Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 273 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include CA. San Diego City Schools, Joseph O. Garcia, Judy Gray, Alicia Pousada, Carmen H. A. Padgett, Fred Rodriguez, John J. Attinasi, Barbara Hunt, Leonard Courtney, and James Yates.

Hunt, Barbara, Comp.; Gray, Judy, Comp. (1979). Research and Evaluation Studies from Large School Systems. 1978. This 142-item annotated bibliography, limited to documents announced in Resources in Education from April 1978 to January 1979, cites reports generated directly or indirectly by 47 large school districts in the United States and Canada. The reports include descriptions and evaluations of career education, compensatory, bilingual, special education, and other programs. Arranged by official school district name, the citations list author, institutional source, date of publication, and Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) document number; a 200-word abstract is also provided. A subject index of major ERIC descriptors is appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies, Educational Programs, Educational Research, Elementary Secondary Education

Attinasi, John J.; Minoves-Myers, Inma (1981). Foreign Language at Home: Using Non-English Resources in Bilingual Education. Nontraditional Hispanic students, though often pedagogically problematic in other ways, possess language resources that should not be overlooked and that ought to provide a model for other language learners. The paper illustrates: (1) the resources needed for foreign language capacity that exist in non-English-speaking sectors of U.S. society; (2) how the nondevelopment of these resources has counterproductive consequences for minority children, foreign language instruction, and national educational needs; (3) what progress and promise bilingual education offers to remedy the situation and bring about more positive educational outcomes; and (4) some practical steps teachers might take in utilizing the language resources around them. The adoption of language resources in the home and community involves both language skills and culture. Learning culture gives content to language lessons and provides insight into the lives of non-English speakers that is so essential to attitudinal change. For younger students, use of make-believe or role playing and show-and-tell in Spanish aids vocabulary and syntax building and the development of oral fluency. For older students, these activities can be modified to help the student focus on lexicon, phrasing, intonation, expressions, and career experiences or plans.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Class Activities, Cultural Education, Elementary Secondary Education

Zuelow, Margo J. (). Methods and Materials for Bilingual Education. Student Guide for Education 193. This document outlines the objectives of a course in bilingual education. It first deals with curriculum planning, scheduling, and classroom management. It discusses teaching methods, and suggests home visits as a potentially valuable method. General considerations for a bilingual program are then examined. The document sets forth the objective of a bilingual program as: to give all children the opportunity to become fully articulate, literate, and broadly educated in two languages and sensitive to two cultures. Five main areas are considered which are deemed necessary to attain this objective. They are: (a) content or subject matter, (b) time, (c) methods and materials, (d) teachers, and (e) evaluation. Lastly, the question of one teacher or two for a bilingual class is considered. In this document, the concept of two teachers is preferred for the following reasons: (a) it gives greater assurance that the children will learn an authentic native accent in both languages and will acquire more authentic understanding of both cultures; (b) it holds the promise of a more interesting and varied program of learning activities; and (c) it is in its very format an example of cross-cultural education.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Curriculum Development, Home Visits, Preservice Teacher Education

Padgett, Carmen H. A. (1983). Parent-Client Participation in the Bilingual Education Program in St. Croix, United States Virgin Islands. A study of a St. Croix bilingual education program looked at parent involvement from the program's beginning to the present and at parent recommendations for more meaningful involvement. A random sample of parents representing students at all grade levels was drawn from school records. The parents were surveyed by questionnaire, and interviewed. The questionnaire asked about parent participation in the original needs analysis, knowledge of definite program aims, help in developing and setting up the program, participation in activities (trips, meetings, movies, workshops, and courses), input in the form of advice or opinion about the program, willingness to help further with the program, and comments. The scale provided for responses included these options: very much, much, some, a little, not at all, don't know, and no response. It was found that parents were not participating fully in the program; that a majority of parents had no involvement in the program's needs assessment or original planning; and that although parents had made an important contribution in other program areas, less than half of the total group had participated. It was also found that participation developed favorable attitudes toward the program and toward education in general. Increased efforts toward parent involvement are recommended, including a parent training component, home visits, a bilingual parent handbook, information dissemination through the media, and a variety of parent-oriented activities. Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, English, Parent Attitudes, Parent Participation

Alvarez, Anicia A. (1991). Pilipino or English in Science Learning? The Case of Bilingual Education in the Philippines. Despite long-standing provisions in three Philippine constitutions naming Filipino as the national language, there has been no serious effort to implement the use of Pilipino in the Philippine educational system. Pilipino is based mainly on Tagalog, but is also a blend of words taken from English, Spanish, Arabic, Tamil, and Chinese. A 1973 bilingual policy allowed teachers to use Pilipino in social science subjects and English in science and mathematics subjects due to the difficulty of translating some technical terms. Bilingual education was defined as the separate use of Pilipino and English as media of instruction in definite subjects and the use of the vernacular of the locality as the auxiliary medium of instruction. Implementation of this policy seems to have resulted in the deterioration of achievement results in English, science, and mathematics. Proponents of teaching science in English cite three major reasons for its continued use: it is tested and viable, it is economical, and it is universal. Opponents suggest that science can be taught effectively using the native language and that using English as the language of instruction benefits only the elite. Several studies are cited that are not conclusive but that suggest the difficulty in formulating a single educational policy flexible enough for a country like the Philippines where the vernacular seems to influence the learning of subjects like science. It is concluded that the first language of children is necessary for learning science. Contains 10 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language)

