Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 213 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Michael G. Watt, Basil J. Whiting, William J. Tikunoff, Donald E. Critchlow, Steven A. Jacobson, Lansing. Michigan State Dept. of Education, Dolores Muga Coker, Rosaura Sanchez, Jayni Flores, and Ramona Maile Barreto.

Watt, Michael G. (1987). Selecting and Evaluating Curriculum Materials. A Study of Teacher Education for Bilingual-Bicultural and Multicultural Educators. This document reports on a project with the following aims: (1) to identify and discuss the important issues about using curriculum materials in bilingual-bicultural education and multicultural education through a comparative analysis of these conditions in the United States and Australia; (2) to identify and analyze relevant research in the idexes of the Educational Resources Information Center, the Australian Education Index, and the British Education Index; (3) to review the activities of three institutions–the Social Science Education Consortium, the Educational Products Information Exchange Institute, and the Centre for Educational Technology at the University of Sussex–involved in the selection and the evaluation of curriculum materials, with particular reference to the characteristics of their programs for teacher education; (4) to present a description for an inservice teacher education program that aims to develop the knowledge and skills of teachers in selecting and evaluating curriculum materials for bilingual-bicultural education and multicultural education; (5) to present alternative models and approaches to implement the inservice teacher education program; and (6) to conclude with a commentary on introducing to Australian education the techniques for both selecting and evaluating curriculum materials and implementing teacher education programs. A bibliography, author index, and nine appendices are included. (Among the appendices are a list of the organizations forming the national network of bilingual education, five bibliographics from specific educational indexes, and materials pertaining to a survey on the need for a course designed to improve the quality of selection and evaluation of curriculum materials.)   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Instructional Materials, Evaluation Methods, Foreign Countries

Coker, Dolores Muga (1981). Motivating the Mexican-American Student Towards Higher Education. Definitions of "bilingualism" and "biculturalism" and a brief history of the development of the Bilingual Education Act are followed by a discussion of various factors that influence the educational outcomes and aspirations towards higher education of Mexican American students in the southwestern United States, particularly California and Texas. Some of the more important historical and socioeconomic factors that relate to Mexican Americans are covered, with emphasis on the family and traditional ties of family members and corresponding roles. A summary of some of the bilingual education programs and their results is followed by observations on some major obstacles to achievement for the Mexican American student. The role of the teacher is emphasized as the key to the motivation and higher aspirations of Mexican American students. How teacher attitudes influence student performance is described and effective teaching characteristics are reviewed: teachers must be liberally and humanely educated to promote humanized teaching; they must have a positive and encouraging attitude and should be capable of warmth, kindness, understanding, and flexibility. Descriptors: Academic Ability, Academic Achievement, Academic Aspiration, Biculturalism

Sanchez, Rosaura; And Others (1978). Issues in Language Proficiency Assessment. Three papers on assessment and planning in bilingual education are presented. In "Language Theory Bases," Rosaura Sanchez advocates an approach toward child bilingual education that takes into account the relationship between the parallel domains of language development and cognitive development. An awareness of this relationship is deemed necessary in order to prescribe educational strategies that can build on students' existing skills and accomplish their transfer into other domains. "Assessment/Diagnostic Practice," by Harriett Romo, addresses the practical problems of deriving the assessment information specified in the Sanchez paper. A warning is given that a language assessment situation can actually inhibit students' performance. The development of assessment instruments is discussed. "Educational Prescriptions," by Iris Santos-Rivera and Byron Williams, suggests educational applications based on language/cognition assessment data. A variety of bilingual program models are discussed, and specific educational strategies are recommended to respond to specific student needs. Appendices include: (1) an outline of subjects to be covered in a needs assessment instrument, (2) a language assessment instrument designed to determine inservice needs of teaching staff, (3) a sample sociolinguistic survey, and (4) an example of integrated thematic/language/concept lesson development. Descriptors: Applied Linguistics, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Child Language

