Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 295 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Allen Berger, Peter tim-kui Tam, Rodolfo Jacobson, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment. New York City Board of Education, Michael Watt, Columbus. Ohio State Dept. of Education, Robert E. Barnes, Hollie B. Thomas, Ann M. Milne, and Maria Defino.

Tam, Peter tim-kui (1986). The Impact of Governmental and Institutional Language Policy and Practices on the Individual's Choice of the Instructional Medium in Schools in Hong Kong. To help resolve the language of instruction dilemma in Hong Kong schools, this paper examines the hypothetical effect of government, business, and university language policy and practice on individuals' choice of intructional medium. While government policy has always allowed schools and students to choose either Chinese or English, most have chosen English. Bilingual education studies have concentrated on functional aspects of language, excluding sociopolitical variables that make English a higher status language. This study assumes a conflict paradigm perspective: Chinese should become a more popular instructional medium if more educational and political opportunities demanding Chinese proficiency existed. A survey was conducted to determine language(s) preferred by three samples of respondents: 136 Hong Kong primary students, 74 University of Hong Kong student teachers, and 36 secondary and college teachers in Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand. Results show students' preference for English rising with each grade level. Sociopolitical setting strongly influences individuals' choice of medium, and universities affect language preference more than business or government. Clearly, students choose to learn in a language with easier access to power. This situation will not change until the infrastructure recognizes both languages as equal. Descriptors: Access to Education, Bilingual Education, Chinese, Educational Policy

Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. (1983). Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Entry and Exit Criteria for Bilingual Programs. This guide for planners, administrators, staff, and teaching personnel of Ohio's current and pending bilingual education programs is intended to share the expertise of school administrators, bilingual program staff, and teaching personnel in the area of bilingual program entry and exit criteria, review pertinent theories and studies, and address current concerns expressed by personnel in Ohio programs. The first section discusses the planning of entry and exit criteria for a bilingual program, including consideration of the general language characteristics of the student population, program goals and objectives, the type of program adopted, selection of the criteria planning team, and ongoing evaluation. The second section outlines issues in the implementation of entry criteria, including the identification and placement of potential limited English proficient students. The third section discusses implementation of exit criteria, including both trial and final mainstreaming. A case study of exit criteria put into practice and entry and exit criteria models of some out of state bilingual programs are appended, and lists of general references and pertinent instruments are also included. Descriptors: Administrator Guides, Admission Criteria, Bilingual Education Programs, Eligibility

National Council on Educational Research (NIE), Washington, DC. (1984). Research in Retrospect, Fiscal Years 1981 and 1982. Seventh Annual Report of the National Council on Educational Research. This report presents the findings of the National Council on Educational Research, appointed by President Reagan during the fiscal year 1983 to review the National Institute of Education's (NIE's) 1981-82 grant and contract awards. NIE was established by the General Education Provisions Act of 1972. Part one of this report describes the seven topical areas of research defined in the law (basic educational skills–reading and mathematics; finance, management, and productivity; equal educational opportunities for disadvantaged students; education and the world of work; "nontraditional" students; international education–languages and cultures; and dissemination and implementation) and assesses NIE sponsored research in these categories from 1973 to 1983. After describing NIE's organizational structure, part two reviews 1981-82 grants and awards focusing on research priorities, equity studies, desegregation studies, and bilingual education research. Problems with research jargon, inappropriate research, and the impact of research are reported. It is concluded that educational research funds went into ideological projects to promote social cure-alls, rather than to address the nation's educational needs. Attempts by NIE leadership to change the course of research were hampered by the prior awarding of long-term grants. Appendices contain: (1) Fiscal Years 1981 and 1982–Summary of Expenditures; (2) Recipients of NIE Grants/Contracts; (3) Awards Listed Individually; and (4) Expenditures–U.S. Department of Education, Fiscal Years 1975, 1981, and 1982.    [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Contracts, Educational Improvement, Educational Needs

