Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 289 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Austin. Foreign Language Education Center. Texas Univ., CA. Riverside County Superintendent of Schools, 1979, Protase Woodford, Rosemary S. Levy, Annette Benedict, Cheryl T. Desmond, Carol M. Haney, Diane Sperber, and Alda Price.

Woodford, Protase (1982). Foreign Language and Bilingual Assessment: Issues Approaches. Foreign language testing in schools has followed the general trends of foreign language education, from teaching and testing grammar, through a combination of reading and translation, to the audio lingual approaches of the sixties and the developments since that time. Contemporaneous with the decline in foreign language programs in the 1970's there has been an increase in the number and quality of programs and testing approaches outside schools and universities. Procedures such as the Foreign Service Institute (FSI) Language Proficiency Interview have been designed to evaluate performance in real life situations, but they are not widely used in foreign language or bilingual education. Consideration of issues such as realistic expectations of academic foreign language courses of study, needs of bilingual students, strings attached to government funding in terms of teaching people to communicate in languages other than their native language point out the need for valid and practical measurement tools. They also indicate the need to tailor the assessment measures to realistic objectives, not to the nearly impossible goal of mastery of four language skills in a high school foreign language course. They demonstrate the need to develop among foreign language and bilingual teachers testing expertise. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Communicative Competence (Languages), Educational Objectives, Elementary Secondary Education

Benedict, Annette (1979). Title VII–Individualized Bilingual Instructional System. Final Evaluation Report, 1978-1979. This is an evaluation of a Title VII bilingual education program carried out for Spanish speaking students in grades K-5 at Public School 155 (P.S. 155), Brooklyn, New York. A brief background of Title VII legislation is given. Instructional goals, staff development, parent involvement, and the development of a bilingual curriculum are listed as general objectives of the legislation. Specific objectives for the program at P.S. 155 are outlined. These include parent involvement and staff development, as well as student achievement in English and Spanish reading, mathematics, and bicultural education. Student progress is indicated by results from pre and post test scores. Other school and extracurricular activities undertaken as part of the program are also described. It is concluded that the P.S. 155 Title VII program was a general success, benefitting students, staff, and parents. Brief recommendations are offered in the areas of improved student records, expanded school activities, staff roles, and the extension of the program to a neighborhood parochial school. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education, Elementary Education, Federal Programs

Fidelholtz, James L., Ed. (1974). Conference on American Indian Languages Clearinghouse Newsletter. Vol. 2, No. 2. With this issue, the Center for Applied Linguistics takes over the preparation, publishing, and mailing of this newsletter. A report is given on the first year's activities of the Alaska Native Language Center of the University of Alaska, which is involved in developing and disseminating literacy materials and native literature, designing bilingual teacher training programs, and initiating other native language projects. This issue also describes several projects in progress, including the Shoshoni Language Project of the University of Utah, the Wisconsin Native American Languages Project funded through the Great Lakes Inter-Tribal Council, the British Columbia Indian Language Project, and the "Project for the Amerindianization of the Schools–First 5 Year Plan" from Village des Hurons, Quebec. In addition there is a list of current projects and directors of American Indian and Eskimo Projects funded during 1973 under the Bilingual Education Act. Excerpts from the "Siouan Newsletter,""The Linguistic Reporter," and "Early American: Newsletter of the California Indian Education Association," are included. This issue also contains an annotated list of books dealing with such languages as Cree, Mohawk, Cherokee, Navajo, and Kayukon Athapaskan.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indian Languages, Bilingual Education, Educational Legislation

