Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 278 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Nicole Judith Tavares, Anthony F. Purley, Jean Goodwine, Marguerite Ann Snow, Merilyn Farella, Helene W. Harrison, Randall A. Cognetta, Eulalia Cabrera, Glynn Ligon, and Beatrice Medicine.

Jones, Earl (1984). Summary Report of the East Texas State University ESEA Title VII Bilingual Education Project, 1976-1984. The goal of the East Texas State University Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title VII Bilingual Education Project was to improve the education of limited, and non-English speaking, students in North Texas area schools. This was accomplished by training undergraduate bilingual teachers, in-service teachers (masters program), administrators, and specialists (post masters and doctoral programs). This eight year project (1976-1984) was evaluated annually both internally and externally. The processes were monitored, student progress charted, and participant perceptions measured annually and compared longitudinally. This final report contains 1983-84 information, an evaluation of the entire project, and a brief presentation of the follow-up survey of almost 400 former program participants. Some took only a course or two as needed, some completed only certificate requirements, and 129 completed degree programs. The East Texas State University Bilingual training project was very successful in institutionalizing the project into its regular system. Students viewed the program as worthwhile, and were, generally, successful in gaining their degrees, certificates, and the abilities necessary to teach bilingually and in English as a second language. The annual student evaluation form and the participant follow-up survey questionnaire are appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teachers, Course Evaluation, Educational Improvement

LoPresti, Peter L. (1985). Bilingual and Multicultural Education: A Personal Perspective, Excellence through Equity. The multicultural and bilingual population of California will continue to increase over the next decades, and as a result, the role of multicultural and bilingual education will increase in importance. Since the 1970s improvements have occurred in instructional materials, in program evaluation, and in teacher certification to meet the needs of California's bilingual population, but the point has not yet been reached where such changes have been wholly accepted and institutionalized. Bilingual training has been viewed as a facilitative mechanism, not as something central to the overall preparation or basic mission of teachers. Education must beginned to be viewed from the perspective of the learner, regardless of his or her language or race, and include native language and culture as the first focal point of education. The cultural and historical lessons of education will include more than those provided by Protestant America and school will concentrate on a good basic education for all, built upon a notion of a common and shared human background. The emphasis on training educational personnel in cultural diversity must be continued and expanded; more teachers from more different ethnic backgrounds must be recruited; and teacher training should be solid and stress general education, subject matter concentration, professional pedagogical preparation, and field experience at the classroom level to be taught. Finally, fundamental changes are needed at the level of State education policy to ensure more recognition of cultural diversity and more attention to the limited English speaking student.   [More]  Descriptors: Access to Education, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teachers, Cultural Awareness

Ligon, Glynn; Holley, Freda (1978). Can Researchers Find True Happiness in a Public School Setting? A Success Story in Bilingual Education Evaluation. A two-year evaluation of an experience-based curriculum in bilingual education is described in parable style. The proposal for this research design was developed around the question of first-hand field experiences. A review of the first-year project revealed some of its weaknesses and reasons for poor results. For the second year, the public school constraints were taken into consideration, a training session for school personnel was conducted, and a research design was planned by all staff and researchers to be involved in it. The design was fairly complex because of the public school constraint that no child ever be denied the "benefits" of a program. Two consecutive grade levels at each school were assigned randomly to each of three treatment groups called full, partial and delayed treatment. Results indicated that students in the full treatment group performed better than students in the partial treatment group, who in turn performed better than those in the delayed treatment group. Advantages were evident in both Spanish and English communication skills. Appendices cover teacher competencies in a bilingual program; parental involvement strategies; and description, analysis and results of the experience-based curriculum project.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Schools, Bilingual Students, Bilingual Teachers

Lo, Yuen Yi (2015). How Much L1 Is Too Much? Teachers' Language Use in Response to Students' Abilities and Classroom Interaction in Content and Language Integrated Learning, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. In Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) classrooms where students' L2 proficiency has not reached the threshold level, teachers have been observed to use L1 to assist students in grasping specific technical terms and abstract concepts. It is argued to be a 'realistic' approach to the learning problems caused by students' limited L2 proficiency, particularly in English-as-a-foreign-language contexts. Nonetheless, researchers have also warranted "judicious" and "principled" use of L1 so that both content and language learning are facilitated. The question thus remains is whether teachers can use L1 appropriately to suit their students' needs. This study seeks to address this question. It includes data from 30 Grade 10 lessons in Hong Kong CLIL classrooms, where students' L2 proficiency varied considerably. Using both quantitative and qualitative analyses, this study shows that when teaching students with limited L2 proficiency, teachers used a significant proportion of L1 in lessons to explain the subject content, interact with students and develop students' L2 metalinguistic awareness. In contrast, with students highly proficient in L2, teachers used little L1, mainly to provide translation equivalents for L2 subject-specific vocabulary items. This study thus shows that teachers seemed to be sensitive when making use of students' existing linguistic repertoires.   [More]  Descriptors: Native Language, Language Usage, Teaching Methods, Second Language Learning

