Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 274 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Tupou L. Pulu, Las Vegas Clark County School District, Robert A. Underwood, Joanne Lynch, Gary Weibly, David M. Promisel, Bernard Cohen, J. Robert Scott, Mary E. Smith, and James M. Orvik.

Orvik, James M. (1973). Final Evaluation Report: Yupik Bilingual Education Project, Alaska State-Operated School System, July 1973. The Alaska State Operated School System (ASOSS) has now completed its second full year of experimental bilingual education. In an area where Yupik Eskimo is often the first and only language spoken by the native citizens, a decision was made to experiment with teaching the early primary grades in the Native language, introducing English as a Second Language (ESL) in small, manageable portions. To determine the validity of such an approach, an evaluation design was conducted over a 3 year implementation period. The 2 categories of instruments used for the evaluation were: (1) academic–Yupik literacy and numerical skills; (2) linguistic–acquisition of grammar and meaning in Yupik and English. The analysis procedure was the method of t-test for differences between independent group means. The statistical analysis results are presented in 3 sections: (1) literacy, (2) numerical skills, and (3) linguistic skills. In each section the results are generally described, followed by a brief discussion of the overall patterns as a whole. Program recommendations in the final section of the report concern: (1) instructional objectives, (2) English literacy, (3) math, (4) alphabet, and (5) creative writing.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indian Languages, Basic Skills, Bilingual Education, Early Childhood Education

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment. (1987). South Bronx High School Computers in Bilingual Education 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report. The Computers in Bilingual Education (CIBE) program offers instruction in computer literacy and in academic subjects for limited English proficient (LEP) students at the South Bronx High School in New York City. A variety of public funding sources were used to provide materials, personnel and staff development for the program. During the first two years of CIBE, 302 low income Spanish-speaking students in grades 9 through 11 were served. The staff participated in activities to encourage parental involvement. Staff members plan to translate mainstream curriculum materials into Spanish if reallocation of monies is approved. The program successfully encouraged student attendance and promoted teamwork among school, project, and bilingual staff. Statistical data are presented to show the full and partial achievement of the academic objectives. Recommendations for improvement of CIBE are: (1) weekend events and a bilingual newsletter for parents; (2) reorganization of staff to prevent burnout; (3) purchase of new office equipment; and (4) compilation of a list of program developed materials. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teachers, Computer Assisted Instruction, Computer Literacy

Lynch, Joanne (1993). Transitional Bilingual Education Project. Community School District 13. Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OER Report. This report presents an evaluation of the Transitional Bilingual Education Project (TBEP), an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII-funded project in its third year of operation at P.S. 9 and P.S. 133 in Brooklyn, New York. The project served 128 limited English proficient students, focusing on the provision of structured English and native language instruction to allow each child to achieve competence in English while facilitating progress in content areas. The project emphasized the teaching of English as a Second Language (ESL) and the use of computers. It also provided staff development and parent workshops. TBEP met it content area, staff development, and parental involvement objectives. The project did not meet its objectives for ESL or development of English language skills through computer-assisted instruction. The project partially met its objective for native language arts, meeting it at P.S. 9 but not at P.S. 133. Three appendixes include a list of instructional materials used, class schedules, and a staff survey questionnaire.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Attendance, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Education Programs

Smith, Mary E.; Heflin, John F. (1988). An Analysis of ESL/Bilingual Education Policy in Oregon School Districts. A study of English-as-a-second-language (ESL) and bilingual education policies in Oregon's local school districts analyzed their contribution to equal educational opportunity and quality education for language minority students. A survey of all public school districts in the state elicited information about eight policy areas: identification and assessment, instructional programs, primary language usage, exiting and mainstreaming, recognition of minority students' cultures, parent involvement, instructional personnel, and program evaluation. Responses to questions in these eight areas were analyzed as they relate to three phases of the Policy Process Model (policy formulation, implementation, and impact) and to state and federal law. Among the findings were that: (1) district policy or standards were infrequently mentioned as the basis for implementing ESL/bilingual practices in the schools, implying de facto policy for most districts and practice based on individual program directors' perceptions; (2) while the majority of districts were in apparent compliance with most questionnaire items related to the law, very few and very diverse districts appeared to meet all requirements for compliance with each law at federal and state levels; and (3) only two districts reported policies and practices supporting all of the basic principles for effectively educating language minority students. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Board of Education Policy, Cultural Background, Educational Legislation