Roby, Wallace R. (1982). The 1981-82 Evaluation of the Title VII Bilingual Program, Project Cumbre. Project Cumbre, the bilingual education program at the Ann Street Bilingual School in Hartford, Connecticut, was evaluated for the 1981-82 school year. The school was attended by 279 students in kindergarten through grade 6, of whom the majority were Hispanic. The participants, program, and objectives are described. Results are reported on (1) kindergarten oral language and basic concepts, (2) grades 1 through 6 oral language skills, (3) grades 2 through 6 Spanish reading and math, (4) grades 3 through 6 English reading and math, (5) reading and math progress of graduates, (6) followup of Project Cumbre graduates, (7) comparison of project participants with mainstream Hispanic students, (8) recordkeeping of minimum competencies, and (9) parent involvement. A 4-year summary of Project Cumbre's progress is presented. Overall, the students showed great progress in oral language skills and reading but did not perform as expected in math. Recommendations are made regarding expansion of reading instruction, review of the approach to math instruction, and acquisition of data on Hispanic mainstream students. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education Programs, Elementary Education, Hispanic Americans

Thomas, Stephen B. (1982). Judicial, Legislative, and Administrative Trends Since Lau v. Nichols. This tenth chapter of a book on school law discusses the "Lau v. Nichols" ruling which held that the San Francisco (California) Unified School District was denying non-English-speaking students the opportunity to obtain an education. Also covered are "Lau's" case law progeny, related federal statutes, and resulting administrative regulations. The author describes the development of the Lau Remedies, the issue and retraction of the Lau Guidelines, and the present approach to bilingual education of the Reagan Administration. Several cases following "Lau" are reviewed to illustrate various interpretations of both requirements for school district compliance and the provision of appropriate remedies. The author concludes that the inconsistencies and contradictions that appear in the body of bilingual-related case law, statutes, and administrative rulings are partially the result of an evolving judicial philosophy. He suggests several trends that may provide direction for both educators and the courts. Generally, according to his analysis, a school district must take steps to eliminate language barriers, but how and where it provides services and which services it provides are discretionary. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Compliance (Legal), Court Litigation, Elementary Secondary Education

Haney, Carol M.; Decker, Bob D. (1981). BESL Handbook for Spanish/English BESL Classes. This handbook contains information to assist teachers serving in Bilingual/English as a second language (BESL) assignments. Its purpose is to provide focus to the BESL program and to help LEP (Limited English Proficient) students improve their ability to read, write, and speak English, while developing needed concepts and skills. It was prepared by a committee of teachers, paraprofessionals, and administrators working with students during the 1977-81 school years and is intended for use in the Long Beach Unified School District's Spanish/English bilingual classes, grades K-8. The BESL handbook includes ten sections devoted to the following topics: (1) philosophy and goals of programs using bilingual education procedures, techniques, and methods; (2) organizational design, including remarks on the self-contained bilingual classroom and on team teaching; (3) guidelines and information about materials and district resources; (4) cognitive learning styles; (5) approaches to bilingual lesson delivery; (6) oral language skills, Spanish and English; (7) Spanish Reading Skills; (8) English Reading Skills (Transfer); (9) cultural activities; and (10) parent involvement. An appendix lists often-used acronyms.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Objectives, Educational Philosophy, Elementary Education

Texas Univ., Austin. Foreign Language Education Center. (1969). EPDA Institute for Bilingual Elementary Teachers and Teacher Aides. An 8-week summer institute was held at the University of Texas at Austin for native Spanish-speaking elementary school (K-3) teachers and teacher aides to improve their language and teaching skills and to increase their knowledge of language, culture, bilingualism, and problems of the bilingual learner. Under the direction of eight instructors and 10 graduate assistants, the 39 participants engaged in formal program activities which included classes in theoretical understanding of bilingual education, basic understanding of applied linguistics, basic understanding of the Spanish-speaking child of the Southwest, and the development of language skills; workshops in developing a method of teaching reading in Spanish to Spanish speakers, developing curricular materials in Spanish, compiling a basic reference library in Spanish, developing a diagnostic test in phonology, teaching in a bilingual situation, and learning methods used in existing bilingual programs in the United States; and periodic progress reports of the institute. Participants completed an extensive institute evaluation form in which they expressed their satisfaction with the institute. (Appended are two workbooks produced by a joint effort of teachers and teacher aides in the workshops. Materials developed include a Spanish vocabulary for grades K-3, representative curricular units written in Spanish, and a collection of games, songs, and dances for grades K-3.) Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teacher Aides, Bilingual Teachers, Elementary Education

