Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 288 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Annette Benedict, Claire de Goumoens, Carol Ann West, Robert L. Politzer, Vilma E. Ujlaki, Kalei Inn, Earl J. Ogletree, Richard N. Claus, Barry E. Quimper, and Rima Shore.

Ornstein-Galicia, Jacob L. (1982). Sociolinguistic Foundations of Language Assessment. An answer to the question of what sociolinguistics has to offer to the art of language assessment is sought in exploration of the following topics: (1) a history of the development of sociolinguistics and an outline of the research on dialectology; (2) a review of basic sociolinguistic foundations and theories about language, society, domains of language activity, variables influencing one's performance in a given language, community vs. home standards, and insights for the classroom; (3) application of these notions to language assessment and related operations, with emphasis on implications of language variation for both second language instruction and bilingual education; (4) the objective of sociolinguistics to sensitize the individual to discriminate among the language varieties and to be more aware of the existence of options in the world of language and speech; and (5) a discussion of various types of research which can be performed inexpensively at the community level. In connection with the research section, a number of examples of such projects are given along with explanatory charts. While acknowledging the magnitude of the task, the study suggests that instruments be so constructed that allowance is made for varying linguistic options and that teachers, testers, and administrators be programmed sociolinguistically. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Cultural Awareness, Elementary Secondary Education

Claus, Richard N.; Quimper, Barry E. (1992). State Bilingual and ECIA Chapter 1 Migrant Process Evaluation Report. 1991-92. This report presents results of a process evaluation of Michigan State bilingual education and migrant education programs. The programs provide counseling and supplemental instruction in reading, mathematics, and communication to 761 bilingual students and 855 migrant students. The process evaluation was accomplished through a questionnaire to all state bilingual/migrant teachers, advisors, and aides (N=19). Reported strengths of the programs were the use of a variety of strategies, weekly meetings with students, and an emphasis on reading instruction, flexibility in subjects covered, and monitoring of student progress. Ideas for future program improvement include more individualization, more resources, more diagnostic information, and more parent involvement. Reported weaknesses were large variations in student load by staff members, a need for inservice instruction for aides and regular education teachers, a need for access to student test scores, and a lack of accelerated instruction. Recommendations for program improvement include: (1) increasing parental involvement; (2) providing inservice education to regular education staff; and (3) centralizing sites for the bilingual and migrant services. Appendix A presents identification and eligibility procedures for state bilingual and migrant students. Appendix B includes a memo to bilingual and migrant staff about how to complete the evaluation questionnaire and a copy of the questionnaire. Appendix C provides questionnaire results. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Education Programs, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language)

Ogletree, Earl J.; Ujlaki, Vilma E. (1984). American-Hispanics in a Pluralistic Society. To determine whether Hispanics in America favor assimilation or pluralism, 255 Chicago Hispanics were surveyed. Results showed that changes in their cultural patterns and movement toward assimilation were minimal. Although some assimilation was occurring, a certain degree of separateness (based on religion, ethnic identity, and behavioral patterns) existed and will be sustained in the future. A majority (84%) liked America and believed Hispanic children should learn English (94%), but they also favored maintenance of Spanish (85%), and bilingual education (83%). Similarly, while a majority did not favor endogamy (52%) and desired to become American (54%), most wished to retain their ethnic identity. Almost two-thirds (62%) felt that Hispanics must "fight for their rights," but a majority stated that political and economic interests were not the reasons for retaining one's ethnic identity. Most respondents felt they had control over and freedom in their lives to achieve what they wished, and, in general, the Hispanic sample felt there was an absence of prejudice and discrimination against them. Overall, the findings indicated that at least partial assimilation was the goal of the sample. Descriptors: Acculturation, Bilingual Education, Cultural Pluralism, Elementary Secondary Education

Benedict, Annette (1979). P.S. 332 Title VII Program, District Model for Bilingual Development. Final Evaluation Report, 1978-79. This is an evaluation of a Title VII bilingual education program carried out for Spanish and English dominant children in grades K-6 at Public School 332 in Brooklyn, New York. The aims of the program were to develop students' abilities to speak, read, and write English, to enable Spanish speaking children to interact with their English speaking peers, and to provide for bilingual staff development, parent and community involvement, and the development of instructional materials. In addition, goals were set for student achievement in the areas of mathematics, social studies, science, and cross cultural understanding. Staffing, instructional practices, and in-class and extracurricular activities are described in this report. Also presented are pre and post test scores, indicating achievement in reading, vocabulary, comprehension, mathematics, history, and culture for students at most grade levels. Brief recommendations are offered in the areas of classroom assignment of Spanish speaking pupils, outreach to surrounding schools, the incorporation of music and dancing into the curriculum, and the teaching of test-taking skills to participating students. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education, Elementary Education, Federal Programs