Jacobson, Steven A. (1994). Central Yup'ik and the Schools. A Handbook for Teachers. The guide is intended for classroom teachers and school district personnel to use in planning and implementing bilingual education and native language instruction for Yup'ik populations in Alaska. Focus here is on the linguistic and sociocultural characteristics of the Central Yup'ik dialect and its speakers, especially as they relate to the school setting. Chapters address these topics: the study of language in general; an overview of the Eskimo and Aleut languages and the place of Yup'ik and other dialects in it; literacy and education in Central Yup'ik (development of Yup'ik writing, modern written Yup'ik, and bilingual education); Yup'ik compared with English, and implications for the teacher (differences in sounds, importance of pronunciation, grammar differences, Yup'ik grammar and local English, the teacher and Yup'ik-influenced English, discourse and non-verbal communication, borrowing words from one language to another, the Yup'ik numeral systems); and a brief note on Yup'ik Eskimo culture. Appended materials include a Yup'ik alphabet chart, bibliography, a list of further information sources, a list of districts serving Yup'ik-speaking students, and data on bilingual enrollments in Alaska. Descriptors: Alaska Natives, Alphabets, Bilingual Education, Contrastive Linguistics

Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing. (1989). Bilingual Instruction in Michigan. A Position Statement by the State Board of Education. The bilingual education policies established by the Michigan State Board of Education as a result of four state and federal policy actions are summarized, and seven guidelines for action are presented. The seven guidelines for action include the following: (1) students receiving bilingual instruction should be encouraged and given assistance to develop native language skills while acquiring English proficiency; (2) students receiving bilingual instruction should achieve at a rate commensurate with their age, ability, and grade level in all subject areas; (3) students receiving bilingual instruction should demonstrate growth in self-esteem; (4) students receiving bilingual instruction should be provided with a coordinated and integrated learning environment through effective articulation with the regular school program; (5) all teachers and staff of schools offering bilingual education should be involved in a comprehensive inservice training program; (6) parents and other community members should be involved in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of bilingual instruction programs; and (7) at the beginning of every school year, local school districts should submit a report describing plans for implementation of the 1974 state law.   [More]  Descriptors: Articulation (Education), Bilingual Education, Educational Environment, Educational Objectives

Whiting, Basil J. (1992). Hispanics at Work in the 1990s: Dealing with Diversity and Language Issues in the New American Workforce, 21st Century Policy Review. Considers the position of Hispanic Americans in the work force, centering on the emerging concept of diversity management and special problems of bilingual workforce education. Issues highlighted in the "Workforce 2000" report (by the U.S. Department of Labor) are examined. Diversity management means tapping the human resource potential of every worker. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Business Administration, Cultural Differences, Elementary Secondary Education

Han, Mei; And Others (1997). A Profile of Policies and Practices for Limited English Proficient Students: Screening Methods, Program Support, and Teacher Training (SASS 1993-94). Statistical Analysis Report. Results of the National Center for Education Statistics' 1993-94 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) concerning identification of and services to limited-English-proficient (LEP) students are reported in narrative and tabular forms. The survey is the largest and most comprehensive data set available about schools in the United States. Highlights of findings include these: over 2.1 million public school students are identified as LEP, and they account for five percent of all students and 31 percent of all American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic students; LEP students are concentrated in the West, urban areas, and large schools; schools can use a variety of methods for identifying LEP students, most frequently using teacher observation, referral, home language survey, and previous student record; 76 percent of school with LEP enrollments provide English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs and 36 percent have bilingual education programs, with about one-third of schools with LEP enrollments provide both ESL and bilingual education, and 71 percent of LEP students attend these schools; 3 percent of LEP students attend schools with neither program; 42 percent of all public school teachers have at least one LEP student; 30 percent of teachers instructing LEP students have training for it, but few have a related degree.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language)

