Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 294 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Susan Schneider, John Attinasi, Phyllis L. Jacobson, Clinton O. White, Judith A. Torres, T. H. Bell, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment. New York City Board of Education, George Wheeler, Ernesto Schiefelbein, and Washington National Council of La Raza.

Jacobson, Phyllis L. (1983). The Future Past: The Social Context of Franco-American Schooling in New England. Franco-Americans constitute the fourth largest language minority group in the United States, with over two million Franco-Americans residing in the greater New England area. Largely due to lack of available information, teachers and administrators have often proceeded under the erroneous assumptions that Franco language and cultural patterns are essentially similar to mainland French language and culture. Consequently, to a large extent the educational and social needs of Franco children have not been met by the public school systems. In many cases, such treatment was due to ignorance of the Franco sociocultural context, but in other instances it was a result of discrimination and ridicule. On the other hand, examples of school systems where Franco children have benefited from bilingual education programs are also documented. This study also documents the extent of the preservation of French culture in New England. The pull between the maintenance of Franco traditional culture and values and the political realities of American life is felt perhaps most keenly by those of college age. Examples are given of attempts by sociopolitical organizations and action by Franco student groups at the university level and by a small cadre of Franco educators.   [More]  Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingualism, Culture Conflict

National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC. Office of Research Advocacy and Legislation. (1987). H.R. 5 and Hispanic Educational Concerns: An Overview of the School Improvement Act of 1987. Perspectivas Publicas. Issue Brief. The School Improvement Act of 1987, H.R. 5, has been approved in the House of Representatives. This bill reauthorizes 14 existing federal elementary and secondary programs and creates a new program for gifted and talented children's education. The majority of the programs in H.R. 5 are designed to improve services for educationally disadvantaged children. The two major programs being reauthorized are Chapter 1 and Bilingual Education. For the first time the Chapter 1 program will provide for the participation of children and parents who are limited English proficient (LEP) and will provide special services for preschool children and secondary school students. A serious concern in H.R. 5 is the funding priority given to English-only programs for LEP children. Despite a body of research that indicates that programs making no use of a child's native language are the least effective in promoting language acquisition and subject matter competency, the majority of new funds will be awarded to these programs. The existing federal support for truly bilingual programs will continue at its present level. Actual enactment of this legislation is not expected until 1988. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Finance, Educational Legislation, Educational Policy

Schiefelbein, Ernesto (1990). Seven Strategies for Improving the Quality and Efficiency of the Education System. Notes, Comments… No. 192 = Sept strategies visant a ameliorer la qualite et l'efficacite du systeme d'education. Seven strategies for improving the quality and efficiency of educational system in Latin American are delineated within the context of background information on the coverage and efficiency of school systems from 1970 to 1980, technical and institutional limitations to educational progress, and an estimate of the impact of the strategies. Strategies include: (1) providing bilingual education programs; (2) implementing innovative new school programs in rural areas: (3) providing preschool education; (4) implementing a solution to the problem of massive grade repetition among first graders from low income strata of society; (5) training of rural community instructors; (6) developing a statistical information system; and (7) using research findings in education. Impact estimations are provided for Venezuela concerning changes in student flow, levels of efficiency, and levels of expenditure. It is suggested that the implementation of the seven strategies, with expenditure increases of 5 percent per year for 5 years, would permit the reduction of grade repetition levels to one-third and substantially increase efficiency of the system, as long as the strategies are adequately implemented. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Data Collection, Developing Nations, Educational Finance

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment. (1986). Project PROBE, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report. In its second year of operation, Project PROBE (Professions Oriented Bilingual Education) experienced difficulty in meeting some of its instructional objectives. The project had sought to provide instructional and supportive services to 200 Spanish-speaking students from Latin America at Louis D. Brandeis High School (Manhattan, New York) and to 100 Vietnamese-born, Chinese-speaking students at Sheepshead Bay High School (Brooklyn, New York). PROBE's goal was to increase career awareness among students of limited English proficiency (LEP) through English as a second language (ESL) and native language arts instruction and through bilingual instruction in content-area subjects. This assessment reports the following findings: (1) students were successful in achieving the proposed English-language achievement objectives; (2) objective mastery in native language arts in Chinese and Spanish could not be assessed as proposed; (3) the project could not achieve its content-area passing rate objective; (4) the attendance rate of project students was significantly higher than the schoolwide rate; (5) the career awareness component was not being implemented at either site; (6) staff development and curriculum development activities were few; and (7) parental involvement in school functions could not be assessed because of missing data.   [More]  Descriptors: Attendance, Bilingual Education Programs, Career Awareness, Chinese