Yates, James; And Others (1982). Baker DeKanter Review: Inappropriate Conclusions on the Efficacy of Bilingual Education. Methodological problems associated with the research cited by the Baker DeKanter Review of Bilingual Education (1981) are reported. The review concluded that there is little evidence supporting the need for bilingual instruction for language minority children. Given the widespread legal, fiscal, policy, and media implications of this conclusion, it is important that the evidence be analyzed. Each of the 28 studies cited to support the Baker DeKanter conclusion was analyzed in depth in regard to methodological soundness. Numerous instances of the following methodological errors were found: non-random assignment of subjects, high attrition of subjects, extremely small sample sizes, inappropriate measurement instruments or procedures, inappropriate pretest/posttest time frames, inconsistent design, lack of control of critical learning variables, variations in qualifications of instructional personnel, and lack of recency of the studies cited. Given these problems, the conclusions of the Baker DeKanter review should be questioned. Detailed reviews of each of the 28 studies are appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Policy, Educational Research, Language of Instruction

Courtney, Leonard, Ed. (1976). Reading Interaction: The Teacher, The Pupil, The Materials. This collection of articles focusing on reading interaction is divided into three major sections: The Teacher; Teacher and Pupil; and Teacher, Pupil, and Materials. The first section discusses such topics as the teacher's important role in reading improvement; disseminating research among classroom teachers; and aspects of teacher education. The second section discusses such topics as increasing parent-teacher interaction; a systematic approach to teaching decoding skills; and teaching reading and literature to the disadvantaged. Section three discusses such topics as teaching migrant children; bilingual bicultural education; a classroom reading program; children's reading and attitude change; and how publishers develop instructional materials.   [More]  Descriptors: Decoding (Reading), Instructional Materials, Migrant Youth, Parent Teacher Cooperation

Perrone, Vito (1980). Reflections on Elementary and Secondary Education: A Prelude to the 1980's. Too much accountability, declining enrollment, and conservative decision making are hindering public education. Education should be deregulated, more generously funded, and should make use of parent and community resources. Decision making, in order to meet individual school district needs, should take place at the local, rather than at the state or federal, level. Support is needed for bilingual, multicultural education, improved research, and the elimination of tracking. Assessment in general, and standardized testing in particular, need to be reevaluated. To provide effective education to the nation's children, institutions must once again respect children and young people, intensify resources for their development, and cooperate with their parents. Descriptors: Accountability, Curriculum Development, Decentralization, Educational Change

Pousada, Alicia (1982). Community Participation in Bilingual Education–Ethnographic Input into a Language Planning Issue. Two bilingual education programs serving the Puerto Rican community of East Harlem in New York City were investigated to ascertain the degree and kinds of community participation in planning, implementation, and evaluation of bilingual programs. It was found that while there are formal structures in place for involving the community, such as a district-wide bilingual parents' advisory council, these are not viewed as critical to school or program functioning by either administrators or parents. Since administrators have not taken the community's role in school affairs seriously, they have not assisted parents in organizing themselves and in acquiring the skills necessary to become truly functioning partners in school-community dialogues. Furthermore, both administrators and parents are limited in their views of the roles of community people in the schools: fundraising, general support, and help with homework were cited as possible roles, but classroom teaching, presentation of community skills and resources, or sharing of childrearing and informal education techniques were not mentioned. Parents have no real sense of forming policy and even less of evaluating it. Finally, despite outwardly good intentions, schools do not seem really interested in the kind of community participation which results in any realignment of the basic power relations between school and community.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Attitudes, Bilingual Education Programs, Community Involvement, Elementary Secondary Education

Northeast Regional Resource Center, Hightstown, NJ. (1980). The Time for Action: Positions and Recommendations of the Task Force on Crosscultural Assessment. The task force report examines recommendations for nondiscriminatory assessment of children from linguistic minorities. An initial suggestion is made for a moratorium on the use of standardized intelligence tests for these students. Recommendations are addressed to the U.S. Education Department (including requiring state education agencies to report data on four categories of children from linguistic minorities); state education agencies (including assigning staff to be responsible for coordinating and monitoring state level bilingual special education); formulation of the annual program plan; assessment practices and procedures; and local education agencies (including developing policies and procedures for screening, prereferral intervention, referral, assessment, and placement). Descriptors: Bilingual Students, Disabilities, Educational Policy, Evaluation Methods