Barreto, Ramona Maile (1997). Reform in Teacher Education through the CLAD/BCLAD Policy, Multicultural Education. Analyzes obstacles facing multicultural/bilingual teacher education reform in the context of California's Crosscultural Language and Academic Development (CLAD) or Bilingual Crosscultural Language and Academic Development (BCLAD) programs, which try to translate theoretical frameworks concerned with cultural difference into credentialing policy. This reform effort champions linguistic and cultural diversity but faces formidable obstacles. Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingual Teachers, Credentials, Cross Cultural Studies

MacLeod, Findlay (1974). Gaelic in Scottish Schools. In Scotland, Gaelic has traditionally been associated with social and economic inferiority. When the State school was introduced in the 1800's, school use of Gaelic was prohibited, even though it was widely used in the Western Islands Area. There are now 60 primary schools in this area (4,000 students), 56 schools are located in a rural Gaelic area and 88 percent of these students have some knowledge of Gaelic, while 68 percent are fluent speakers; the remaining four schools (1,177 students) are in anglicized areas where 68 percent have no knowledge of Gaelic and 7 percent are fluent, even though 62 percent of the teachers are fluent Gaelic speakers. While for a number of years now Gaelic has been taught as a subject, it has not been used in terms of bilingual schooling–bilingual education being defined as equal use of the two languages and cultural backgrounds of a given community. Increasingly teachers are extending the use of Gaelic, but teachers cannot be expected to devise methods and materials which would constitute the basis for a continuous program. Help is required in the form of national financial support wherein curriculum development, teacher training, inservice programs, and attitudinal changes may be effected. Bilingual precedent is well established in Wales where extensive sums and programs are currently being devoted to bilingual education, and in Ireland where since its independence in 1921, the State has labored to revive the language. Descriptors: Attitudes, Bias, Bilingual Education, Cultural Background

Shore, Rima, Ed.; And Others (1981). Thomas Jefferson High School Effective Transition of the Bilingual and Bicultural Student to Senior High School. E.S.E.A. Title VII Final Evaluation Report, 1980-1981. Project E.T.B.B.S., a bilingual education program designed to accelerate the transition to English usage among Spanish-speaking high school students of limited English proficiency, is described in this report. As implemented in 1980-81, the project provided instruction in English as a second language, native language instruction, bilingual education in academic subject areas, and guidance to 197 Hispanic students in grades nine through twelve. The report. describes program goals and organization; participant characteristics; student placement; instructional services; non-instructional program components such as curriculum and staff development, guidance/supportive services and community involvement; program implementation; and program evaluation. Evaluation results indicate that: (1) students mastered English syntax objectives in accordance with program goals; (2) on the average, students demonstrated native language reading achievement gains; (3) the criterion objective of a 65 percent passing rate was generally met in science and social studies but not in mathematics, native language arts, business education, practical arts, and music; and (4) program participants had higher attendance rates than the school as a whole. The report suggests that the program might be improved through integration of the project within the total school program and through increased staff development efforts.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Attendance, Bilingual Education Programs, Business Education

Couvertier, Aixa B. (1997). Puerto Rican Language Use: A Synthesis Paper. Puerto Ricans in the United States are often assumed to be bilingual, and most are to some degree. Among Puerto Ricans, frequent returns home are common, allowing for immersion in both cultures and communication in both Spanish and English. Despite availability of bilingual education, programs are too short for participants to attain even a moderate level of English proficiency. Puerto Rican language patterns in the United States include a vernacular mix of English and black English, a mix of Spanish and English that is neither language, and English/Spanish code-switching. Low value attached to their own dialect of Spanish, often associated with deviance and ignorance, causes many to avoid its use. In all these cases, Puerto Rican language use is not highly valued in the United States. Children may internalize this view, assign little value to their native tongue, and even abandon it altogether, that may cause further family and community problems. More time should be given to English instruction, but Puerto Rican children should also be allowed to use their own language in appropriate contexts in school.The goal of bilingual education should be to develop proficiency in both languages. Contains 13 references. Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Code Switching (Language), Demography, Dialects