Haskell, John F., Ed. (1978). TESOL Newsletter: Articles from Volume XII (Numbers 1-5) 1978. This volume of the "TESOL Newsletter" includes the following topics/materials: preparing and presenting a professional paper; a list of journals, newsletters, and other publications for teachers of English as a second language (ESL); content area instruction in elementary level ESL; helping the ESL student move to English-speaking classes in different subject areas; suggested changes for the order of presenting materials in ESL textbooks; an overview of English language teaching methodology and ideas about an eclectic approach; problems in the teaching of reading and some solutions to reading problems; the role of feedback; using translation with adult ESL students; adult language learning variables that affect efficient instruction; an overseas view of "scientific English"; Vietnamese children in American schools; the four phases of bilingual education in the United States; teaching standard English to dialect speakers; suggestopedia; situational reinforcement; the utility of oral reading in teaching ESL; pragmatics; syllabuses (structural, situational, and notional); A guided writing technique for advanced ESL learners; using problem solving in the advanced ESL conversation class; classroom application of Stevick principles; vocabulary and the use of context in sci-tech English; and a new international language developed by a Wales university group. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Classroom Techniques, English (Second Language), Instructional Materials

Inn, Kalei (1981). The Self-Concept of Bilingual Asian-American Children. Professional Paper. Existing research knowledge concerning the self-concept of Asian American children, particularly in relation to bilingual education, is explored in this paper. The significance of the literature review is considered to rest on the assumption that Asian Americans' physical characteristics, language, and cultural orientation make their self-concept highly vulnerable to the potentially adverse effects of the English-dominant school. The literature review, however, is said to reveal a paucity of relevant research on these children's self-concept. Due to the scarcity of empirical data, no generalizations are made in the report about self-concept among the different Asian American populations, either separately or as one group. However, observations included about the available data point out problems in definition, measurement, and interpretation, especially concerning the nondifferentiation of different groups of Asian Americans; nonstandardization and nonequivalency of translations in self-concept test instruments; demand characteristics of the testing situation (such as linguistic ability); and construct validity of tests. The importance of further research inquiry along these lines is emphasized, and recommendations for future research on self-concept among bilingual Asian American children are presented.   [More]  Descriptors: Asian Americans, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Cultural Influences

Ohannessian, Sirarpi (1969). Planning Conference for a Bilingual Kindergarten Program for Navajo Children, Conclusions and Recommendations, October 11-12, 1968. This report summarizes a meeting sponsored by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and carried out by the Center for Applied Linguistics to outline a bilingual kindergarten program in which Navajo would be the main medium for kindergarten activities, with oral English introduced as a subject. The meeting was the direct outcome of the recommendations of "The Study of the Problems of Teaching English to American Indians" conducted by the CAL and sponsored by the BIA in 1967. (See ED 014 727.) Agreed on were (1) the endorsement of the concept of bilingual kindergartens for Navajo children; (2) the vital importance of involving Navajo parents and community; (3) the need for general information on bilingual education; (4) the teaching of Navajo culture in the kindergarten; and (5) the necessity for listing English structures and vocabulary items to be covered during the kindergarten year, indicating phonological, morphological, and syntactic problems of interference from Navajo. Least agreement was on how to teach English at kindergarten level (a "play" approach using songs, games, and other activities, vs. more formal instruction using linguistically structured materials). It was suggested that several models be worked out, offering alternative approaches. Recommendations concerning general policy, the bilingual curriculum, and the preparation of teachers are presented.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indians, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Conference Reports

Shore, Rima, Ed.; And Others (1981). South Shore High School Project VIBES. E.S.E.A. Title VII Final Evaluation Report, 1980-1981. Project VIBES at South Shore High School in New York City is described in this report. The project is a transitional bilingual education program that emphasizes acculturation and the acquisition of English language skills while maintaining the native language and appreciation of the students' cultural heritage. As implemented in 1980-81, the program served several Haitians and some Chinese, Hebrew, and Spanish dominant students with limited English proficiency. The instructional component included English as a Second Language, native language classes, mathematics, science, social studies, and elective courses. The non-instructional component included program administration, curriculum development, counseling services, and provision for parent involvement. Evaluation indicated that: 1) student performance on a test of English syntax was short of the program's objectives, although some gains were demonstrated; 2) gains were reported in mathematics, science, and social studies; 3) achievement in native language courses was generally high; 4) most students demonstrated knowledge of their cultural heritage; and 5) program participants' attendance rates exceeded the average school rate. Recommendations for program improvement are presented in the report.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Education Programs, Chinese