Spolsky, Bernard; And Others (1983). The Sociolinguistics of Literacy: An Historical and Comparative Study of Five Cases. Final Report. The development of literacy in selected bilingual societies was investigated. Historical and comparative studies were conducted of medieval Jewish communities, the Navajo community, a northern New Mexico village, and the countries of Paraguay and Tonga. The goal of the case studies was to develop a model for the development of literacy in the vernacular that can then be applied to the education of minority populations. Papers generated during the course of the studies are reprinted in nine chapters. The implications of the case studies for the choice of a language for initial literacy in bilingual education are discussed. It is concluded that a sociolinguistic model for vernacular literacy should include such factors as (1) the nature and language of literacy introduction, (2) the status of those accepting literacy, (3) the functions for which it is used, (4) the existence of political independence and control of the educational system, and (5) the continued use of the language. Necessary conditions for vernacular literacy include acceptance by traditionally influential members of the community, use for native functions, and maintenance by a locally controlled educational system.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Case Studies, Guarani

Wheeler, George; And Others (1982). Evaluation of a Dual Bilingual Program: English-Spanish and English-Southeast Asian Languages. An external evaluation of the Title VII Bilingual Education Program was designed to: (1) gather a subjective assessment from personnel working with the program; (2) observe classroom teaching and activities utilized in bilingual instruction; and (3) measure differences in levels of achievement. The instructional personnel appear to accept the philosophy of and need for a transitional bilingual program. There is a utilization of a variety of teaching materials: films, rhymes, visual aids, etc. The method of instruction is individual and group repetition. Over all, the program at all schools shows some progress although it is relatively new in existence. A pre- and post-administration of the Metropolitan Readiness Test, and the analysis of the Language Assessment Scales (LAS) indicated a statistically significant impact on language, on reading readiness development, and on developing communicative skills in both English and Spanish. The LAS was used to measure the existing or entering English Skills of the Southeast Asian Children. The statistical analysis at the end of the school year indicated a significant improvement in their English language skills. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Affective Objectives, Asian Americans, Bilingual Education

Edelsky, Carole (1982). Development of Writing in a Bilingual Program. Final Report. Volumes 1 and 2. The writing development of 27 first through third graders in an English/Spanish bilingual program was investigated. Samples of the children's writing were collected at four intervals during the school year, coded for computer tallying, and analyzed in terms of code-switching, spelling, punctuation and segmentation, structural features, stylistic devices, and content. In addition, the context in which the writing developed was evaluated by means of classroom observations, teacher interviews, review of the children's family backgrounds, and a survey of the community language situation. The findings provided evidence to counter prevailing myths about the language proficiency of bilinguals, biliteracy, bilingual education, research on writing, literacy and writing instruction, and learning to write. For example, the subjects, all children of migrant workers or settled migrants, demonstrated varied vocabulary, complex syntax, acknowledgement of the reader, knowledge that context constrains form, and movement toward stylistic sophistication in their writing. In a discussion of implications, the concept of a whole language approach to writing instruction is supported, in which authentic and functional texts are offered to and produced by children.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingual Students, Bilingualism, Child Language

Bell, T. H. (1983). U.S. Department of Education Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1982. As mandated by Congress, this annual report from the U.S. Department of Education (ED) describes its activities in the past fiscal year (FY). The first section, Secretary of Education T. H. Bell's report, highlights ED accomplishments in FY 1982 in such areas as federal legislation, civil rights, and paperwork reduction, and also lists ED goals involving educational excellence, education and work, dismantling of ED, tuition tax credits, and other matters. Following a chart showing ED organization, activities of the under secretary's office are outlined, as are operations in the ED offices for management, intergovernmental and interagency affairs, and planning, budget, and evaluation. Next the ED Inspector General's office reviews its audit and investigative actions. Also reporting on their programs are the ED offices for elementary and secondary education, special education and rehabilitative services, bilingual education and minority languages affairs, vocational and adult education, postsecondary education, educational research and improvement, civil rights, general legal counsel, and legislation and public affairs. A brief appendix lists the names of ED advisory councils and committees.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Agency Cooperation, Bilingual Education, Civil Rights