Flores, Jayni (1988). Chicana Doctoral Students: Another Look at Educational Equity. Telephone interviews with Chicanas–30 graduates and 20 dropouts from Title VII Bilingual Education Doctoral Fellowship Programs in Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas are reported. The study sought information on how the Chicanas' perceptions of racism, sexism, economics, family responsibilities, support networks, role models, and mentors affected persistence and graduation. The present report addresses the resulting demographic profile and racism and sexism variables. Results show a significant relationship between persistence and marital status, but no statistically significant relationship with age or existence of dependents, and no significant relationship with perception of racism or sexism. However, a majority of the Chicanas felt they were victims of sexism and about one-fifth felt they were victims of racism in the program. Recommendations for improvement of the situation include an end to sexual harassment, equitable distribution of research and teaching assistantships, institutionalization of bilingual education doctoral programs, sincere institutional efforts to employ ethnic minority and women faculty who can serve as role models, and universities with high rates of success in graduating these fellows be studied for traits contributing to that success. Descriptors: Academic Persistence, Bilingual Education, Doctoral Programs, Economic Factors

Tikunoff, William J. (1983). Utility of the SBIF Features for the Instruction of LEP Students. The Significant Bilingual Instructional Features (SBIF) study identified, described, and verified features of bilingual instruction of a wide variety of limited English proficient (LEP) students. It collected data on instructional organization, time allocation, classroom language use, active teaching behaviors, academic learning time, student participation styles, and classroom, school, and community context variables through a variety of quantitative and qualitative procedures. This document reports on a study segment verifying the utility of the initial findings for practitioners: (1) for improving instruction for LEP students, (2) for implementing instructional programs, and (3) for aiding various ethnolinguistic groups. Verification was carried out through meetings with teachers of LEP students, teacher educators, administrators of bilingual education programs, and others interested in the instruction of LEP students. The participating practitioners indicated that the framework for bilingual instruction developed in the study was a potentially useful tool for conceptualizing, observing, analyzing, and evaluating instruction. They also saw two areas for change in school district policies regarding bilingual education: discouragement of language alternation and over-frequent testing.   [More]  Descriptors: Basic Skills, Bilingual Education, Classroom Communication, Classroom Environment

Critchlow, Donald E., Ed. (1975). Reading and the Spanish Speaking Child. This booklet consists of five articles. The first, "Bilingual Education: Reading through Two Languages," by Arturo Luis Gutierrez, stresses the importance of teaching Spanish-speaking children to read first in their native tongue. The second article, "Teaching All Children to Read," by Donald E. Critchlow, discusses methodology and the problems the classroom teacher must be able to cope with. The third article, "Linguistic Understandings for the Teacher of Spanish-Speaking Children," by Manuel T. Pacheco, points out the differences and similarities between Spanish and English which the teacher must know in order to recognize and deal effectively with the problems of interference in the speech and writing of the Spanish-speaking child. The fourth article, "Instructional Strategies for Oral Language Development," by David Dillon, gives suggestions on how to improve the oral language ability in English of Spanish-speaking students. The fifth article, "Three Patterns of Bilingual Education Programs" by Eduardo M. Hinojosa, briefly discusses the concurrent method, in which the two languages are used interchangeably; the use of the native language at the beginning of the instructional program, with a gradual transition to the foreign language; and the use of both languages in different blocks of time throughout the instructional program.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Bilingualism, Contrastive Linguistics

Hornberger, Nancy H.; King, Kendall A. (1996). Language Revitalisation in the Andes: Can the Schools Reverse Language Shift?, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. Examines two initiatives to revitalize Quechua, the language of the Incas: Bolivia's 1994 reform incorporating the provision of bilingual intercultural education; and a community-based effort to incorporate Quichua as a second language instruction in a school in Ecuador. Points out that census records and sociolinguistic studies document a continuous cross-generational shift from Quechua to Spanish. (28 references) Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Change Agents, Educational Change, Ethnicity

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