Rivera, Natasha F. (1993). Model Developmental Program of Bilingual Education, Community School District 3, 1992-93. Final Evaluation Report. OREA Report. The federally funded Model Development Program of Bilingual Education served 385 students at one elementary and one middle school in Manhattan (New York) in 1992-93, its third year of operation. Participants included 168 native Spanish-speaking, limited-English-proficient (LEP) students and 217 English-proficient (EP) students, both language-minority and English language background. Instruction was provided in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) for LEP students, Spanish as a second language (SSL) for EP students, and content areas using a dual-language approach. The program also included a broad staff development component and a strong parental involvement component including high school equivalency courses, college instruction, ESL classes, and other activities. Participating LEP students were selected based on an achievement lag of one year in content areas; EP students were admitted on request. The project met its objectives for ESL, staff development for ongoing education and teacher trainees, and two aspects of parent involvement. It did not meet the reading objective for EP students. Attainment of objectives in SSL, mathematics, and reading for LEP students and in staff development for content-area teaching could not be assessed. Recommendations for improvement include modification of one staff development objective and exploration of EP students' lack of gain in reading.   [More]  Descriptors: English (Second Language), Inservice Teacher Education, Intermediate Grades, Junior High Schools

Cabrera, Eulalia; And Others (1988). Adlai E. Stevenson High School Bilingual Education and Career Awareness Program, 1986-1987. OEA Evaluation Report. The Bilingual Education and Career Awareness Program at Adlai E. Stevenson High School in the Bronx was awarded a 1-year grant extension to provide services to 235 ninth- through twelfth-grade limited-English-speaking Hispanic students of varying English and Spanish proficiency. Primary program goals were to increase English and Spanish proficiency, to help students meet high school graduation requirements, and to help students develop clear, realistic vocational goals. The program provided language and content-area instruction including business education, computer literacy, bookkeeping, typing, child care, and jewelry-making. Support services included individual and group sessions for orientation, personal development, career awareness, and personal problems. On-site staff development was provided. Analysis of student achievement data indicates: (1) the program objective for English language development was met; (2) Spanish language arts objectives were greatly surpassed; (3) overall mathematics, science, social studies, and business and industrial arts achievement surpassed the passing criterion; (4) the attendance rate was significantly higher than the schoolwide rate; and (5) the student suspension rate was significantly lower than the schoolwide rate. Recommendations for improvement are given.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Persistence, Attendance Patterns, Bilingual Education Programs, Career Guidance

Harrison, Helene W. (1976). Final Evaluation Report of the San Marcos Consolidated Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program, 1975-1976. Comprised of 27 classrooms from grade levels 1-6, the program was primarily designed to provide bilingual education for pupils with limited English speaking ability. However, due to parental requests, almost 16% monolingual English-speakers were accepted into the program. Of the 717 pupils participating in the program 84.6% were Mexican American. Goals for the Mexican American pupils were to: prevent their educational retardation by instructing them in Spanish while developing their command of English; enhance their understanding and cognitive development in both languages; give them the advantage of becoming literate in both languages; and instill a knowledge of and pride in their bicultural heritage. Goals for the other pupils were to: develop understanding and respect for both cultures; develop oral communication skills in both languages; and develop reading and written communication skills in both languages. This report discusses the test results from the: Psychomotor Skills Learned and Demonstrated–Mexican games, songs, and dances; Boehm Test of Basic Concepts; Prueba de Lectura (Spanish Reading Test); Projected Self-Concept Inventory; and Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills. Both English and Spanish versions of these tests were administered on a pre- and posttest basis. Comparisons of the achievement test results for grades 1-5 are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Achievement Tests, Anglo Americans, Bilingual Education