San Diego City Schools, CA. (1972). Materiales en Marcha para el Esfuerzo Bilingue–Bicultural (Materials on the March for the Promotion of Bilingualism/Biculturalism), October 1972. This newsletter seeks to promote the concept of bilingual-bicultural education. Among its articles are "Selection of Social Studies Resources,""Capturing a Child's Fancy: Read-Aloud Books," and "Ana's and Marta's Toast to Second-Grade Social Studies." Recommended reading materials in the fields of elementary Mexican history, second-grade social studies, and short stories are included. Appended is a list of distributors of educational materials in Spanish and Portuguese. Some of the articles appear both in Spanish and English. Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingualism, Cultural Awareness, English (Second Language)

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment. (1986). South Bronx High School Computers in Bilingual Education 1984-1985. OEA Evaluation Report. The Computers in Bilingual Education program at South Bronx High School (New York) completed its first year of operation in June, 1985. The program offered limited English speaking students computer-assisted instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), native language arts, social studies, math, and science, and also provided instruction in computer literacy. All students were Spanish-speaking, and most were recent immigrants. Despite setbacks in program implementation due to personnel turnover and problems in purchasing computer hardware and software, the program made progress toward achieving its objectives. Students who participated in the program received seven periods of academic instruction in ESL, native language arts, and bilingual content areas that paralleled the mainstream curriculum. Proposed objectives for student achievement in these areas were met fully only in English language courses. Efforts were made to integrate computer-assisted instruction within the academic program, principally within the ESL classes and the math lab. Although the program had problems getting parents to attend meetings, parents did visit the school regularly on an individual basis. Despite setbacks, the program provided students with some exposure to computer use while maintaining a stable, coherent, and consistent academic program. Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Computer Assisted Instruction, Curriculum Development, High Schools

Walsh, Catherine E.; Carballo, Eduardo B. (1986). Transitional Bilingual Education in Massachusetts: A Preliminary Study of Its Effectiveness. This study of the effectiveness of transitional bilingual education (TBE) programs for Hispanic students in five Massachusetts school districts analyzed data on students' personal and educational characteristics (place of birth, socioeconomic status, number of years in TBE, district mobility, attendance, test scores, academic grades, and remediation). The student sample was comprised of 214 students in grades 1 through 12 and included TBE students, mainstream students who had previously been in TBE, and limited-English-proficient (LEP) students never enrolled in TBE. The major findings were: (1) the average time in TBE, current or previous, was about three years, with 9 percent in TBE more than three years; (2) although the majority of the students had attended schools only in their district, one third had attended at least three schools there, and one third had attended schools in their native countries; (3) the current TBE students had lower attendance than the mainstream students but higher attendance than non-TBE LEP students; (4) over 90 percent of the TBE and mainstream students had C averages or higher, while 42 percent of the non-TBE LEP students were failing; (5) several times as many non-TBE LEP students as others had repeated grades; and (6) although only 9 percent of the TBE students had been referred for special education, 12 percent of the mainstream and 26 percent of the non-TBE LEP students had been referred. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Attendance Patterns, Bilingual Education Programs, Comparative Analysis

Rodriguez, Fred (1976). The Process of School Desegregation: What Impact Does It Have on Bilingual Education? Conflict or Commitment?. Can providing special programs for the linguistically different student conflict with the purpose or goal of school desegregation? The purpose of desegregation is to provide equal educational opportunity for all students. An essential part of desegregation is the physical restructuring of school districts, i.e., a physical rearrangement of groups of children that have not previously attended school together. When districts begin this rearrangement, however, they realize that simply putting children side by side is not enough, and that changes in the areas of curriculum, teacher training, and cost effectiveness are also necessary if truly equal opportunity is to be provided to all students. The 1974 Supreme Court mandate to provide educational opportunity for language minority children has engendered philosophical and political debate concerning various interpretations of bilingual education. Disagreements often stem from seeming conflicts between the national language imperative and the language loyalties of individual groups. Educators must balance or resolve these conflicting viewpoints. If schools are not permitted to continue their bilingual programs on the grounds that they do not fit the definition of desegregation, they are both ignoring the linguistically different student and missing the concept of equal educational opportunity. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Desegregation Effects, Elementary Secondary Education, Equal Education

Garcia, Joseph O. (1976). Comparison of Bilingual Education Program Costs to the Regular Education Program Costs. This paper describes a study that calculated program costs for bilingual education programs operating in New Mexico school districts during 1974-75 and compared those costs to costs for regular educational programs. Data were collected through a survey of all 88 public school districts in New Mexico. Per-pupil program costs for the regular school program in grades 4-6 were calculated and comPared to Per-pupil costs for bilingual programs in each district. When districts were clustered into eight groups, based on total district enrollment, bilingual Program costs ranged from 37 percent of regular program costs (for districts with enrollments under 200) to 116 percent of regular program costs (for districts with enrollments from 4,000 to 7,500). The statewide average showed bilingual programs cost 103 percent as much as the regular educational program in grades 4-6). A series of tables present program cost and enrollment data for each district, as well as average figures for different sizes of districts and figures for the state as a whole. A sample survey questionnaire and samples of the various worksheets used to analyze the survey data are included in the appendix.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Cost Indexes, Elementary Secondary Education, Expenditure per Student

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