Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 291 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Carol Ascher, Cecilio Orozco, Stephen Diaz, Karen McGill Arrington, Myriam Met, Paul Sandorff, Dorothy Chase, Larry F. Guthrie, Guarione M. Diaz, and Rafael Valdivieso.

Berkeley Unified School District, CA. Asian American Bilingual Center. (1980). Summer Institute for Educational Research on Asian Americans. Final Performance Report (February 1, 1980-October 31, 1980). This performance report of the Summer Institute for Educational Research on Asian Americans summarizes and evaluates the activities and tasks completed from February 1 through October 31, 1980. The goal of the project was to increase the participation of Asian Americans in the field of educational research and development. Specifically, the project sought to enlarge the informal network established by the 1979 summer institute participants, to create a forum for the exchange of knowledge and the discussion of challenging problems, and to increase the research skills of participants. Fifty Asian Americans participated in the institute. Four courses were conducted: qualitative/quantitative methods in educational research; research on bilingual education; quantitative methods in policy analysis; and language research in education. In addition to the courses, special guests and participants gave presentations and a grantsmanship workshop was held. An internship program placed participants in educational research and development organizations to gain practical experience. Evaluation data were collected through questionnaires. In general, all participants felt that the institute was well organized and the experience worthwhile. The objectives were accomplished. The appendices contain a participant list and the complete evaluation report.   [More]  Descriptors: Asian Americans, Bilingual Education, Communications, Course Descriptions

Met, Myriam (1984). Immersion and the Language Minority Student. Revised Version. There are over 3 million children in the United States whose primary language is other than English. Although bilingual education has been effective in meeting their needs, its availability is limited, and the alternative is often limited or no English instruction at all. It is not yet clear how effective total immersion is for non-English speakers by comparison with immersion for English- dominant students. Differences between the groups will affect program effectiveness. Immersion programs, like bilingual programs, use teachers familiar with the students' native language and include instruction in it, and this aspect may make it as difficult to implement immersion programs as to implement bilingual programs. However, immersion as an instructional strategy can be incorporated into existing programs in which language minority students are exposed to content area instruction in English. Some effective components of programs for language minority students are complementary native language instruction, frequent positive interaction with English speakers, opportunities for comfortable native language conversation during the school day to alleviate stress and promote language pride, rewards for successful communication, limited pressure for linguistic accuracy, and consideration of group cultural and linguistic differences in program design. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Needs, English (Second Language), Immersion Programs

Ascher, Carol; And Others (1986). Trends and Issues in Urban Education: A Student-Based Perspective. ERIC/CUE Trends and Issues Series, Number 5. This paper provides a review of three related literatures on urban education: the demographic characteristics of the students and communities served by urban schools; some notable urban educational policies and practices; and issues and trends in equity research. The following trends and issues in school programs and practices specifically related to urban and minority education are examined: urban responses to the reform commission reports; urban and minority students and private schooling; effective schooling programs; curricular issues related to urban, minority, and poor students; compensatory education programs; school violence; dropout programs and practices; school-corporate alliances; parent participation in schooling; and programs related to new immigrants. The four equity concerns which are highlighted include: desegregation effects, magnet schooling, bilingual education, and sex equity. There are small encouraging signs that the schools are educating urban students better than they did a decade ago: dropout rates for all groups but Hispanics are down; standardized achievement test scores have risen slightly; and efforts to help parent participation in schooling through at-home teaching have enhanced the educational process. Yet many special needs of urban students go unmet, including such basic needs as housing, nutrition, and health care.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Compensatory Education, Dropouts, Educational Policy

Diaz, Guarione M., Ed. (1981). Evaluation and Identification of Policy Issues in the Cuban Community. The research described in this report identifies the major health, education, and welfare-related needs of Cuban Americans as defined by directors of Cuban community service organizations and Cuban beneficiary populations in the selected urban areas of Miami/Dade County, Union City/West New York, New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago. Data from questionnaires administered to the samples are analyzed through use of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Although the findings differ slightly from area to area, in general the findings are as follows: (1) In education, Cuban teachers are underrepresented in educational institutions, Cuban dropout rates are increasing, financial aid programs and bilingual education programs are being underutilized, and public child care is inadequate. (2) In the social services, language and transportation problems increase service problems. (3) Language barriers, cost, and location factors influence the use of health services; hypertension and nonalcholic cirrhosis rates are higher for Cubans than for other groups. Overall, the data show that, although Cubans as a group have adjusted quickly to American society, many Cubans experience the social difficulties and problems characteristic of immigrants. The research findings are related to recommendations intended to help the government develop policies or modify existing policies, toward the end of improving delivery of services to Cubans.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Cubans, Day Care Centers, Dropout Rate

