Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 254 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Phoenix. Arizona Governor's Office, Douglas V. Parker, Joan E. Friedenberg, Janet Schroyer-Portillo, Eugene J. Gutierrez, Thomas F. Lopez, Carmen Simich-Dudgeon, Northwest Education, Theodore Andersson, and Wynne C. Curry.

Andersson, Theodore (1975). Biliteracy, or the Bilingual Child's Right to Read. So far bilingual education has had only the most modest success in providing for children of limited English-speaking ability (LESAS) an educational opportunity equal to that of English-speaking children. In fact, to aim only at equality is self-defeating because it is impossible for a LESA child with a five-to-six year handicap ever to catch up with an English-speaking schoolmate. The only solution is to provide the LESA child with a better opportunity in the form of an early start in reading. This paper presents as a reasonable hypothesis a long-range plan for encouraging an LESA child from the age of one and a half to three to learn to read his home language. If he is successful, at age three to five he can learn to read English. In this way, the child overcomes his initial handicap and develops a firm basis for future schooling and for becoming, through ongoing bilingual bicultural education, functional in both his home language and English.   [More]  Descriptors: Beginning Reading, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Child Language

Parker, Douglas V. (1975). Language Policy and Indian Education. Research Report. Any decisions regarding the language of instruction will have long-term effects on the child's life both during and after his school years. Unfortunately, language is only one facet of the total problem. In any discussion of education involving people who are culturally and linguistically different, various factors come into play, factors which enjoy an interlocking type of relationship rendering isolation of a single element difficult. These include language, community, socioeconomic status, as well as parental and community attitudes to education. To some extent it is necessary to deal with these factors in order, ultimately, to be able to make intelligent, informed decisions about language policy in the schools of Northern Alberta. This study reviewed the literature pertaining to the question of whether to begin instruction of elementary school children in English using an English as a second language program or to use the Native language for instruction initially, with English gradually introduced. Topics covered are: place of language in education, factors affecting the choice of language for use in the school, bilingual education models, opinion regarding the language of instruction, factors affecting the bilingual child's education progress, language problems and the school, and language policy and the reading process. It would appear that there is greater long term advantage in beginning the school program in the child's dominant language.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indians, Bilingual Education, Cognitive Development, Community Attitudes

Howard, Roy E. (1985). Teaching Navajo Language and Culture at Dzilth Na O Dith Hle Community School. A History, Analysis and Recommendation. The Navajo tribe adopted a policy in 1985 that encourages all schools with Navajo students to teach Navajo language and culture in addition to the regular curriculum. A review of the recent studies and literature reveals that most support the concept of bilingual/bicultural education in one form or another. The consensus seems to be that teacher's methods are most effective when the teacher is sensitive to the cultural perspective of the student. Although bilingual/bicultural teaching strategies may be desirable, their widespread use on the reservation may yet take a few more years. The obstacles include: (1) insufficient number of bilingual teachers; (2) lack of training in bilingual methods; (3) uneven support from teachers, administration, and communities; (4) unreliable federal support; and (5) lack of materials and materials development centers. Discussions with staff members and parents at Dzlith Na O Dith Hle Community School (DCS) reveal a wide range of attitudes towards bilingual education. Approaches that may be viable at DCS include: (1) form a Navajo club with volunteer students and staff pioneering methods and materials; (2) hire a resource teacher; (3) seek Title VII funding to train and pay bilingual aides; (4) encourage teachers and aides to develop bilingual/cultural resources. Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indian History, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education

Northwest Education (1996). The Hispanic Child. This theme issue focuses on issues related to the education of Hispanic Americans. Articles cover educational strategies that address the linguistic and cultural differences of Hispanic Americans, issues related to migrant children and their education, the educational experiences of Hispanic American children, bilingual teacher education programs, expectations of Hispanic American parents regarding education, systemic school reform, and innovative school programs in the Northwest aimed at improving the education of Hispanic Americans. Articles include: (1) "Field of Dreams" (Lee Sherman Caudell); (2) "Two Worlds in One Classroom" (Tony Kneidek); (3) "Citizens of the World: A Rural Oregon District Helps Hispanic Families Settle into the Community" (Lee Sherman Caudell); (4) "Great Expectations" (Lee Sherman Caudell); (5) "Families First: A Willamette Valley Preschool Program Strengthens Parents' Role in Children's Education" (Melissa Steineger); (6) "Growing Teachers: A Washington College Builds a Bilingual Teaching Force" (Matthew Fleagle); and (7) "High Sights: Linking LEP Programs to Systemic Reform Helps Ensure Inclusion" (Lee Sherman Caudell). The journal also reviews publications related to Hispanic Americans, synthesizes research on bilingual education, overviews educational strategies for limited-English-proficient students, lists organizations that provide assistance in designing programs for language-minority students, and presents strategies for increasing parental involvement in education.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Bilingual Teachers, Cultural Differences