Watt, Michael (1984). A Guide for Selecting Bilingual Bicultural Resource Materials: The Analytic Instrument. [Volume III]. This is the third of three volumes reporting a project to develop an instrument to evaluate instructional materials used in bilingual education, community language education, and bicultural education programs in Australian schools. The project had three purposes: (1) to examine the research literature on the development of models and instruments to evaluate immigrant education resource materials; (2) to develop an instrument based on appropriate criteria and standards; and (3) to utilize the developed evaluation instrument for the analysis of Dutch bilingual and bicultural educational materials available to Australian schools. This volume contains the four evaluation instruments developed during this project: (1) Criteria for the Evaluation of Resource Materials-Evaluator's Form; (2) Criteria for the Evaluation of Resource Materials, Background Characteristics in General Contexts-Evaluator's Form; (3) Criteria for the Evaluation of Resource Materials, Decision-Making in a Specific Context-User's Form; and (4) Criteria for the Evaluation of Resource Materials-Evaluator's Form for Annotations. The criteria and standards for these instruments were developed primarily from the following instruments: the Sussex Scheme (Eraut, 1975); EPIE form A (Educational Products Information Exchange Institute); the Ethnic Studies Materials Analysis System and the Curriculum Materials Analysis System (Social Science Education Consortium).   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingual Instructional Materials, Elementary Secondary Education, Evaluation Criteria

Barnes, Robert E.; Milne, Ann M. (1981). Size of the Eligible Language Minority Population. Final Report. Draft. This paper develops a revised estimate of the number of children eligible for bilingual services based on the contention that the figure being used by the Department of Education is an overestimate. The current estimate of 3.6 million, which was derived from the Children's English and Services Study (CESS), is believed to be based on excessively high cutoff scores on the CESS test of English proficiency, and to include children who may not be entitled to services because they do not depend on a non-English language or becuase they are not in school. Drawing on legislative and court provisions for bilingual education, the paper explores alternative definitions of the following criteria to delimit the eligible populations: base populations; sufficient limitation in English; and dependence on a non-English language. Using the definitions, the paper generates new estimates by: (1) reanalyzing the CESS data to exclude nonrelevant populations; (2) incorporating a more realistic criterion for limited English proficiency derived from the Sustaining Effects Study (SES); (3) extrapolating estimates to the school universe using Survey of Income and Education (SIE) data; and (4) comparing derived estimates with estimates from other sources. The revised estimates are considered more reliable and more reasonable for Federal policy purposes.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Court Litigation, Definitions

Thomas, Hollie B.; Marangos, Mary Anna (1981). A Study to Identify the Unique Criteria and Standards Needed for the Development of Successful Bilingual Vocational Programs. Part 1: Evaluation Component. Final Report, from March 1, 1980 to June 30, 1981. A study was conducted to develop a process evaluation model for Bilingual Vocational Programs (BVPs) in Florida. Literature was reviewed that concerned state evaluation of general, vocational, and bilingual vocational education. This information and information from interviews and correspondence on these areas were used to develop a questionnaire that identified the additional needs of BVPs as compared with traditional vocational education programs. The questionnaire was also designed to identify standards and criteria, which, when met, would indicate that effective bilingual/vocational education (BVE) and/or vocational education for the limited English proficiency students was being provided. New York City BVP instructors and administrators participated in the pilot test of the Bilingual Vocational Instructional Program Review Component (BVIPRC) which contained those standards and criteria identified. Based on the Vocational Education Instructional Program Review, the BVIPRC includes a self evaluation component and on-site review. (A copy of the BVIPRC is provided.) The revised BVIPRC was field tested with BVE personnel in Florida. A total of 69 BVE staff participated in the study–35 completed the questionnaire and pilot tested the BVIPRC, 34 participated in BVIPRC field testing and evaluation. (Appendixes include questionnaire materials and BVIPRC field test and pilot test materials.)   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Vocational Education, Bilingual Education, Educational Research, Evaluation Criteria

Hakuta, Kenji (1986). Cognitive Development of Bilingual Children. The idea that bilingualism causes cognitive damage to children is no longer held by researchers, but it lingers in popular belief. It is based on the assumption that language is central to cognitive development, which is not held by all theorists. Another theoretical issue is whether the mind is a limited-capacity container or can accommodate two languages with ease. Social concerns arising from cases of poor acculturation have also influenced research on bilingualism. More recent research has compared the performance of "real" bilingual children, those with roughly equal language skills, with that of monolingual children and found the former group to have superior performance, especially in metalinguistic ability. There is now data suggesting that even language minority students in bilingual education programs who are in the process of learning English can benefit from some of the advantages of bilingualism. These studies contradict the argument that bilingualism in itself might cause cognitive confusion in the child, and support the idea that bilingualism can lead to higher levels of metalinguistic awareness and cognitive ability. In general, they point to the benefits to children of all language backgrounds of learning and maintaining two languages.   [More]  Descriptors: Acculturation, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Children