Chase, Dorothy (1983). Bilingualism for the Future. This paper addresses three current issues in connection with higher education: (1) bilingual education, (2) international students in the United States, and (3) U.S. citizens and resident aliens whose native language is not English. Changes in college and university graduation requirements are proposed that will encourage bilingualism, cause international students to maintain stronger ties with their home countries, and enable the United States to come closer to the ideal of a multilingual society. Programs of study might be offered that would require the students to complete half their coursework in another language, in addition to the programs in English already provided for monolingual students. For example, some universities enroll a large number of Spanish-speaking students.  According to this proposal, half the law classes would be taught in Spanish. Both the monolingual English programs and the bilingual programs would be comparable and of equal worth. Since some U.S. citizens and resident aliens whose native language is not English sometimes have difficulties in their native language, it is also suggested that foreign language remedial programs, comparable to English remedial programs, be offered in the colleges and open-door universities.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingualism, Educational Innovation, English (Second Language)

Valdivieso, Rafael (1983). Hispanic-Americans and Education: Business-School-Community Partnerships to Prepare Hispanic Youth for a More Demanding Economy. The major conclusion of a conference on Hispanic-Americans and education was that partnerships among businesses, school, and the Hispanic community can make a big difference in improving the educational preparation of young Hispanics for success in a fast-changing economy. It was also recognized that the future for Hispanics in the United States is an increasingly vital part of the national interest, and that educational institutions cannot meet the challenge alone, but need collaborative support from the business and Hispanic communities. After an introductory section, the report gives short summaries of the issues discussed: the problems of a changing economy, pervasive problems in education, leaks in the educational pipeline, school-to-work transition, and the corporate stake in the Hispanic future. A discussion on the place of Hispanic culture and the Spanish language in American society, with emphasis on concerns and fears about bilingual education, is also summarized. Three composite approaches to addressing identified needs that emerged from the discussions are described: the local school and community approach, the systemic approach, and the human resource development approach. And finally, recommendations for action by corporations and the business community and by the Hispanic leadership and community are offered. A list of conference participants is provided. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Change Strategies, Economic Change, Education Work Relationship

Arrington, Karen McGill; Williams, Carole A. (1983). Statement on the Fiscal Year 1984 Education Budget. United States Commission on Civil Rights Clearinghouse Publication 79. Reviewing the administration's fiscal year 1984 education budget, this statement outlines the proposals to reduce federal funding for education and lessen the federal government's involvement in education programs. The statement specifically addresses education programs for the disadvantaged, minorities, women, and the handicapped. Criticizing the budget for limiting educational opportunities for these groups, the report points out the inappropriate timing of these proposed budget cuts since three independent commission reports have recently expressed grave concerns about the state of the American educational system. Included in the report are three appendixes. Appendix A provides brief descriptions of existing elementary and secondary education programs that are earmarked for incorporation into block grants and/or budget cuts. These programs include Title I, Emergency School Aid, Bilingual Education, Training and Advisory Services, Indian Education, Education for All Handicapped Children, and Women's Educational Equity. Appendix B includes descriptions of 13 higher education programs also earmarked for budet cuts, replacement by new programs, or elimination. Appendix C includes tables of funding levels for selected programs.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indian Education, Bilingual Education, Block Grants, Disabilities

Guthrie, Larry F. (1983). Contrasts in Teachers' Language Use in a Chinese-English Bilingual Classroom. A study examined the language use of two teachers, one a native, bilingual Cantonese-English speaker and the other a monolingual English-speaker, as they alternated teaching assignments between two first grade classes in a Chinese-English bilingual education program. Teacher-student interaction and the variation in teacher and student language use were observed and recorded. These data were coded using a modified system of conversational-acts (C-acts). The language was analyzed according to the utterances' grammatical structure, illocutionary properties, general semantic or propositional content, and for frequency and proportional usage. Results showed great consistency in the bilingual teacher's language use across groups, while the monolingual teacher's patterns of C-act use across language proficiency groups were quite different. Instructional organization and the use of the students' native language also varied between teachers relating to the different groups. The findings show that a monolingual teacher cannot act as effectively as the bilingual, for the monolingual is not familiar with language patterns that may cause confusion for second language learners.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teachers, Cantonese, Chinese

