Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 293 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include James D. Cockcroft, Billie Enz, Washington District of Columbia Public Schools, Vangie L. Pearson, Belinda Olivarez Turner, Jean M. Baker, David E. Freeman, Herman H. Cline, Barry E. Quimper, and Jo Ann Ellingson.

Turner, Belinda Olivarez; And Others (1989). Watching the Progress of Limited-English-Proficient (LEP) Students 1988-89. Austin Independent School District. Publication No. 88.39. The achievement levels of limited-English-proficient (LEP) students in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District in mathematics, reading, and writing are reported and compared with those of students in previous years. The district enrolled 4,888 LEP students in 1988-89 (89% were Spanish speakers, 4% were Vietnamese, and 7% represented 49 other language groups). Most were served through Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE) and English as a Second Language (ESL) programs. Mastery percentages on the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) examinations for grades 1 through 9 increased in 8 of 15 comparisons by grade and subject area. Exit-level TEAMS scores for 11th graders indicated that TEAMS must be a special emphasis if LEP students are to graduate on time.  On the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills and the Tests of Achievement and Proficiency, Spanish-speaking students gained over one grade equivalent (GE) between spring 1988 and spring 1989 in about half the comparisons. Vietnamese LEP students gained over one GE in 25 of 36 comparisons. Compared to the 1986-87 school year, the LEP junior high dropout rate declined in 1987-88, but the dropout rate for senior high rose. Ten graphs and 11 tables present data from these studies. Six attachments, with eight tables, contain summary statistics, program summary data, and definitions used in the Generic Evaluation System (GENESYS) developed by the AISD to evaluate student achievement.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Comparative Analysis, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language)

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House. (1988). Augustus F. Hawkins-Robert T. Stafford Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendments of 1988. (Public Law 100-297, 100th Congress, April 28, 1988). The Augustus F. Hawkins-Robert T. Stafford Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendment of 1988, PL 100-297 of the 100th Congress, was approved April 28, 1988. The bill extends almost every federal elementary and secondary education program through 1993. The Chapter 1 Program, which is the largest federal aid to education program, receives 14 amendments. Other programs added or amended include: (1) the Chapter 2 program, also known as the education block grant; (2) Science and Math Program; (3) Foreign Language Program; (4) Magnet Schools; (5) Women's Educational Equity Program; (6) Gifted and Talented Children Program; (7) Ellender Fellowship Program; (8) Immigrant and Territorial Assistance Programs; (9) Secretary's Fund For Innovation; (10) Drug Education; (11) Bilingual Education; (12) Impact Aid; (13) Adult Education; (14) Star Schools Program; (15) Child Development Program; (16) Statistics; (17) Fund for Improvement; (18) National Assessment; (19) Audits; and (20) Indian Education. An attached press release contains highlights of the H.R. 5 Bill.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, American Indian Education, Bilingual Education, Drug Education

Baker, Jean M.; And Others (1971). Bicultural Socialization: A Group Process Approach to Bilingual Instruction. Case Study Reports. Three studies were carried out to explore and evaluate alternative methods of meeting the objectives of a bilingual education project. The first study explored children's book usage behaviors and how these behaviors were influenced by the requirement to fill out book reports and a reward reinforcement. It was found (1) that fewer children sampled books as a result of the report requirement, but those who did tended to stick with one book and read it more thoroughly and (2) that the reward reinforcement system had a significant effect on encouraging reading and reporting. The second case study investigated a second-grade boy's extremely disruptive behavior in the classroom. Recorded data showed that when the teacher used positive social reinforcement and a token system to encourage good behaviors, frequency of the disruptive behavior dropped immensely, but it climbed up again when the token system was discontinued. The third study dealt with children's leadership behaviors. Data on children's behavior were collected at different phases before and after a training on group participation and leadership. Results showed that the training had positive effects on children's behavior and attitude. Tables and charts are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Antisocial Behavior, Behavior Change, Bilingual Education, Case Studies

Cockcroft, James D. (1995). Latinos in the Making of the United States. The Hispanic Experience in the Americas. Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, Cubans, Central Americans, and South Americans, all so-called "Hispanics," or "Latinos," have brought their working hands and all of their skills and talents to the United States. They have come from many places to become the United States' fastest growing minority group. By the 1990 Census, Hispanics were living in many parts of the country. Like other immigrant workers, they have been significant producers in national industrialization. Today, they are crucial for the future of the United States' cities. How vital Latinos are to the nation's existence is detailed in two chapters that concentrate on their roles as farm workers and as health care providers. A subsequent chapter explores Hispanic participation in the labor movement. Of particular interest is a chapter on schools, focusing on the struggle for equal educational opportunity and the controversy about bilingual education. Years of stereotyping have resulted in reduced expectations for Hispanic children and have placed many obstacles in their way. Nevertheless, Hispanics are maintaining their impressive tradition of fighting to improve the United States' educational system. Chapter 5 explores the roles of Hispanics in the professions, politics, business, and the arts, and Chapter 6 discusses the civil rights Hispanics still struggle to obtain. (Contains 56 references.) Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Civil Rights, Cubans, Dominicans

