperative; (2) bilingualism in education; (3) three patterns of bilingual education, namely, elite, assimilationist, and dual medium models; (4) the emergence of the idea of a Flemish nation and its ramifications for education; (5) the equilibrium model of separatism in the Language Law of 1932; (6) the division of educational institutions into linguistic components called for in the Language Law of 1963; (7) the human rights implications of this division; (8) patterns of conflict as revealed in sample case histories for the years 1966-1971; and (9) developments during the 1970s.   [More]  Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Culture Conflict

Edelsky, Carole (1986). Writing in a Bilingual Program: Habia una Vez. A year-long study of the writing development of 27 first through third graders in an English/Spanish bilingual program was conducted during the 1980-81 school year. Samples of the children's writing were collected at four intervals, coded for computer tallying, and analyzed in terms of code-switching, spelling, punctuation and segmentation, structural features, stylistic devices, and content. Additionally, the context in which the writing developed was evaluated by classroom observations, teacher interviews, review of familial backgrounds, and a survey of the community language situation. Myths about bilingual language proficiency, biliteracy, bilingual education, teaching writing, and learning to write are all countered by evidence presented in this study. In a discussion of implications, the concept of a whole language approach to writing instruction is supported, in which authentic and functional texts are offered to and produced by children. Examples of the children's writing with appropriate translations are given along with various tables. Informal follow-up information is presented in three epilogues dealing with changes in the researcher's commitment to the study's original writing theories, the writing of some students a year after the study; and a chronological outline of the demise of the bilingual program used in the study. Appendices list interview questions used for teachers and aides and categories for coding the writing data. This book contains 134 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingual Students, Bilingualism, Child Language

Teran, Miguel A., Ed.; And Others (1979). The Hispanics: A Missing Link in Public Policy. The Official Report of an Hispanic Conference (Des Moines, Iowa, October 12-13, 1979). This report presents the proceedings of a conference on Hispanics and public policy. The report begins with five keynote addresses which, respectively, present an historical sociological overview of Hispanics in the U.S., analyze the effects on public policy of Hispanic population growth, assess the impact of Hispanic presence in the media, and review the representation of Hispanics in American literature. The second part of the report is composed of four papers that outline strategies for influencing policy in the area of justice, with specific attention given to the subjects of police-community relations, minority education, and the provision of interpreter service in the courts. Part three summarizes the Hispanic employment situation, while the fourth part of the report contains papers that concern educational issues such as bilingual education, educational attainment, and methods for changing educational policy. Covered in the fifth part of the report are the issues of health care among Mexican Americans and the use of interpreters in hospitals. Appended to the proceedings is a lengthy report on Chicanos and other Hispanics in Iowa, including recommendations for public policy. Also provided is a list of conference participants. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Opportunities, Elementary Secondary Education, Employment Opportunities

Community Service Society of New York, NY. (1976). Legislation for Human Needs: An Agenda for 1976. The priorities of eight program areas of the Community Service Society (CSS) for the 1976 New York State Legislature are enumerated in this report. The activities of the 1975 legislature are also briefly summarized and all the bills on which CSS took a position are indexed for each area addressed. The eight program areas as well as some of the listed priorities for each of them are listed as follows: aging (real property tax relief, State financing, supplemental security income, protection against age discrimination), education (bilingual education, students' rights, school services for the handicapped), general programs and issue (price advertising for prescription drugs, consumer credit reform), health (long-term care, restructuring the health care system, health maintenance organizations), housing and urban development (State programs, public housing, housing subsidies), income security (tax legislation, welfare legislation, unemployment insurance), social services (reorganization of the child welfare system, services for single-parent families), and youth and correction (drug abuse, family court, juvenile justice, criminal justice-penal law).   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Correctional Rehabilitation, Education, Health Needs

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