Schroyer-Portillo, Janet (1984). Civil Rights in Crisis: The Reagan Administration's Reforms. This paper identifies major changes in the area of civil rights which have been instituted during President Reagan's term in office and discusses their implications for Hispanics. Section I briefly outlines central themes of the Administration's attitude towards civil rights. Questions about their negative impact on Hispanics are raised. The next six sections discuss particular developments within a different Federal department or commission. Subjects are as follows: in section II, the Department of Justice (agency leadership, affirmative action, voting rights, fair housing, Federal grant recipient compliance, tax-exempt status for schools, and school desegregation); in section III, the Department of Education (use of the intent test, bilingual education, education block grants, and education for the handicapped); in section IV, the Department of Health and Human Services (increased voluntary compliance and block grants); in section V, the Department of Labor; in section VI, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (complaint processing and its Hispanic Study); and in section VII, the United States Commission on Civil Rights (firing of commissioners, reauthorization of the commissions, and new commission initiatives). In conclusion, the paper contends that the Reagan Administration's policies are regressive because they support the reversal or dilution of many long-established laws, rulings, regulations, and procedures. Their impact, it is argued, will be severe for Hispanics, who suffer as a group from pervasive discrimination and have not fully benefitted from the legal mandates for equality enacted in the past. Descriptors: Affirmative Action, Civil Rights, Federal Aid, Federal Government

Gutierrez, Eugene J. (1979). Resource Allocation Strategies Employed in Large versus Small School Systems. Education is faced with a declining resource base coupled with overwhelming demands for categorical programs. The current resource allocation strategy common to all systems is cutting spending. The difference between large and small districts is less important than differences in complexity. Complexity in resource allocations is more a function of the district's diverse needs than of its size. A relatively homogeneous student body necessitates simpler resource allocation than does a heterogeneous educationally disadvantaged student body. Inner-city school districts, irrespective of size, must address such needs as those attendant to compensatory education, special education, bilingual education, education for the gifted, poverty, poor nutrition, and health problems. Each need is represented by large numbers of students and requires a substantial general fund resource allocation in spite of categorical funding. Within the zero-sum-game resource environment that school districts are in, what one program gets, another loses. Working out a compromise budget to get a majority board vote is no small problem. In contrast, the small or less complex system allocates a relatively greater proportion of resources to the basic program of instruction, comes closer to efficiency, and has a community more understanding of budget constraints. Descriptors: Compensatory Education, Difficulty Level, Disadvantaged Youth, Efficiency

Lopez, Thomas F. (1970). Staff Development of Bilingual Programs. The master's thesis is directed toward compiling information regarding recruitment and training of bilingual teachers, with particular emphasis on teachers of Mexican Americans. It establishes a rationale for bilingual teacher education programs and inservice education. The study answers questions about (1) the responsbility for staff development, (2) curriculum, and (3) subject areas and methods of emphasis in the program. Proposals which have been written on bilingual programs were examined in terms of staff development, and additional information was gathered by a questionnaire which was sent to each bilingual project in California. Correlations are given between size of grant awarded in funded programs and the amount allocated for staff development. Additionally, information made available by various program proposals and data obtained by the study questionnaire indicated that more work should be done in the areas of linguistics, evaluation, and human relations. It was also concluded that there seemed to be a positive correlation in the size of grant awarded and the amount expended from the grant for staff development. A design for bilingual education is presented to provide a basis and guide for staff development. Tables and appendices are also presented.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teachers, Educational Programs, Elementary Education