Ellingson, Jo Ann (1989). Problems of the 1980's: The New Influx of Immigrants: Policy Questions for the 1990's. Focusing on Chicago (Illinois), this report describes the magnitude of issues related to the education of non-English-speaking immigrants, and presents an overview of both the learning resource materials available to support bilingual education in the Chicago School System and the availability of materials in foreign languages in the Chicago Public Library. The premise being explored is that perhaps the school system is not adequately supporting bilingual programs and that the subsequent burden is falling on the public library. The overview of the school system includes a table summarizing the number of transitional bilingual programs–which are designed to provide students with the opportunity to learn in their native languages and at their own level of cognitive skill to prevent them from lagging in school performance while learning English–in each of 18 language groups at the high school and K-8 levels in the Chicago area. The addresses and telephone numbers of four multilingual education resource and information centers are also provided. Following the overview is an analysis of federal grant proposals (Library Services Reconstruction Act–LSCA) submitted by the Chicago Public Library over a 3-year period dealing with bilingual and multilingual programs. Finally, this study identifies some of the policy questions that face school, academic, and public libraries confronted with the challenge of serving disparate populations of patrons. (12 references) Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Instructional Materials, Elementary Secondary Education, Federal Aid

Rollow, Sharon G.; Yanguas, Maria Josefina (1996). The Road to Emergent Restructuring and Strong Democracy: One Chicago School's Experience of Reform. Draft Deliverable. Thomas Elementary School serves a poor, predominantly Latino neighborhood in Chicago (Illinois). This paper reviews some of the developments within each of the school's three sites of power–parents, the principal, and the faculty–and considers the important role of social capital in this immigrant community. Data were obtained through observation and interviews with the principal, teacher leaders, parents, and members of the school community. During the 4 years of observation, the Thomas school community progressed from a stage of uncertain politics when the principal was new, to a maintenance politics when the first school-improvement plan and budget were written, to an emergent democracy where contentious issues of bilingual education were debated. The school also saw developments in school-improvement activities from an early stage of peripheral academic initiatives, to a first stage of systemic change labeled "emergent restructuring." Factors for successful change included an active, supportive parent group; a principal with a vision for a bilingual school who encouraged participative decision making; committed teacher leaders; and trust between parents and professionals. Positive social relations enhanced democratic participation, which strengthened social capital, which in turn facilitated systemic educational change. (Contains 45 endnotes and 24 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Educational Change, Educational Improvement, Elementary Education

Christie, James; Enz, Billie; Vukelich, Carol (1997). Teaching Language and Literacy: Preschool through the Elementary Grades. Created under the assumption that children develop essential language skills through meaningful interaction with other individuals, this book takes into account many of the current trends in teaching elementary language. Among the primary trends addressed are the social constructivist theory, embedded assessment, the interdisciplinary approach to instruction, and bilingual education. Also included throughout the book are case studies, special feature boxes, "trade secrets" (classroom teachers' successful literacy strategies), classroom management tips, self-surveys, and observation guides. Chapters in the book are: (1) Views of Learning, Language, and Literacy; (2) Oral Language Development; (3) Emergent Literacy; (4) Facilitating Oral Language Learning; (5) Encouraging Emergent Literacy Development; (6) Best Practice in Reading Instruction; (7) Embedded within Reading Workshop: Teaching Meaning and Skills; (8) Teaching Writing the Workshop Way; (9) Embedded within Writing Workshop: Teaching Skills and Meeting Special Needs; (10) Using Literacy to Learn: Integrating the Curriculum; (11) Portfolio Assessment: Determining What Children Know and Can Do; and (12) Parents as Partners in Literacy Education. Contains approximately 500 references. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Elementary Education, Emergent Literacy, Integrated Curriculum