York, Ken; Scott, J. Robert (1976). Bilingual Education for Choctaws of Mississippi. Annual Evaluation Report, FY 75-76. Data for this 1975-76 annual evaluation report on the Bilingual Education for Choctaws of Mississippi (BECOM) project are drawn from the Evaluation Design for 1975-76 and from formal and informal assessments. The first chapter of this report provides an overview of the setting in which the BECOM program operates (located on the Mississippi Choctaw reservation, the project includes seven rural Choctaw communities and six Bureau of Indian Affairs operated community schools involved in an incremental K-3 bilingual program). The second chapter provides an outline of the goals and objectives of the program (basic instruction in the native language; instruction in English as a Second Language; positive self-concept building via cultural heritage; a cadre of bilingual teachers; inservice and preservice training for Anglo teachers; bilingual instructional materials; and parent, teacher, and school communicative processes). The third chapter is a detailed discussion of the accomplishments, failings, and resultant progress of the first year of the project. Individual components (materials development, classroom instruction, parent-community involvement, and training and project management) are discussed descriptively and inferentially. The fourth chapter details the interaction between BECOM and other educational programs on the reservation.   [More]  Descriptors: Agency Cooperation, American Indian Reservations, American Indians, Annual Reports

Pulu, Tupou L. (1975). Interim and Final Reports of the Bilingual Education Project in Yup'ik Eskimo, FY 75. The Bilingual Education Project for the Yup'ik Eskimo was funded under Title VII (ESEA) and in fiscal year 1975 operated in seven Alaskan villages. Some 425 children in grades K-3 received bilingual instruction in the village schools of Aleknagik North Shore, Atmautluak, Bethel, Kongiganek, Manokotak, Togiak and Twin Hills. Materials were developed by the Yup'ik Eskimo Language Workshop and included materials for use in Yup'ik as a first or second language. At some schools such as Aleknagik N.S., English was the dominant language of most of the children and was used as the medium of instruction. Students in Kongiganek were taught all subjects in Yup'ik and English was taught as the second language. When taught as the second language, English instruction was carried out an hour a day in the first grade, two hours a day in the second, and three in the third. Tests given at the end of the year indicate the bilingual approach for monolingual Yup'ik children is more effective than a non-bilingual approach. It presents such extra advantages as the children gaining literacy skills in the Native tongue, beginning school in the home language, learning from a Native teacher who brings other relevant cultural traits to the learning situation, and being part of a program supported and esteemed by parents and the community. This document summarizes such activities as materials development, teacher training, meetings, test results, program objectives, and program evaluation. Descriptors: Alaska Natives, Annual Reports, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teachers

Clark County School District, Las Vegas, NV. (1981). Bienvenido Bilingual Education Project: End of Year Report, Fiscal Year 1981. The Bienvenido Bilingual Education Project was funded under Title VII of the Elementary Secondary Education Act and implemented in kindergarten, first and second grade classrooms of two elementary schools in Clark County, Nevada. The project aimed to provide for the bilingual educational needs of Spanish speaking students which had not been met by other language programs. Since the project also was designed to improve English language skills among children of limited English language proficiency through peer assistance, and to broaden understanding of other languages and cultures among monolingual English speaking students, classes consisted of a majority of Spanish speakers and some monolingual English speakers. Additional objectives included: (1) increased mathematics skills; (2) the development of readiness skills among kindergarten pupils; (3) the development of instructional resources; (4) provision of staff training; and (5) promotion of parent involvement. In general, most of the objectives were attained. It is recommended that the program be extended to include third grade in 1981-82. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education, Educational Objectives, English (Second Language)

Underwood, Robert A. (1981). Bilingual Education in a Developing Pacific Area: Why? Asian Pacific American Education Occasional Papers. This paper examines the relationship between politics, economic development, nationalism, and school language policy in the Marianas and Guam. Past and present developments in language policy and various rationales in support of bilingual education programs are reviewed. The author draws from Fishman's "Language and Nationalism" and Woodward and Inglehart's "Language Conflicts and Political Community" to support his arguments that (1) language difference does not promote nationalistic conflict in and of itself; and (2) while language is not a necessary component of nationalism, it does provide a link to ethnic and cultural authenticity. It is suggested that bilingual programs have been viewed as reconciling rising nationalism in the Marianas, concern over the loss of Chamorro ethnic and cultural identity, and pressures to learn English and assimilate into a dominant English speaking culture. The report concludes with the observation that in developed Pacific areas such as Guam, the use of language in schools is evaluated far less for its educational value than for its use in defining the essence of a society that is struggling for cultural survival.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Chamorro, Cultural Awareness, Developing Nations