Riverside County Superintendent of Schools, CA. (1971). Hacer Vida. First Year Evaluation Report, 1970-71. Project "Hacer Vida" is a bilingual educational program developed jointly by 7 cooperating school districts in Riverside County, California, with a combined enrollment of over 18,000 students, of which 50% have a direct need for bilingual education. The project's main goal is the development of bilingually competent individuals with sufficient bicultural appreciation to function as closely to their true intrinsic potential as possible. The goal requires development of skills within individuals and development of attitudes among both individuals and the community. The project will serve over 3,600 students in a 5-year period during which a full primary and secondary bilingual curriculum will be developed. The data presented in this evaluation report are organized according to program components which are: materials acquisition, staff development, parent/community involvement, and instruction. The instructional component evaluation is further organized by grade level and by subject area with each objective evaluated, first, as measured by criterion referenced measurements and, secondly, as measured by standardized instruments. The program management and summary and conclusion sections are presented in narrative form. Evaluation instruments, test results, and cost information on instructional materials are included in appendices.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Community Involvement, Language Instruction, Material Development

Price, Alda; Sperber, Diane (1979). Project P.R.O.B.E. Final Evaluation Report. This evaluation report describes Project P.R.O.B.E., a bilingual education program for four and five year old Spanish speaking children in two Bronx, New York schools. The educational objectives of the program, including the improvement of reading and other curriculum skills, are outlined. Also described are staffing patterns, orientation and training; efforts to achieve parental participation in their children's education; and instructional facilities, materials, and activities. The achievement of the program's objectives is evaluated in terms of student cognitive development and performance on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts and the James Language Dominance Test, parent involvement and knowledge of parenting skills, and staff mastery of relevant teaching skills. It is concluded that Project P.R.O.B.E. has been successful in achieving its objectives. Reading growth and cognitive development were found to occur through bilingual instruction and a stimulating learning environment. Recommendations are offered for improving the program in the areas of instruction, staff utilization, scheduling, parent workshops, and contact between staff members in the two schools. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Cognitive Development, Early Childhood Education, Program Descriptions

Desmond, Cheryl T. (1993). German Language and Education in Pennsylvania, 1683-1911: Cultural Resistance and State Accommodation. This research investigated the nature of the language and educational experiences of the Germans who emigrated to the province and later, to the state of Pennsylvania. German migration into Pennsylvania began in 1683, peaked during the years 1717 through 1754, and continued throughout the nineteenth century. The research indicated that both official and unofficial colonial and state attempts were made to Anglicize the Germans through the use of the English language in schooling for the Germans. The Germans, nonetheless, strongly resisted these efforts to displace their "Muttersprach" through private schooling, political participation in local and state affairs, and through public support of substantial German language instruction in the common schools until the advent of World War I. These findings call into question research that concluded that an American tradition of bilingual education consisted strictly of local experiments in large, urban Midwestern and Southwestern schools and supports scholarship that has maintained that the United States granted language rights to its earliest minorities.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Culture Conflict, Diachronic Linguistics, English

McArthur, David (1981). Test Design Project: Studies in Test Bias. Annual Report. Item bias in a multiple-choice test can be detected by appropriate analyses of the persons x items scoring matrix. This permits comparison of groups of examinees tested with the same instrument. The test may be biased if it is not measuring the same thing in comparable groups, if groups are responding to different aspects of the test items, or if cultural and linguistic issues take precedence. An empirical study of the question of bias as shown by these techniques was conducted. Five related schemes for the statistical analysis of bias were applied to the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills which was administered in either the English or Spanish language version at two levels of elementary school in bilingual education programs. The objectives measured were recall or recognition ability, ability to translate or convert verbal or symbolic concepts, ability to comprehend concepts, ability to apply techniques, and ability to extend interpretation beyond stated information. The results indicated that several items in the tests showed strong evidence of bias, corroborated by a separate analysis of linguistic and cultural sources of bias for many items.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Elementary Education, Ethnicity