Northern Territory Dept. of Education, Darwin (Australia). (1989). Difficult Educational Contexts. Proceedings of the UNESCO Workshop on the Training of Primary Education Personnel Working in Difficult Educational Contexts (2nd, Northern Territory, Australia, August 14-19, 1988). This booklet presents the proceedings of a workshop on teacher training and support for teachers working in remote rural areas. Participants at the workshop were drawn from a range of tertiary training institutions, government departments, parent groups, and other organizations. Many presentations focussed on Northern Territory case studies, particularly educational responses to the needs of Aboriginal communities. A number of presentations consider facets of teaching training and support: existing teacher training programs, regional college programs, course offerings that prepare teachers for particular problems of isolated multigrade schools, teacher stress, bilingual education for Aborigines, curriculum materials for remote areas, and support services for such schools. Papers also examine literacy workshops for remote communities, parent involvement in distance education and home tutoring, and teaching math concepts to Aboriginal children. This proceedings includes abstracts of the presentations, a list of 34 recommendations from the workshop, a program, and a list of participants. It also includes the full text of the opening addresses by Geoff Spring, Ian Anderson, and John Parr. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Elementary Education, Foreign Countries, Home Schooling

District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. (1991). Early Childhood Initiatives: Doing the Right Thing for Children. The District of Columbia Board of Education declared the 1990-1991 school year "The Year of the Young Child." During this year, the district encouraged programs that: (1) responded to the learning patterns of children; (2) involved parents in their children's development; (3) provided a range of services such as health and nutrition services; and (4) drew on the resources of many agencies. This publication describes program initiatives that were undertaken during the year. These included: (1) demonstration programs, such as teacher training projects and an in-home Head Start project; (2) training programs for Montessori teachers, teacher's aides, and administrators; (3) curriculum programs such as a Head Start project, an arts project, and cooperative projects with the Wolf Trap Institute and the Smithsonian Museum; (4) collaborative efforts for teachers, agencies, and families; (5) bilingual education programs; (6) transitional programs for disabled and special education children, and children of substance abusers; and (7) programs to upgrade classroom equipment and materials, and improve student-teacher ratios. Each of the 31 program profiles includes a synopsis of the program; a phone number and contact person for the participating school; program goals, major objectives, and strategies for the 1991-1992 school year; and descriptions of past accomplishments. Descriptors: Agency Cooperation, Bilingual Education Programs, Child Development, Curriculum Development

Freeman, Yvonne S.; Freeman, David E. (1997). Teaching Reading and Writing in Spanish in the Bilingual Classroom. The book provides teachers, program directors, administrators, and parents involved in Spanish-English bilingual education programs with practical ideas to support the development of reading and writing programs in Spanish, using literacy approaches that are effective and empowering for Spanish-speaking children in American schools. It describes classroom activities, makes reference to Spanish children's literature that supports the suggested curriculum, and includes idea and checklists to help teachers organize and evaluate their Spanish literacy programs. An introductory chapter describes how two teachers introduce thematic units on animals, at kindergarten and fourth-grade levels, emphasizing either reading or writing. The second chapter explains two different views of the reading process and presents evidence supporting a socio-psycholinguistic approach. Different approaches to Spanish reading instruction are outlined and evaluated in two subsequent chapters, with positive alternatives offered for practices that are not effective. Writing development is discussed in chapters 5 and 6, one devoted to comparisons of English and Spanish spelling. The final chapter describes positive practices, suggests materials to support an enriched Spanish literacy program, and provides techniques for helping students move back and forth naturally between reading and writing in Spanish and English. (Contains 175 children's literature references and 94 professional references.) Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Strategies, Elementary Secondary Education, Literacy Education

Cline, Herman H. (1989). Is There a Hidden Agenda? The English Language Amendment. A discussion of the movement to make English the official language of the United States, by constitutional amendment, looks for a hidden agenda among its advocates. The history of and debate over the amendment in Congress and around the country are reviewed, drawing from legislative texts, speeches, essays, media commentary, and related research. It is argued that groups supporting the amendment try to advance their proposals by appealing to the traditions of the American value system, opposing the "salad bowl" concept of American culture (in which different elements are thrown together but not "melted") in favor of the "melting pot" concept which envisages a much more homogeneous society. Proposed elimination of the bilingual ballot and cutbacks in bilingual education are viewed as part of the same movement. Political implications of the amendment as well as implications for the teaching of English as a Second Language are examined. A bibliography of over 220 items is appended. Descriptors: Acculturation, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Constitutional Law