Attinasi, John; And Others (1982). Intergenerational Perspectives on Bilingualism: From Community to Classroom. Final Report. Research was conducted to consider in detail the intergenerational dimensions of bilingualism in the Puerto Rican community in New York City via the children of adult immigrants who had abandoned their native language usage and who later revived it. The issues in focus are language choice, language change, language use, and language learning. The report follows the chronological progression of the research. Its chapters cover the following topics: (1) the historical background of the community and school system; (2) the methodology of the project, the children in the sample, an examination of the children's linguistic behavior through ethnographic techniques, and a comparison of their language use to that of their parents; (3) an attitudinal survey and comparison of attitudes of children and their parents and teachers toward language varieties and bilingual education; (4) examination of children's performance on various tests; (5) quantitative sociolinguistic studies of particular phenomena which are examined from an intergenerational perspective; (6) a comparison of children's and adults' behavior with regard to code switching and an indication of certain developmental patterns; and (7) a summary which emphasizes educational and policy implications of the findings. Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingualism, Code Switching (Language), English (Second Language)

White, Clinton O. (1983). Schools, Religion and Language among German Catholics of St. Peter's Colony, Saskatchewan 1903-1918. Flaws in the literature regarding the use of schools by German Roman Catholics in Western Canada as vehicles to perpetuate the German language and Catholic religion are pointed out and corrected. The educational system in St. Peter's colony was not uniform, as portrayed by many scholars, but pluralistic. Three types of schools were in use–two separate, a large number private, but the vast majority public. While some children attended Catholic private schools, most attended the public or separate institutions. The teachers in the schools differed. In private schools, teachers were mainly German-Americans; in public schools they were usually Canadians who had originated in the British Isles. The curriculum in the primary schools varied. Practically all children received religious instruction, but there were wide variations. A minority obtained a substantial amount, the majority anywhere from none to half an hour a day. Finally, bilingual education was not very common. While children in private schools received at least half of their lessons in German, most public school teachers were not fluent in that language. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Catholic Schools, Catholics, Comparative Education

Schneider, Susan (1990). Integrating Whole Language with a Sheltered English Curriculum: A Longitudinal Evaluation of At Risk Language Minority Students. A study evaluated two El Paso, Texas bilingual education program types, including a state-mandated transitional model (n=18 schools, 5,607 students) and a bilingual immersion program (n=19 schools, 4,717 students). Both programs are designed so students will exit after grade 4, but some continue in grades 5 and 6. Student characteristics are similar across programs. Transitional programs have tended toward the audio-lingual approach, and immersion uses recent language-acquisition methods and the whole language approach and teaches reading and content areas in English. More recently, a language-arts approach has been encouraged, but not widely embraced, in the transitional program. Longitudinal data on student progress in the two program models and process data for three years has been gathered, and teachers were surveyed twice. Analysis of the data indicates that as in previous years, the immersion students performed better on standardized tests than transitional program students, with the gap narrowing in reading and math in the upper grades. Regardless of program, the students make the same average grades and are promoted at a similar rate. It is concluded that the bilingual immersion program can provide needed first-language instructional support and development as well as a richer, faster, more complete exposure to English. Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Case Studies, Comparative Analysis, Curriculum Design