Posner, Burt; And Others (1989). Report on Dual Literacy Programs for LEP Students. Given the increasing number of limited-English-proficient (LEP) students entering New York City high schools who have experienced limited or interrupted formal education, there is a growing need to identify such students and to develop programs that satisfy their unique educational requirements. This report makes recommendations for establishing special dual literacy programs that promote dual language literacy and academic achievement through different tracks in native language arts (NLA), English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL), and subject area classes. The process of identifying LEP students who are candidates for dual literacy programs is discussed, as well as essential programmatic considerations, the importance of providing comprehensive support services to students, and the need to develop school-based exit criteria for the transition of participating students into the regular bilingual education program. The need to institute procedures for training the staff and for choosing or modifying curriculum and instructional materials is examined. Finally, funding requirements and sources of outside assistance are reviewed. (JL) Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, English (Second Language), High Schools, Identification

1979 (1979). Children's English and Services Study. Final Report. This report is a result of a survey that was conducted to facilitate an assessment of current needs for bilingual education in the United States. It details the procedures used in conducting a count of the number of limited English-speaking ability (LESA) students and adults in the U. S. The introductory section summarizes the criteria used for classifying children as LESA and describes the data collection, weighting procedures, and population estimates. Volume 1 summarizes the procedures of the count, giving the background and purpose of the report, and discusses the instrumentation, data collection procedures, data analysis plans, and the results of the count. Included are copies of the questionnaires used in the survey as well as population tables. Volume 2 gives more technical descriptions of the sample design, instrumentation, and data collection procedures. The material includes an explanation of methodology and supporting statistical information used in its development, as well as statistical results from the data collection. Background legislation and methodological procedures are appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Demography, Educational Needs, Federal Legislation

Levy, Rosemary S. (1976). An Analysis of the Effects of Language Acquisition Context Upon the Dual Language Development of Non-English Dominant Students. This dissertation compares the relative effects of two contrasting approaches to bilingual instruction and of bilingual education as compared to traditional English monolingual education upon the dual language development and use of a group of first and second grade Italian dominant students. The sample of the study consisted of 106 Italian immigrant students attending public schools in Brooklyn, New York. There were three groups: (1) the fused language acquisition context group (FLAC), (2) the English monolingual group (EM), and (3) the separate language acquisition context group (SLAC). It was hypothesized that, upon completion of seven months of classroom instruction, the SLAC group would show more advanced syntactic and vocabulary development, linguistic maturity, and overall communicative ability, as well as greater linguistic independence and less language alternation in both English and Italian than the other two groups. Findings indicated that the SLAC group achieved significantly greater gains in linguistic maturity. All other findings were non significant except the degree of linguistic independence as found in favor of the EM group. The findings provide evidence in support of the separate language acquisition method in particular and of bilingual instruction in general as a viable means of educating the non-English dominant student. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Doctoral Dissertations, Immigrants

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services. (1984). Experimental, Developmental and Demonstration Programs, Projects and Activities. Information & Dissemination Series 19. The first part of this document contains descriptions of some of the curriculum development projects initiated by the Department of Education in Hawaii in 1983-84. Included are projects in computer applications and literacy, curriculum for intermediate students, international education, and development of instructional materials for international and bilingual education. In the second section, locally validated programs on energy education and oral history activity are described. The third section describes the adult education projects in Hawaii during 1983-84. The last two sections contain descriptions of the continuing adult education projects. Each project description includes: (1) a statement of its objectives; (2) the needs which resulted in a decision to initiate the project; (3) the products anticipated upon its completion; (4) the products anticipated by the end of the 1983-84 school year; (5) the major activities expected during the life of the project; (6) the number and types of schools, teachers, and students involved during the school year; (7) the types of evaluation to be conducted; and (8) the contact persons for additional information.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Bilingual Education, Computer Literacy, Curriculum Development

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