Watt, Michael (1984). A Guide for Selecting Bilingual Bicultural Resource Materials. [Volume I]. This is the first of three volumes reporting a project to develop an instrument to evaluate instructional materials used in bilingual education, community language education, and bicultural education programs in Australian schools. The project had three purposes: (1) to examine the research literature on the development of models and instruments to evaluate immigrant education resource materials; (2) to develop an instrument based on appropriate criteria and standards; and (3) to utilize the developed evaluation instrument for the analysis of Dutch bilingual and bicultural educational materials available to Australian schools. Volume I has two parts: (1) "A Review of Analytic Instruments for the Evaluation of Bilingual Bicultural Resource Materials;" and (2) "Selecting Resource Materials for Dutch Bilingual Bicultural Education." Part 1 describes the criteria for this Australian evaluation instrument developed from the literature review. The instrument draws on Stake's (1967) model of educational evaluation and current developments in psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, and multicultural education. Part 2 presents the contextual background and investigatory methodology for a research project evaluating resource materials used in programs for Dutch immigrants in four independent schools in Tasmania (the Calvin Christian School, Emmanuel Christian School, Launceston Christian School and the John Calvin School). A five page bibliography, author index, subject index, and four maps are appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingual Instructional Materials, Dutch, Elementary Secondary Education

Bahowick, Jennifer E. (1979). The Status of School Library Services to Bilingual Bicultural Programs in Illinois. The need for bilingual bicultural school library materials and services for schools with bilingual programs and limited English speaking students was investigated in the state of Illinois. The data were collected by means of questionnaires sent to bilingual program coordinators and school librarians at 140 schools throughout the state. Targeted areas of study were: the availability of bilingual school library services and staff, the nature and scope of bilingual school library services, problems of bilingual materials acquisition, the amount of cooperation and/or coordination between library and bilingual personnel, and, finally, the role of the school library in bilingual education as perceived by both school librarians and bilingual coordinators. The results of the study indicated a severe lack of bilingual staff, materials and resources in school libraries serving bilingual and limited English speaking children. The study also revealed a statistically significant difference in the attitudes of school librarians and bilingual coordinators with respect to the role of the school library in education. The implications of this difference suggest conflict regarding the library's present and future role in bilingual multicultural education. Statistical data and questionnaires are appended. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Schools, Cooperative Programs, Coordination

Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. (1977). Training Opportunities …Access to Quality Education for a Brighter Future. Compiled by the Spanish Speaking Program staff in its efforts to make educational opportunities available to Hispanic Americans, the directory provides information on 231 scholarships, fellowships, stipends, traineeships and other financial assistance programs. These programs are offered by Federal agencies, post secondary education institutions, universities, and private associations and foundations. In addition, 56 training programs for minority students are listed. Each entry includes a brief description of the program, its eligibility requirements, and the address of who to contact for further information. The programs are in such areas as adult education, alcohol and drug abuse prevention, bilingual education, education for the gifted and talented children and youth, education for the handicapped, American Indian teacher education, public service professional education, educational and teacher exchanges, Upward Bound, vocational education, Women's Educational Equity, health education and services, child welfare, veterinary education, legal education, environmental education, community services, energy research and development, American Indian education, the arts and the humanities, the social sciences, aviation education, accounting, library science, medical and dental education, business, surveying, occupational therapy, podiatry, political science, journalism, interior designing, optometry, architecture, and foreign relations.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, American Indians, Asian Americans, Black Students

Friedenberg, Joan E.; Curry, Wynne C. (1981). English Proficiency and the Bilingual University Student. This study was undertaken to predict the relationship between English proficiency and subsequent academic success. Forty-two Cuban American students enrolled in a bilingual teacher education program were administered the Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency and a questionnaire. The results of the study indicate that: (1) the younger one is when learning a second language, the better the language will be learned; (2) in order for adults to acquire a second language in the second language environment, they should socialize regularly in the second language; (3) there is no apparent relationship between attitude towards Anglo-speaking Americans and how well English (the second language) was learned for this group; (4) self report as a method for measuring such attitudinal variables as feelings towards one's educational program is unsuitable–especially if students' responses cannot be anonymous; (5) a relationship exists between students' level of English proficiency and their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the bilingual program; and (6) although score on the Michigan Test was not a strong predictor of academic success, there was a significant relationship between this score and grade point average. Implications for bilingual education research and teacher education based on these conclusions are explored.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Age Differences, Attitude Measures, Bilingual Education