Pearson, Vangie L. (1992). Texas Schools, Inc.: A Case Study of the Transfer of Technology at a Pilot Bilingual Program. Texas Schools, Inc. (TSI) developed a pilot program in bilingual education for Mexican-American vocational workers in the Department of Diesel Mechanics at Texas Tech University. This study assesses the transfer of technology in that environment using quantitative and qualitative measures. TSI, a technical and vocational school in Lubbock, Texas, operated from 1972 to 1992. The pilot bilingual effort consisted of a 6-month technical training and language development program. During the first 3 months technical classes were conducted in Spanish; during the last 3 months, in English. Spanish and English language classes were taught throughout the program. A total of 16 students were studied using the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) scale and case study interviews.  The student questionnaire consisted of five questions dealing with the differences between the students' educational experiences in Mexico and in America; the instructor questionnaire addressed student differences and changes that could improve the educational climate at TSI. Results suggest: (1) students preferred a group approach to learning and a preference for laboratory practice, and looked to the instructor as a caretaker as well as instructor; (2) the teacher's agenda favored classroom instruction over laboratory instruction; (3) the norms, roles, agendas, and motives of the students and instructor came into conflict in their attempt to transfer technology successfully; (4) technology transfer did take place; and (5) CIDA scales are useful instruments for studying the transfer of technology whether the change agents are from the host or visiting culture. Contains 31 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Case Studies, Cultural Differences

Pitts, Mark (1992). Development of the Graduate Secondary Teacher Education Program at Seattle Pacific University. The process of developing and implementing the Graduate Secondary Teacher Education Program (STEP) at Seattle Pacific University (Washington) included five steps: initial conception, establishment of program parameters, development of a working proposal, completion of the review process, and completion of the adoption process. Graduate STEP is a 2-year graduate secondary teacher certification program designed to prepare bilingual teachers, with diverse ethnic and language backgrounds, for positions in Seattle Public Schools. The program grew, in part, from a desire on the part of Seattle Public Schools bilingual education instructional assistants to receive college credit for inservice training, credit that could be applied to teacher certification. Program participants have bachelor's degrees, some from U.S. colleges and some from the students' native countries. In addition to describing the 5-step process of development and implementation, this paper outlines the student recruitment campaign and the faculty recruitment and preparation campaign. Most students in the program are immigrants for whom English is a second language; their original languages include several Asian and African languages. Several recommendations derived from program planning and implementation experience are made.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingual Teacher Aides, College School Cooperation, Graduate Study

Chandler, Martin Trent (1992). Toward a Context-Specific Language Policy for Developing Countries with an Emphasis on Language-in-Education. A discussion of language policy and planning in developing nations with diverse student populations focuses on the role of language in education. Through review of the literature, history, and case studies, the relationship between language policy and the integration of ethnolinguistic minorities is examined. The first chapter surveys language-related issues in developing countries, including the instrumental and sentimental dimensions of language use, bilingualism and multilingualism, and three approaches to language: as problem, as resource, and as a right. Chapter 2 examines nation-building strategies often used by political authorities in developing countries and their potential effects on policy formation. The third chapter looks at defining characteristics of bilingual education and the unique qualities of language policies for education in different countries. A subsequent chapter examines the relationship between language and ethnicity, particularly as they relate to individual and ethnic identity. Chapter 5 presents case studies of the situations in Peru, Yugoslavia, and Malaysia. The final chapter outlines a framework for language planning to facilitate economic modernization and sociopolitical development while allowing for preservation of ethnic identity. A 251-item bibliography is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Case Studies, Developing Nations, Ethnicity

Claus, Richard N.; Quimper, Barry E. (1989). State Bilingual and ECIA Chapter 1 Migrant Process Evaluation Report, 1988-89. An Approved Report of the Division of Administration and Personnel, Department of Evaluation, Testing, and Research. In the school year 1988-89 the school district of the city of Saginaw operated two programs designed to meet the special needs of bilingual and migrant students: (1) the Section 41, State Bilingual Education Program; and (2) the ECIA, Chapter 1, Migrant Education Program. Both programs operated at 21 elementary schools, 5 junior highs, and 2 high schools. The Bilingual Program served 901 K-12 students, while the Migrant Program served 494 students, K-12. The State Bilingual Program served students whose primary language was other than English, or who came from a non-English speaking home environment. The Migrant Education Program served students whose families follow the crops or fishing industry and as a result the students experienced educational discontinuity. Although the programs' philosophies differ, the student populations overlap, because, in most circumstances, a student in the Migrant Program comes from a non-English speaking home. In view of this fact, the two programs cooperate by sharing the same staff, materials, and activities. This report presents the programs' evaluations for the 1988-89 school year. Evaluation procedures included: (1) structured interviews with advisors at their support service sites; (2) structured interviews with teachers at their instructional sites; and (3) classroom observations. The results were summarized into statements indicating one of the following: a program strength; a potential strength; or a weakness. Appendices include: (1) description of identification and eligibility procedures; (2) samples of interview and observation forms; (3) item analysis of the interviews; and (4) lesson elements checklist results.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingual Students, Compensatory Education, Counseling

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