Bay Area Bilingual Education League, Berkeley, CA. (1972). Bilingual Testing and Assessment, Proceedings of Bay Area Bilingual Education League (BABEL) Workshop and Preliminary Findings, Multilingual Assessment Program (Berkeley, California, January 27-28, 1969). The results and proceedings of the first annual Bilingual/Bicultural Testing and Assessment Workshop, held in Berkeley, California, on January 27-28, 1972, are presented in this publication. Approximately 150 bilingual psychologists and evaluators, educators working in bilingual/bicultural programs, and community representatives from California and Texas attended. Evaluations were made and the summaries are included of 8 tests used extensively in bilingual programs: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills, the Cooperative Primary, the Lorge-Thorndike, the Inter-American Series–General Ability, the Culture-Fair Intelligence Test, the Michigan Oral Production Test, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Also included in this publication are (1) an overview of the problem of assessment and evaluation in bilingual education, (2) a professional critique of the Inter-American series by Dr. Barbara Havassy, (3) a brief description of a Criterion Referenced System developed by Eduardo Apodaca, and (4) an article by Dr. Edward A. DeAvila discussing some of the complexities involved in testing and assessment of bilingual/bicultural children.   [More]  Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Conference Reports, Culture Fair Tests

Tavares, Nicole Judith (2015). How Strategic Use of L1 in an L2-Medium Mathematics Classroom Facilitates L2 Interaction and Comprehension, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. There has been an increasing interest in and hence a growing number of research studies on content and language integrated learning (CLIL) over the past two decades. One of the on-going debates in CLIL is on bilingualism versus monolingualism, or the role of the first language (L1) in subject teaching. So far, very few research projects have been carried out in Asian L2-medium classrooms where there are significant differences in the learners' L1 and L2. Adopting an exemplary case study approach, this study investigates a bilingual teacher's strategy use in a mathematics L2-medium classroom in Hong Kong. Through analysing classroom observation data, teacher and student semi-structured interviews and artefacts, it was noted that the teacher made strategic use of L1 to mediate her students' gradual adaptation to the shift in medium of instruction. Methods that the teacher used included ones that resemble what L2 teachers would employ in language teaching: noticing, syllabification, morphological cues, think-pair-share, vocabulary-building strategies, questioning techniques, immediate correction and others. Results of the current investigation support as well as extend the findings of previous studies and have important reference value for bilingual teachers, teacher educators, policy-makers and CLIL researchers.   [More]  Descriptors: Mathematics Instruction, Language of Instruction, Semi Structured Interviews, Bilingual Education

Rosier, Paul; Farella, Merilyn (1977). Ganado Public Schools Title VII Project 1976-1977: Saad Naaki Bee Olta (Bilingual Education). Final Evaluation Report. During the 1976-77 academic year the Ganado (Arizona) Title VII Bilingual Education Project operated within a Cooperative Teaching Model based on language roles. Each teacher was assigned a role based on language responsibility: English language teachers concentrated on teaching English as a second language, while Navajo language teachers taught cognitive skills in Navajo, including initial literacy, science, social studies, and math. The model operated on a departmentalized-homeroom basis; during the morning children rotated from subject to subject and in the afternoon they remained in their homeroom where the teaching reinforced concepts taught during the morning. The program involved 5 kindergarten classrooms (114 students) and 6 first grade classrooms (137 students).  Assessment of in-service staff training and development, parent involvement, materials development, objectives and goals, and student progress led to the following conclusions: good progress in student achievement was evidenced in all areas of the curriculum; the areas of greatest achievement were in Navajo social studies and the development of oral English language production, and standardized English achievement tests were inappropriate to evaluate student achievement in a Navajo language curriculum. Recommendations called for program refunding, expansion to the second grade, delaying introduction of English reading until the second grade, and review of the overall instruction model. Descriptors: Achievement, American Indian Education, American Indian Languages, Bilingual Education

Cabrera, Eulalia; And Others (1988). Seward Park High School Project CABES (Career Advancement through Bilingual Education Skills), 1986-1987. OEA Evaluation Report. In its first year of extension beyond the 3-year funding cycle at Seward Park High School (New York City), Project CABES (Career Advancement through Bilingual Education Skills) provided career advancement skills to 236 low-income, limited-English-speaking Hispanic immigrant students. The program provided a career-oriented curriculum including typing, employability skills, word processing, and bilingual career workshops, and also provided bilingual content-area courses and courses in English as a second language. Support services included counseling, peer and teacher tutoring, and referrals to outside agencies. Cultural and extracurricular activities included a Latin American festival and club. Staff development included monthly program meetings, in-service programs, and local university courses, and parental involvement consisted of an advisory committee, participation in cultural events, and program office visits when needed. Analysis of student achievement data indicates: (1) English language objectives were met in fall and spring; (2) the Spanish language arts objective was not met, with high variability in individual student gains; (3) group achievement objectives were not met; (4) the overall passing rates were achieved; (5) attendance was significnatly higher than the schoolwide rate; and (6) the dropout rate was not greater than that of mainstream students. A continued search for alternatives to the limited space available is recommended.   [More]  Descriptors: Attendance Patterns, Bilingual Education Programs, Business Skills, Career Development