California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for the Study of Evaluation. (1980). Planning for Student Assessment: Leader's Guide. Bilingual Evaluation Technical Assistance, Workshop III. This leader's manual for a workshop on planning bilingual student assessment describes the workshop, presents information necessary to provide instruction leading to workshop exercises, and provides step-by-step instructions for conducting the workshop. The workshop leader should become familiar with this manual as well as with the workshop text and the participant's handbook. The manual aids the leader in providing workshop participants with practice in planning bilingual education evaluations and with an overview of the issues that should be addressed during such evaluations. The topics include: (1) how to organize the workshop; (2) instructions for using the leader's manual; (3) identifying legal assessment obligations (participant list of program assessment needs based on legislation and funding source requirements, assessment in bilingual programs, and coordinating assessment needs); (4) what to test (categorizing tests and test selection); (5) initial screening of tests (basic terminology, two simulated test descriptions, and test selection); (6) using tests; and (7) final screening – comparing the technical merits of tests (review of technical terms, reading a printout, reading a technical manual, and text selection simulation). Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, English (Second Language), Evaluation Criteria, Evaluation Methods

Sandorff, Paul; And Others (1984). A Bilingual Program and Its Staff Development Described: Before and after Title VII. This study was originally undertaken to describe an elementary school's bilingual education program and examine the process and effects of bilingual teacher development efforts, but it refocused on program change due to reduction in federal funding. A literature review explores materials relating to the process of change, staff development and school change, and bilingual programs. A description of the program in question, exploring key factors in program change, follows. The program is in a recently urbanized community east of Los Angeles that is almost half Mexican American. Data were collected from documents, observation, and interviews. Three approaches of organizational change, including the empirical-rational, normative-reeducative, and power-coercive approaches, were applied to the process experienced by the school when funding was removed. It is concluded that the approaches to change used by the school's administration, and particularly by the principal, included changes in attitudes, values, skills, and significant relationships as well as in knowledge and intellectual rationales. Elements of all three approaches played a part in the school's experience. Specific aspects of the staff development process and their role in the change process are examined, and the significance of the teacher-aide relationship in this situation is discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Role, Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingual Teacher Aides, Bilingual Teachers

Moll, Luis C.; Diaz, Stephen (1983). Bilingual Communication Skills in Classroom Contexts. Final Report. Grade 3 and grade 4 classrooms in a California bilingual Spanish/English environment were studied. In the first study, reading lessons were observed and analyzed in a bilingual classroom. Using the analysis of this experience, in the second study a series of theory-driven experimental interventions were initiated. It was found that the achievement of Spanish language dominant students in English language lessons is underestimated. However, it is possible to reorganize these same lessons to advance the students' academic performance. Some of the student selection and placement procedures used in bilingual education programs make it difficult for teachers and students to take full advantage of their respective skills and resources. Similarly, it is possible to reformulate these procedures in a way that goes beyond reliance on English language proficiency assessments. Teaching situations should be based on the children's oral skills in English and their reading skills in Spanish. For monolingual Spanish students, reading lessons should be initiated in Spanish only when instruction in English as a second language is begun. It is vital that the teacher be bilingual for all of these program interventions, or that a bilingual teacher's aide be present to assist a monolingual teacher.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingualism, Elementary Education, English (Second Language)