Cohen, Bernard; And Others (1971). Final Evaluation Report of the 1970-1971 New Haven Bilingual Education Program. This final evaluation report of the 1970-71 New Haven Bilingual Education Program's effectiveness in the various areas of instruction is a presentation of analyses of data gathered on student performance in oral language proficiency (English only), reading comprehension (English only), mathematics, and student self concept (administered in the dominant language only)–the students having been pre- and post-tested in these areas. The document presents only an assessment of the program's effectiveness insofar as achievement of product objectives (behavioral changes in students and other participants) is concerned, the processes or procedures used to achieve various program products having been assessed in an earlier report, the Interim Evaluation Report. Among the findings were: (i) teachers felt that the learning of a second language for Anglos was enough of an advantage to the students to include them as participants of the ESEA Title VII program–and the evaluators felt that the program must enhance its efforts in this area; (ii) analyses of sociometric data did not yield clearly discernable results–it being not possible to argue that the program had generally improved mixing between Puerto Rican and Anglo children; (iii) in word knowledge, reading, and mathematics, it was found that the program classes showed a positive and, in many cases, significant growth; and, (iv) in general, there was no significant difference between the program and control children on T-tests done on scores for self concept.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Data Analysis, Language Skills, Mathematics Education

Jacobson, Rodolfo (1978). Beyond ESL: The Teaching of Content Other than Language Arts in Bilingual Education. A method in bilingual education by which subjects can be taught in two languages, known as "the Concurrent Approach," is the school curriculum defined and discussed here. After a brief overview of the professional literature, the rationale for the implementation of this approach is offered on the basis of four criteria: (1) mental processes, (2) community patterns, (3) adaptation to these patterns to satisfy pedagogical objectives and (4) sociolinguistic reinterpretation of the roles of teacher and class. The central argument focuses on the "General Theme" and the "System of Cues." The theme emphasizes the equal prestige of both codes, and the cues stress the four fundamental notions of interpersonal relationships, language development, curriculum and classroom strategies. The implementation of the approach is then summarized and a bilingual workshop described where teachers have been trained in concurrent teaching techniques. It is concluded that, except for the teaching of language arts, bilingual children should be taught concurrently in their two languages; bilingual teachers should, therefore, acquire expertise in the set of strategies that incorporates sociolinguistic sensitivity, identification of socio-pedagogical cues, and conscious manipulation of switching practices. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Code Switching (Language), Elementary Education

Cohen, Bernard; Promisel, David M. (1970). Final Evaluation Report (1969-70), New Haven Bilingual Education Program, New Haven, Connecticut. The New Haven Bilingual Education Program had two primary components: grade K-1 and grade 2-6. Puerto Rican and Anglo students in the younger age groups had a daily Spanish lesson; Puerto Rican children were also given English as a second language (ESL) lessons. The older children attended their regular classes in the morning and were given subject matter lessons in Spanish as well as ESL and Spanish language lessons. The evaluation design for the program was modified several times due to time and money constraints; the evaluation as performed concentrated on the more traditional product evaluation as well as a description of procedures carried out to assess student change in the areas of language development and self concept and/or attitude towards education. Among the findings were the following: (i) there was management which seemed to be aware of the problems in the program and which would take steps to make adjustments in the program; (ii) overall teacher performance was rated as quite satisfactory; (iii) course outlines were considered more than adequate when supplemented by Spanish language materials; (iv) the dissemination program aimed at the Anglo teachers had failed; and, (v) no significant difference could be made on the student self concept scales. [The appendixes in this document will not be clearly legible, due to the print quality of the original.]   [More]  Descriptors: Administration, Bilingual Education, Curriculum Evaluation, Data Analysis