Berger, Allen (1985). Disguising the Issues in Education. None of the current issues in education have much to do with education; they are politically, socially, or economically based, and opinions tend to be presented as facts. For example illiteracy statistics are inflated. Virtually all children have the opportunity to learn to read and write at school, and the majority of them do. Neither is the adult literacy problem an epidemic. Bilingualism in the schools has also become politicized, and those making pronouncements on bilingual education are not necessarily experts in the field. Students with so-called learning disabilities and dyslexia can be helped more by instruction than by the mislabeling that brings more funds into the schools. Rudolf Flesch has kept the phonics issue alive, but teaching phonics to children who already know how to read is like teaching the basics of driving to people who know how to drive. Because of the increase in working mothers, there is a trend toward earlier formal education with a focus on reading, although the benefits of such instruction are not proven. Schools spend money on word processors for composition instruction to improve thinking skills, when it is clear thinking that leads to clear writing. Finally, textbook publishers rush to respond to the politics of the states with the largest textbook contracts. Nevertheless, what many in education have been saying for years is now being said by persons in power. If educational issues are put into a proper, realistic perspective, they can be solved.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Policy, Educational Trends, Elementary Secondary Education

Pelosi, Peter L. (1981). Imitative Reading with Bilingual Students. Two considerations are brought to bear on the reading approach presented here. First, because the major focus in a teaching method designed for use with bilingual education students is to increase both language facility and reading ability, the approach is designed to provide the student with the opportunity to read, use, and listen to a standard language. Secondly, with a comprehensive focus integrating reading and language ability and providing means to achieve a sense of accomplishment, student achievement can be more easily monitored. Generally, bilingual students face difficulties in reading and language largely because of deficiency in general verbal ability, vocabulary, and sentence comprehension, and deficits in both native language and English. As one means of overcoming these difficulties, the imitative reading technique (IRT) was developed from principles of remediation and is presented as a three-step process to be used with both individuals and small groups: (1) Following a text with teacher or recording. (2) Read aloud with the model. (3) Read aloud independently. Tests were run on groups using the technique and on control groups; results indicated significant gains in students' sight vocabulary, reading vocabulary, and oral reading ability. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Class Activities, Elementary Education, English (Second Language)

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment. (1986). Seward Park High School Project CABES, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report. In 1985-86, the Career Advancement through Bilingual Education Skills (CABES) project was in the final year of a three-year funding cycle at Seward Park High School in Manhattan, New York. The project's major goal was to provide career advancement skills to a population group of 279 students of limited English proficiency (LEP). Included in the career-oriented curriculum for CABES' participants are courses in typing, employability skills, and word processing. There are also bilingual career workshops, as well as content courses in the native language and English as a second language (ESL). Although the project underwent extensive personnel changes in the previous year, in 1985-86 the new staff was able to successfully manage the project, integrate activities with the rest of the school, and bring a measure of prestige to CABES within the school community. Student support services, cultural and extracurricular activities, and staff development and parental involvement activities were provided. The performance of program students on achievement tests indicates that instructional objectives were met in ESL, science, and the career advancement sequence. The objective was not achieved in mathematics due to poor academic performance in the fall term. In future, the school administration should allocate more space to the project, and typing and word-processing skills should be taught bilingually. Appendices include two sample lessons and some sample student writings. Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Career Education, High Schools, Hispanic Americans

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment. (1986). Project TRAIN, 1984-1985. OEA Evaluation Report. Project TRAIN, in its first year of operation, proposed to offer 210 parents of New York City high school students of limited English proficiency (LEP) an opportunity to improve their own English language skills. The targeted language groups included Spanish, Haitian Creole, Khmer, and Korean. This was to have been achieved through regularly scheduled classes in English as a second language (ESL), General Equivalency Diploma (GED) preparation, computer-assisted instruction in ESL, and workshops on issues related to bilingual education. However, the project could neither be staffed nor implemented as proposed. Only 11 of the 14 proposed staff positions were filled. The program was to have been offered at four high schools and three community centers. To encourage parental attendance, the project also was to have provided childcare services. The project began operating at the Vanderveer Community Catholic Center in Brooklyn in September 1984; two other sites, Walton High School in the Bronx and the Haitian Neighborhood Service Center in Manhattan, began operations in January 1985. Three hundred thirty-one parents were served: 315 Haitians and 16 Hispanics. ESL classes were offered at all sites; GED classes were offered at Walton and the Haitian Center. No achievement data were available. Descriptors: Adult Education, Bilingual Education Programs, English (Second Language), High Schools