Collier, Catherine (1986). The Referral of Hispanic Children to Special Education: A Comparison of Acculturation and Education Characteristics of Referred and Nonreferred Culturally and Linguistically Different Children. A study of the characteristics of Hispanic elementary school children in bilingual education programs attempted to identify those education and acculturation characteristics which distinguished children who had been referred to special education from nonreferred children. The sample consisted of 95 Hispanic children, of whom 51 had never been referred and 44 had been referred to special education. Of those referred, only 17 had been placed in special education programs. Contrary to expectations, the results indicated no significant differences between groups for any educational characteristic except degree of teacher concern, but achievement was found to be related to years of bilingual instruction, language proficiency, minority enrollment, and overall acculturation level. In addition, there was a meaningful effect size between the achievement of non-referred and that of placed children. Placed children tended to be the most acculturated and more often came from schools with low minority enrollment. Those referred but not placed were the least acculturated and had the lowest achievement in all content areas. The findings imply that culturally and linguistically different children are disproportionately referred for special education, possibly as a function of minority enrollment and availability of alternative programs, and that the psychodynamics of acculturation must be considered in the identification and instruction of culturally and linguistically different children with special needs.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Acculturation, Bilingual Education Programs, Cultural Differences

Orozco, Cecilio (1982). The American Classroom Environments for Oral Language Acquisition. The results of a series of three studies of classroom factors influencing English oral language development in Spanish speaking bilingual elementary students are reported. Teacher control of oral language practice, extra practice in oral language encoding for bilingual students, and similarities between the English proficiency scores of children in bilingual and regular programs were investigated through observation of children in bilingual and regular classrooms. The findings supported the hypothesis that bilingual children in bilingual classrooms would not differ significantly from those in non-bilingual classrooms in regard to oral language skills. Children are learning or failing to learn the same quantity of language in all elementary programs because teachers do not direct oral encoding. Methodologies used in bilingual programs were not found to be unique to bilingual education. A need for new language teaching methods for bilingual classrooms is indicated. Sixteen learning activities are suggested as a means of promoting oral language development by intensifying language learning environments in the classroom and the home. Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Classroom Communication, Classroom Environment, Elementary Education

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor. (1987). A Compilation of Federal Education Laws: Volume II–Elementary and Secondary Education, Education of the Handicapped, and Related Programs. As Amended through December 31, 1986. The compilation provides the full texts of federal legislation related to elementary secondary education and education of the handicapped and related programs. The following statutes are included: "Act of November 2, 1921" (Snyder Act); "Act of April 16, 1934" (Johnson-O'Malley Act); "Adult Education Act"; "Allen J. Ellender Fellowship Program"; "Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986, Title IV"; "Bilingual Education Act"; "Developmental Disabled Assistance and Bill of Rights Act, Section 204"; "Education Amendments of 1978, Title XI–Indian Education"; "Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of 1981"; "Education for Economic Security Act"; "Education of the Deaf Act of 1986"; "Education of the Handicapped Act"; "Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965"; "Emergency Immigrant Education Act of 1984"; "Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949"; "Handicapped Children's Protection Act of 1986"; "Human Services Reauthorization Act (Title IX)"; "Indian Education Act"; "Indian Education Assistance Act"; "Indian Elementary and Secondary School Assistance Act"; "Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act"; "Library Services and Construction Act"; "National Commission on Libraries and Information Sciences Act"; "Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981, Section 505"; "Public Law 95-134" (Consolidated Grants to Insular Areas); "Public Law 815, 81st Congress" (Impact Aid); "Public Law 874, 81st Congress" (Impact Aid); "Refugee Education Assistance Act of 1980"; and "Women's Educational Equity Act of 1978."   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, American Indian Education, Bilingual Education, Deafness

Collier, Virginia P. (1985). University Models for ESL and Bilingual Teacher Training. University programs to train teachers of bilingual education (BE) and English as a second language (ESL) are expanding and maturing, but much remains to be explored and accomplished. Hundreds of thousands of BE and ESL teachers currently need training to accommodate program staffing needs. Over half the states have developed BE and/or ESL teacher certification requirements, but the requirements vary. A variety of teacher competency guidelines for curriculum design and teacher certification have been produced. Most do not require specialized courses but the need for them is increasingly evident, at the same time that there is pressure to shorten the process leading to certification. In most cases, separate programs are designed for BE and ESL teachers, but there is often substantial coursework overlap and an integrated approach is recommended. It is also necessary to bring elements of BE/ESL training into the mainstream teacher education curriculum. Assessment issues, which have not yet been addressed generally by the states, include program entrance requirements for English proficiency and measurement of proficiency in the two languages appropriate for classroom language use. Despite the relative inexperience of university faculty in BE/ESL teacher training, there are many professionals in higher education who are interested in institutionalizing BE/ESL training and strengthening the link between research and the classroom.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teachers, Curriculum Development, Elementary Secondary Education

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