Dannenberg, Arlene C. (1984). Handbook for Transitional Bilingual Education Parent Advisory Councils. Revised Edition. Part C Research Agenda. This handbook on the advisory and decision-making aspects of parent involvement provides information and skill-building activities to help parents establish, maintain, and increase the effectiveness of parent advisory councils (PAC) for bilingual education programs in Massachusetts. Chapter 1 describes the legal background and the basic structures of bilingual parent advisory councils, and gives an overview of the three stages of development. Chapter 2, on establishing a PAC, includes information on building community suport, group member roles, needed communication skills, making meetings effective and interesting, necessary organizational tasks, and getting needed information and resources. Chapter 3, on maintaining a PAC, focuses on needs assessment, improving the group's effectiveness, the roles of school officials with whom the PAC will work, and techniques for communicating effectively with school administrators. Chapter 4, on increasing PAC effectiveness, deals with action planning and institutionalization of the PACs. Chapter 5 is a working resource guide for each local community. Each chapter includes a list of additional resources. Descriptors: Administrative Organization, Advisory Committees, Bilingual Education, Communication Skills

Weibly, Gary; And Others (1979). Evaluation Design, 1978-1979. Local/State Bilingual Education Evaluation. The evaluation design of the 1978-79 local/state bilingual education program of Austin Independent School District is presented. The primary focus of the evaluation is the assessment of the objectives in language development and concept development submitted to the Texas Education Agency. A secondary focus is the collection of information related to the limited English speaking ability (LESA) student identification process. The collection, compilation, and reporting of the data is a significant portion of the evaluation effort. Evaluation questions concerning the new identification procedure include: (1) How many students did the 1978-79 LESA identification procedure identify as compared to past years that used other identification procedures? and (2) How may students qualify to exit from the bilingual program by the end of the 1978-79 school year? A second accountability-type question concerns what type of bilingual program the Austin school district should have. The levels of attainment for each of the project objectives are presented, and a listing is included of all schools in the program and the distribution of resource teachers, other teachers assigned to the bilingual program, and aides. Information needs for project evaluation and the appropriate information sources are outlined, and information is presented on dissemination activities, data to be collected in the schools, and the allocation of time for project activities by staff members.   [More]  Descriptors: Accountability, Bilingual Education, Cognitive Objectives, Community Programs

Texas Education Agency, Austin. (1985). Bilingual Education Pilot Programs Interim Study Report. Staff Report to the State Board of Education. This report presents results of evaluations of elementary and secondary level bilingual education programs in nine Texas school districts, focusing on ways to serve the needs of limited-English-speaking populations. Differing evaluation procedures were used, and the results reflect a wide range of procedures. The report consists of a description of the overall study and specific program evaluation requirements, presentation of the process and product evaluation findings, and conclusions. Brief descriptions of each participating program, and an extensive description of El Paso's program and its requirements are appended. Major conclusions for all of the participating districts are that: (1) both pilot and non-pilot programs demonstrated improved English proficiency and, where data were available, academic achievement; (2) some pilot programs suffered from insufficient trained staff to fully implement the programs, and extremely high student mobility rates detracted from sequential skills building; (3) continued study of student cohort groups will provide more substantive information about appropriate instructional designs at the elementary level; and (4) existing requirements are now inadequate for secondary-level students. An executive summary is included. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education Programs, Comparative Analysis, Curriculum Development

Laughlin, Margaret A. (1982). A Political Focus on Issues in Bilingual Education: Comparative Views from Selected Countries Around the World. In formulating an official language policy, a country must consider cultural, social, political and economic factors. Alternative policies on language instruction can be categorized into three groups: 1) subordination of the home language to the country's dominant language; 2) bilingual maintenance through the simultaneous provision of instruction in two languages; and 3) use of the home language in the early school years and the dominant language in later years. In the United States, Belgium, and the Philippines, cultural and political influences have led to conflicts concerning language policy. Current policy in the United States emphasizes transitional bilingual education and the eventual phasing out of the child's home language, but some advocates believe that transitional bilingual programs must lead to language maintenance programs and that the linguistic competencies of native speakers must be encouraged. In Belgium, policies to achieve equality of language use and instruction (among three language groups) have failed due to social changes and public attitudes: democratization in language choice and linguistic polarization prevail. In the Philippines, the linguistic issue is complicated by attempts to develop a national language, and by conflicting interests in Spanish, English, and the many native languages: the government currently supports bilingualism in English and Pilipino. Each nation needs to develop a consistent language policy in order to avoid semilinguistic literacy, promote academic achievement, and develop national unity.  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Comparative Analysis, Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education

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