Snow, Marguerite Ann (1986). Innovative Second Language Education: Bilingual Immersion Programs. Bilingual immersion programs combine second language immersion for language majority children and bilingual education for language minority children. The programs are based on the underlying assumption of the immersion model: that a second language is best learned as a medium of instruction, not as the object of instruction. However, they are not sheltered as are most immersion programs, and they serve the needs of both student language groups. This kind of program draws on the natural resources existing when two language groups are mixed in the same instructional setting: the children learn each others' languages. The San Diego Title VII Spanish-English bilingual immersion program is an example that has shown consistently high student achievement for oral language development, reading, and mathematics in both languages by the completion of elementary school. Implementation of a bilingual immersion program is complex, and requires careful consideration of such issues as feasibility, target groups, parent support, teacher pre-service and in-service training, curriculum and materials adaptation, administrator and staff roles, and maintenance of language group balance.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education Programs, Case Studies, Elementary Education

Cognetta, Randall A.; Goodwine, Jean (1986). Bilingual Education for Student Achievement (B.E.S.A.) Final Report. Third Project Year 1985-86. The activities of the third year of the Bilingual Education for Student Achievement (BESA) Project, conducted by the San Mateo County (California) Office of Education is described. The first section provides a brief description of the program, of which the major purpose was to provide English language instruction for limited-English-proficient (LEP) students to facilitate the transition from their primary language to English and improve achievement in regular classes. Evaluation procedures, including school observations analysis of test scores, and other data gathering procedures are described in the second section. Actual activities taking place in three school districts (Cabrillo Unified School District, Sequoia Union High School District, and South San Francisco Unified School District) are described in the next three sections. The sixth section presents report findings from the county offices, and the seventh section presents questions used during evaluations. A review of longitudinal data collected at the secondary level is presented in the eighth section. Among overall conclusions and recommendations offered in the last two sections were the need to: review the use of materials and provide inservice or assistance for teachers and aides using those materials; develop a dissemination process to make BESA staff aware of most effective programs and activities; provide training for data collection methods for the parent component of the program; and explore the availability of appropriate instruments and measures to assess the achievement level of LEP students.  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education Programs, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language)

Purley, Anthony F. (1974). Bilingual and Bicultural Education for American Indians. Those concerned with American Indian education must recognize the value inherent in revitalization of the fundamental Indian "life" principles. To this end, a critical examination of present Indian bilingual and bicultural programs is sorely needed. To provide a favorable climate for valid research in the evaluation of special programs, highest priority must be given to consideration of: (1) the educability of Indian youth; (2) the misconception of an either/or proposition relative to academic and bilingual education; (3) the lack of a solid foundation in communicative and computative skills as the greatest deterrent to Indian educability; (4) the rigid definitions applied to compensatory program allocations. In response to a felt need for better evaluation of special Indian education programs, the following methodologies are proposed: (1) the systems approach; (2) cost benefit analyses; (3) use of community leader, teacher, and student consultants; (4) periodic self evaluations by school staff and administrators. Recommendations for future bilingual/bicultural programs include research to: (1) develop an accurate picture of the status of such programs; (2) determine the standards of bilingual/bicultural educators; (3) explore the problems of student motivation; (4 evaluate demonstration projects in Indian education resource development and training. Descriptors: American Indians, Basic Skills, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education

Medicine, Beatrice (1986). Contemporary Cultural Revisitation: Bilingual and Bicultural Education, Wicazo Sa Review. Since the enactment of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 many manifestations of self-determination and community control have surfaced in Native communities. During the 1940s the United States Indian Service attempted to initiate cross cultural education but had limited success. The 1960s saw significant education but had limited success. The 1960s saw significant change in Indian education at the postsecondary level when student activism brought about the establishment of ethnic studies programs and courses on Native culture and languages. The 1967 passage of Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act greatly stimulated interest in the bilingual education of Native children. The Rough Rock Demonstration School is one example of a successful bilingual, bicultural program. Navajo is the language of instruction for beginning students, and cultural studies continue with a strong emphasis upon written Navajo, which is possible because of a standardized Navajo orthography and the support of the Navajo Curriculum Center. The Indian Self Determination Act of 1977 has fostered community control of schools and given new hope to many Indian parents. Cultural revitalization and restoration has resulted from education from a native perspective. The current need is for evaluations of Native education, conducted by Native researchers and shared with Native communities. Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, American Indians, Bilingual Education

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