Defino, Maria; Jenkins, Vivian (1985). A Look at State Compensatory Education in AISD, 1984-85. This report documents the purpose and results for each information source used in the evaluation of the 1984-85 State Compensatory Education (SCE) program by providing a look at programs traditionally funded by SCE: (1) elementary instruction; (2) guidance and counseling; (3) Project Achieve; (4) Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE) Program; (5) Texas Assessment of Basic Skills; and (6) Management Information System. The results indicated two major positive findings. First, seventh-grade TBE participants made strong growth as evidenced by gains in reading, language and mathematics scores. Eighth-grade TBE students made greater than expected gains in reading and mathematics. Second, all SCE-eligible, Hispanic limited-English-proficient students in schools without bilingually certified SCE teachers had access to other bilingually certified classroom teachers. Major findings that require further action indicate that: (1) there are questions as to whether the program fully focused on the target population; (2) the majority of SCE teachers continue to use pull-out formats for delivery of instruction, for a variety of reasons; and (3) Project Achieve appears to lack visibility.   [More]  Descriptors: Achievement Gains, Basic Skills, Bilingual Education Programs, Compensatory Education

Watt, Michael; De Jong, Marilyn (1984). A Guide for Selecting Bilingual Bicultural Resource Materials. [Volume II]. Analyses and Annotations of Dutch Bilingual and Bicultural Resource Materials. This is the second of three volumes reporting a project to develop an instrument to evaluate instructional materials used in bilingual education, community language education, and bicultural education programs in Australian schools. The project had three purposes: (1) to examine the research literature on the development of models and instruments to to evaluate immigrant education resource materials; (2) to develop an instrument based on appropriate criteria and standards; and (3) to utilize the developed evaluation instrument for the analysis of Dutch bilingual and bicultural educational materials available to Australian schools. This volume is a guide to available Dutch bilingual bicultural materials, and contains: (1) an introduction to using the developed evaluation criteria to analyze resource materials within the context of appropriate programs; (2) analyses for 10 basic instructional resource materials; (3) annotations for 20 supplementary resource materials; and (4) analyses for two professional resource materials on the Netherlands. Each analysis contains the following components: identification of resource material; its rationale, research, and development; antecedents; background characteristics; goals; transactions; contents; methods; outcomes; evaluation; contingencies and congruences; assessment and recommendation. Indexes to titles of books in a series, subjects, authors and developers, and publishers and distributers are provided.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingual Instructional Materials, Dutch, Elementary Secondary Education

Jacobson, Rodolfo (1985). Title VII Demonstration Projects Program in Bilingual Instructional Methodology. Final Report, 1981-84. This report describes a demonstration project whose instructional design implemented sociolinguistic concepts in bilingual education and compared two approaches, the New Concurrent and the Language Separation approaches. The first section is a review of research studies concerning this instructional design. The second, third, and fourth sections describe the selection, responsibilities, and inservice education of teachers and aides. The fifth section describes enrollment patterns, and the sixth section summarizes the research portion of the project. The seventh section describes the purchase of equipment and materials and the benefits to the teaching staff, children, school district, and university of the use of federal funds. Section eight discusses parent involvement, and section nine outlines methods of student, program, and personnel assessment. Section ten summarizes the findings concerning nine project elements: the project children's academic potential, the demonstration objectives and research findings, impact on the district, the significance of support by a local educational authority, the teacher-aide teams, the future of the bilingual methods tested, the contribution to bilingual research, and the replication potential. It is concluded that both methods tested are valid options and that the demonstration project is a valuable method for conducting research.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Classroom Techniques, Comparative Analysis, Demonstration Programs

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment. (1986). Seward Park High School Project CABES 1983-1984. Project CABES (Career Advancement through Bilingual Education) was established in 1983 at Seward Park High School in New York, New York. Its major goal is to serve a population of 250 Hispanic students of limited English proficiency (LEP) interested in pursuing a career advancement sequence rather than a regular academic sequence. Project CABES encompasses five major career areas: health care, import/export, travel industry, bilingual banking, and translating and interpreting. Project CABES supplements the school's instructional program with such Title VII services as paraprofessional assistance in bilingual content-area classes, staff development activities, counseling services for Hispanic LEP students, and administrative personnel. In 1983-84, project personnel developed curriculum in economics and American history, job skills, and typing through English. Furthermore, CABES students participated in cultural activities inside and outside school, and parents were involved through advisory committees, participation in all school cultural events, and on-going visits to the program. Evaluation of Project CABES for 1983-84 showed that students achieved proposed objectives in English as a Second Language, fall mathematics courses, social studies, and career advancement classes in both semesters. Program students exceeded the proposed objective for attendance. Recommendations are offered for improvement of in-service training, meeting special student needs, and collecting student achievement data. Descriptors: Attendance, Bilingual Education Programs, Career Education, Counseling Services

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