Kester, Donald L. (1988). Listen, Practice, Converse: A Communication Approach to Second Language Acquisition. (A Japanese and Korean Bilingual Program Funded Under Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act). Fourth and Final Evaluation Report (1987-1988) in Torrance Unified School District, Torrance, California. In this evaluation of the fourth and final year of a Japanese and Korean bilingual education program, the program's seven major goals and sub-objectives are reviewed, and the program's success in attaining these goals is discussed. Data was obtained from visits to participating schools. It is concluded that the program met 15 of its 16 stated objectives, and came within one percentage point of attaining the sixteenth. Appended materials comprising about half the document include: photographs of project staff at each of four sites and the project director; the flowchart and English reading test used in the student identification process; examples of materials related to student monitoring, classroom instruction, and student work; the principal's observation form and photographs of aides at work with program participants; a chart of student data covering the entire project; the project director's tabulation of parent awareness of school activities for each site; and the teacher questionnaire and responses concerning students, teacher, and administrator knowledge of Japanese and Korean students' cultures and language needs as a result of the program.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Communicative Competence (Languages), Elementary Education, Federal Programs

West, Carol Ann (1986). Effective Practices in Secondary Basic Skills Programs: A Compendium of Case Studies. This compendium provides secondary school teachers, administrators, and Chapter 1 directors with descriptions of effective practices in Chapter 1 programs. The focus is on managerial and instructional strategies that promote success for poor and/or educationally disadvantaged students. The compendium is divided into five chapters: an introduction describing the background of the New Jersey Initiative project and four chapters organized around school and program characteristics associated with student achievement in basic skills. These characteristics are the following: (1) strong administrative leadership; (2) systematic management and monitoring of curriculum and instruction; (3) cooperative teacher planning; and (4) ongoing staff development and inservice training. Eight states participated in the project, each nominating effective secondary basic skills programs, which were studied to learn what contributed to their success. Each chapter defines one of the four major characteristics, summarizes related research, and provides a list of references. This material is followed by case studies which show how the particular management or instructional strategy works in a compensatory education program. Each case study reveals a number of characteristics operating in conjunction with the one highlighted. An appendix includes a list of other documents available from the Division of Compensatory/Bilingual Education. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Basic Skills, Compensatory Education, Cooperative Programs

Sullivan, Allen R. (1973). Issues in Assessing Multi-Cultured Youth: Its Implications for Teachers. There has recently been an increasing awareness that the United States is a culturally diverse nation. Many people have seen this diversity as a divisive force and have therefore adhered to the melting pot theory. Everyone comes out of a melting pot the same. Consequently, (1) intelligence tests have been devised that are only relevant to the experiences of nonminority children; (2) schools have refused to offer bilingual education to Chinese, Mexican, and other children whose first language is not English; (3) courts have only recently considered offering bilingual translation of court proceedings; and (4) teacher training has rarely included anything that would focus a potential teacher's attention on the needs of culturally different children. In fact, many white teachers come to teaching with unfortunate prejudices against nonwhite children, as was shown by a study in which white female undergraduates consistently gave less praise, encouragement, or attention to black junior high students regardless of whether they had been told these students were gifted or nongifted. Intelligence tests are particularly susceptible to cultural bias; furthermore, they are limited in their ability to assess a child's real potential. The Dove Counter Balance Intelligence Test was created to help psychologists and others think about and design tests that recognize varieties of cultural experience and the different usages of language among different ethnic groups. (An example of this test is included.)   [More]  Descriptors: Acculturation, Bias, Bilingual Education, Cultural Pluralism