San Francisco Community Coll. District, CA. (1979). Vocational ESL Master Plan. Revised 1979. In recognition of the growing importance of Vocational English as a Second Language (ESL), this master plan for the San Francisco Community College District (SFCCD) outlines program objectives, curricular information, course objectives, and instructional materials for the District's Vocational ESL programs. The introduction identifies the audience served by the programs; the differences between vocational ESL, ESL, and vocational education; the differing methodologies of ESL and bilingual education; and the goals of bilingual/bicultural education. Next, a section devoted to the master plan describes curriculum organization, use of the Vocational ESL Master Plan, and the evaluation of student performance. The next section specifies course objectives related to getting a job, holding a job, and moving ahead, including general objectives, language objectives, cultural awareness objectives, and objectives related to contextual areas. The final section presents methods and materials for teaching vocational ESL, including sample lesson plans. Appendices include information on Vocational ESL programs in the SFCCD, including history, center addresses, Vocational ESL Certificate Programs, and Vocational ESL Class Descriptions; and a listing of resources and publishers.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Community Colleges, English (Second Language), Program Development

Del Green Associates, Washington, DC. (1983). A Review of Research Affecting Educational Programming for Bilingual Handicapped Students. Executive Summary. The report summarizes information from a review of the literature on bilingual special education. Seven topics are addressed by consultants who were directed to prepare a synthesis of the literature, develop a comprehensive annotated bibliography, and present findings and recommendations for further research at a 2-day conference. The following major areas are examined: (1) demography (general language minority population data, geographic location/residential patterns); (2) assessment (the need for an effective system to collect, analyze, and disseminate data about linguistic minority children); (3) cognitive linguistic development (significance of labeling); (4) teacher training (results of a national needs study); (5) curriculum and instructional methods (cultural relevance in curriculum, research questions related to language interventions, alternative service delivery models); (6) parent involvement, education, and training (funding of a leadership training institute for parent involvement, development of resource materials); and (7) educational policy and program development (recommended policy options). An assessment of selected state bilingual special education policies and information is followed by recommendations for continued research in bilingual special education.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Cognitive Development, Curriculum, Disabilities

Simich-Dudgeon, Carmen, Ed. (1986). Issues of Parent Involvement and Literacy. Proceedings of the Symposium Held at Trinity College (Washington, D.C. June 6-7, 1986). The symposium on Issues of Parent Involvement and Literacy marked the culmination of a collaborative project of Trinity College in Washington, D.C. and the Arlington (Virginia) Public Schools to reach out to limited-English-proficient (LEP) parents. Papers include: "Bilingual Education Policies: An Overview"; "Parent Involvement: Implications for Limited English-Proficient Parents"; "Literacy and the Limited English Population: A National Perspective"; "Elementary Literacy Materials"; "Directions in Literacy for Secondary LEP Students"; "Meeting the Educational Needs of the Nonliterate Limited-English-Speaking Adult"; "Basic Skills Education in the Army"; "Language and Community Building: An Intergenerational Approach"; "Literacy in the Refugee Camps in Southeast Asia";"Illiteracy: How a School District Copes"; "Adult Illiteracy: Implications for Parent Involvement"; "Cultural Issues in Indochinese Parent Involvement"; "Parental Involvement: Building on Overseas Initiatives"; "Cross-Cultural Policy Issues in Minority and Majority Parent Involvement"; "Why Parent Tutors? Cultural Reasons"; "Parents as Tutors"; "Project Welcome"; "Parents Assisting in Learning"; and "Development of Parental Involvement in Bilingual Vocational Education. The appendices include 10 pages listing curricula and materials, videos, and other publications.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Literacy, Adults, Basic Skills, Bilingual Education

Arizona Governor's Office, Phoenix. (1983). Education in Arizona: Popular Concerns, Unpopular Choices. A Report. This document presents the deliberations and recommendations of the Arizona Governor's Committee on Quality Education, which met from June to October 1983. The broad goals of their recommendations are: (1) to increase expectations of student performance; (2) to increase the breadth and depth of the educational program to which students are exposed; (3) to elevate the status of teachers, improving their training and compensation; and (4) to increase parental involvement in education. A summary of the recommendations is provided, followed by a transcript of committee proceedings that pertain to each recommendation. Topic areas under which recommendations are grouped are the following: primary and secondary school skills, testing and academic achievement, time commitment to education, curriculum requirements, bilingual education, education of the handicapped, evaluation of school program, textbooks, academic credits, slow and gifted, course content, teacher education programs, certification of teachers, employment and tenure of teachers, teacher compensation issues, management and governance, and school financing. Three appendixes are included: the basic academic competencies, the basic academic subjects, and major resources. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Curriculum Development, Educational Finance, Educational Improvement

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