Torres, Judith A.; And Others (1983). Fort Hamilton High School. Project ELITES: Education for Life Through Extended Services. O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1981-1982. Project ELITES provides bilingual education to 307 Spanish-speaking, Arabic-speaking, and Greek-speaking students at Fort Hamilton High School, Brooklyn, New York. Project ELITES's philosophy is to mainstream students after two years of participation. The program's individualized approach is obtained through a 3-tiered instructional format: gifted, career/occupational, and low literacy. This report evaluates the instructional component, staff development activities, and materials development for 1981-82, the program's second year of operation. Data presented indicate that most of the program's English language objectives were met by participating students. Further, many participants performed well in mathematics, science, and social studies courses. Passing rates in Fall term business and vocational education were lower than the mainstream passing rates for Spanish and Arabic program students, but Greek students had higher passing rates. In the Spring term, passing rates improved for all groups of program participants. The average attendance rate for program students was significantly higher than the mainstream attendance rates.   [More]  Descriptors: Achievement Gains, Arabic, Attendance, Bilingual Education Programs

Lewelling, Vickie W. (1992). English Plus. ERIC Digest. Recent efforts to make English the only official language of the United States have spurred an "English Plus" language advocacy movement, based on the belief that all U.S. residents should have the opportunity to become proficient in English and one or more other languages. For non-native English speakers, this means opportunity to acquire proficiency in English and maintain proficiency in their native language(s). Proponents view cultural diversity as a strength. The "Official English" movement seeks to make English the official language of the U.S. by passing a constitutional amendment, repealing bilingual voting requirements, reducing funding for bilingual education, enforcing English language and civics requirements for naturalization, and expanding English language learning opportunities. The movement is spearheaded by two groups, "English First" and "U.S. English." The Official English movement has gained considerable attention but little success at the federal level. However, 16 states have constitutional amendments or statutes making English the official language. The English Plus movement has provided a means for advancing policies supporting linguistic pluralism on state and local levels, and it has received endorsement in counties and municipalities around the country.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Civil Liberties, Constitutional Law

Wheeler, George; And Others (1983). An Evaluation of a Bilingual Program with Bilingual Paraprofessionals Serving as the Primary Instructional Personnel, 1982-83. An external evaluation of the Title VII Bilingual Education Project was designed to: (1) gather a subjective assessment from personnel working with the project; (2) observe classroom teaching and activities utilized in bilingual instruction; and (3) to measure differences in levels of achievement on the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) between pre- and post-tests and to measure language proficiency on the Language Assessment Scale (LAS) between pre- and post-tests. There is general agreement that the project is operating more smoothly and effectively than during the previous two years. The instructional objectives and the use of English, Spanish and/or Southeast Asian languages are being met. Pre- and post-test comparisons of the CTBS and the LAS reveal the treatment had significant impact on language skills, on reading readiness, and on developing communicative skills in both Spanish and English. The English portion of the LAS revealed progress between pre- and post-testing in language for Southeast Asian participants. They were not administered a language proficiency test in their home language. Although the Southeast Asian students progressed in English, it was decided that their level of proficiency in English was less than adequate for testing with the CTBS. Descriptors: Asian Americans, Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingual Students, Classroom Observation Techniques

Williams, Bev; Gross, Kathy (1990). English Proficiency Test and Classroom Application. In the Lower Kuskokwim School District of western Alaska, the Yupik Eskimo language is the language of preference in most homes and communities, and students are relatively isolated from an environment that requires the consistent use of fluent English. The district's bilingual education staff attempted to locate a commercially developed instrument that could be used to measure the various levels of oral and listening proficiency of their limited English proficient students. The staff agreed that an effective English language proficiency test would: (1) measure a wide range of basic interpersonal communication skills and beginning to intermediate cognitive academic language proficiency skills; (2) assess oral and listening comprehension; (3) provide levels of proficiency, K-12; (4) be diagnostic and prescriptive; (5) be easy to administer, score, and interpret; (6) provide approximate placement to grade level; (7) have a high degree of interrater reliability; and (8) meet testing standards of validity, reliability and appropriate norming. These were the criteria used to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the following tests: (1) Language Assessment Scales I and II; (2) Basic Inventory of Natural Language; (3) Idea Oral Language Proficiency Test I and II; (4) Comprehensive English Language Test Secondary; (5) Second Language English Proficiency Test Secondary; and (6) the Maculaitis, K-12. None of the tests was satisfactory. This paper contains recommendations for the limited use of these instruments and suggested features that a more appropriate test would incorporate.   [More]  Descriptors: Alaska Natives, Bilingual Education, Diagnostic Tests, Elementary Secondary Education

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