Juarez, John R. (1975). Subordinate and Superordinate Science Process Skills: An Experiment in Science Instruction Using the English and Spanish Language with Fifth Grade Children in Bilingual Schools. The purposes of this study were to determine if single language instruction was more efficacious than bilingual instruction in a science context and to investigate the transfer of learning science content and process skills from one language to another. Fifth-grade children from four schools in New Mexico who had had bilingual education for at least four years were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, and were instructed in subordinate and superordinate units of science. Three dependent measures were administered. Two measures sampled student performance in science activities; one was administered after initial science instruction, the other at the completion of the study. Measures were also administered for student language preference and attitude toward science instruction. The major finding of the study was that there were no significant differences between treatment groups receiving instruction bilingually and those having single language instruction. The students receiving total instruction in English did no better on the dependent measures than those students receiving total instruction in Spanish, and students receiving instruction in both Spanish and English performed just as well as those instructed in a single language. The students showed a statistical preference for a bilingual environment as opposed to a monolingual environment.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Schools, Doctoral Dissertations, Educational Research

Goumoens, Claire de, Ed. (1995). Pour une ecole ouverte aux langues. Actes du Collogue organisi par le Centre de Contact Suisses-Immigres (CCSI) (Geneve, Suisse, le 19 novembre, 1994) = Toward a School Open to Languages. Proceedings of a Colloquium of the Centre de Contact Suisses-Immigres (CCSI) (Geneva, Switzerland, November 19, 1994). The proceedings of a Swiss conference on languages in education include: a brief preface about the conference topic; summaries in French, Albanian, German, English, Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese; background information on the conference; statistics on the home and community languages of Swiss elementary and secondary school students; the conference introduction, "Pour une education bilingue" (Toward Bilingual Education) presented by Anna Lietti; notes on parent language use in Albanian and Italian communities; teachers' perceptions of language use in Spanish, Portuguese, Bosnian, and Albanian communities; six research papers; text of a roundtable discussion concerning the challenge of opening schools to diverse languages; a conference summary; and a list of relevant journals.  The papers include: "Une experience interculturelle a l'ecole primaire de la Chaud-de-Fonds" (a primary school experiment at Chaud-de-Fonds) (Philippe Moser); "Une experience d'eveil aux langues" (a language awareness experiment) (Christiane Perregaux); "Un projet interculturelle a l'ecole du Mail a Geneve" (an intercultural project at a Geneva school) (Sylviane Magnin Hottelier); "Une ecole privee bilingue allemand-francais" (a private German-French bilingual school) (Henri Moser); "Une experience anglais" (an English experiment) (Daniele Moore); and "Les bibliotheques interculturelles dans les ecoles" (intercultural libraries within schools). Contains 44 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Education Programs, Cultural Pluralism, Educational Environment

Ford, Mark L. (1984). One Language for the United States? (Un Idioma para Los Estados Unidos?) CSG Backgrounder. The United States has become increasingly multilingual in recent decades, and while English is the most commonly spoken language, almost 11 percent of Americans prefer to speak another language at home. Bilingualism is promoted by governmental units at the federal, state, and local levels through a variety of programs, particularly in education and in the conduct of elections, but recent legislation has reduced the number of counties that must print bilingual ballots, and a backlash against bilingualism is occurring. The states, while required to abide by federal laws, can declare an official language and can urge Congress to repeal bilingualism laws. A pending federal constitutional amendment making English the official language of the United States would, if ratified, change federal policies regarding bilingual education and voting assistance. Proponents of the amendment argue that it is necessary for unity and consistency, both social and political, and opponents argue that it is unnecessary, would accomplish little, might foster disunity, and would deny to some a meaningful participation in the electoral process. Two organizations favoring and opposing the amendment are listed as sources of further information on the issue. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Federal Legislation, Language Usage

Ramirez, Arnulfo G.; Politzer, Robert L. (1974). A Revised Spanish/English Grammar Test. Research and Development Memorandum No. 127. Spanish and English versions of a 38-item grammar test were administered to 40 Spanish-surnamed pupils equally divided by sex at grade levels K, 1, 3, and 5 (10 subjects per grade) in a bilingual education program. The test was a revision of part of an earlier test for oral proficiency in Spanish and English. The reliability of the new test was .95 for the Spanish version and .96 for the English version; but many items failed to elicit the expected grammatical constructions. English scores increased significantly with grade level, while Spanish scores varied only slightly among grade levels. Balance between mean scores on the English and Spanish versions was reached at grade 3. Test subjects were also questioned about language use and preference. The relationships between reported language use and test results appeared to indicate that Spanish proficiency was determined by use of the language in the home. English proficiency showed some relationship to use with the peer group. There were no significant correlations between the English and Spanish version scores and only very slight relationships among the factors influencing them. Achievement in English thus appeared to be unrelated to the maintenance of Spanish for bilingual children.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Elementary Education, Grammar

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