Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 207 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Gay Lawerence, Sacramento. Office of Bilingual Bicultural Education. California State Dept. of Education, Christina Bratt Paulston, Angela Mielke, Chencho Flores, Rodolfo Rodriguez, Marcario Saldate, Washington American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Teresa Olivares, and F. J. Docherty.

American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Washington, DC. (1978). State Legislation, Provisions and Practices Related to Multicultural Education. Two questionnaires elicited information on state provisions and policies related to multicultural education and on multicultural activities in state departments of education in 1977. The data provided a descriptive profile of state education agency (SEA) activities in equal educational opportunities, human or intergroup relations, bilingual education, desegregation, urban education, compensatory education, ethnic studies, teacher certification, and women's studies. Among the findings were that thirty-four states address multicultural education through legislation, regulation, guidelines, or policies. Most states indicated that activities related to multicultural education are undertaken by units that are usually federally supported in the SEA, such as those responsible for equal education opportunity, teacher certification and education, and bilingual education. It was also found that the approach to multicultural education taken by SEAs often excludes people who are not members of specific categories of eligibility while the state provisions focus on teaching about cultural diversity to all students. Three appendices contain the state regulations and policies related to multicultural education and a bibliography of multicultural education resources from the SEAs.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Curriculum Development, Educational Legislation, Educational Policy

Mortensen, Erik (1975). The Bilingual Resource Center; School Year 1974-1975. This report presents a description and evaluation of the Bilingual Resource Center (BRC) funded under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. This center functioned mainly as a clearinghouse, resource library, and dissemination unit on bilingual/bicultural education. The program's primary objectives were related to goals such as obtaining behavioral gains on the part of the professional personnel, evaluation and field testing of bilingual education materials, dissemination of essential bilingual information to personnel involved in planning, developing, and implementing bilingual programs. The evaluation of the objectives was based on materials and acquisition listings, library inventories and tallies, analyses of services rendered, dissemination data, and data on the performance of workshop participants. The program had also intended to carry out a limited study of student performance assessment in a small pilot project in reading in Spanish to improve the reading achievement of the non-English speaking child. This objective was not carried out. The accomplishments of the center during its third year of operation were impressive. The need to provide information on bilingual/bicultural education to personnel involved in planning, developing, and implementing bilingual/bicultural programs was fulfilled. Through its coordination functions, the duplication and fragmentation of the efforts of the field personnel was being reduced or avoided. The appendix of this report includes an evaluative annotated bibliography of textbooks for bilingual programs.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Cultural Influences, Education Service Centers

Mielke, Angela; Flores, Chencho (1994). Bilingual Technology Equalizes Opportunities in Elementary Classrooms. Educational technology is a significant resource for meaningful, active, sensory, and relevant instruction for limited-English-proficient (LEP) students in the elementary grades, particularly those students who are educationally disadvantaged. It is suitable for bridging the instructional gap in bilingual education so these children can have the same educational opportunities as their English-speaking peers and suffer less the effects of cultural and social segregation. Computer software, compact disk, CD-ROM, and videodisk technology provide and store large quantities of subject matter, allow individualization of instruction and instructional materials, permit children to learn at their own speed, and are motivating and non-threatening. These characteristics are useful in instruction in English as a second language, in both one-way and two-way bilingual education, for attractive graphics to involve all students, and even to promote parent involvement. To maximize the potential of these technologies, administrators and teachers need training in effective educational applications, particularly in the classroom, and appropriate and pedagogically sound materials.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Classroom Techniques, Computer Software, Educational Technology

Garcia, Ernest F. (1984). Education in the 1990's: A Demographic View. Since 1975, the United States has experienced the largest wave of immigration since the beginning of the century. This demographic fact holds important implications for education in the 1990s. First, because the birthrate among recent immigrants is relatively high, an increasing number of first generation Americans will enter the school system. As a result, bilingual education will take on a new importance. The English monolingual preparing to enter a global economy will be at a distinct disadvantage. Because the job market will be entwined with other cultures and languages, current controversies over bilingual education will disappear. Similarly, new immigrants will find it easier than earlier groups to maintain their culture and language. The decline of network television (with the introduction of cable and satellite transmission) is one factor that is permitting an increase in media support for cultural diversity and is encouraging different groups to maintain their ethnicity. The school curriculum of the 1990s will be forced into a multicultural social studies format to meet the demand for the globally educated. Furthermore, as time spent teaching basic skills is replaced by computer-based instructional systems, more time will become available for human interaction activity that stresses communication and understanding and fosters diversity. To meet these changes, teachers will have to be educated to assume a more dynamic role. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Cultural Pluralism, Educational Objectives, Educational Planning

Evaluation Comment (1979). Evaluation Comment, Vol. 6, No. 1, October 1979. This publication consists of two articles: "Evaluation in Bilingual Education," by James Burry, and "Desegregation and the Rights of Hispanic Students: The Los Angeles Case," by M. Beatriz Arias. In his paper, Burry used three methods for identifying bilingual evaluation needs. First he reviews Federal/State requirements for bilingual program evaluation. Second he reviews bilingual evaluation literature and describes needs in testing and design. Third, he uses an administrator survey to describe needs in planning/management, evaluation designs, test selection/development, and information utilization. Arias discusses the rights of Hispanic students as seen in the Los Angeles desegregation litigation: Crawford vs. Board of Education of the City of Los Angeles in 1963; the 1970 Los Angeles Superior Court determination that Los Angeles Unified School District was substantially segregated; and the 1976 California Supreme Court Affirmation of the lower court's findings. Arias then discusses four possible areas of conflict between the linguistic needs of Hispanic students and the development of a desegregation plan: maintaining a "critical mass" of students of limited-English speaking ability; the availability of qualified bilingual teachers; curriculum planning and coordination; and English-speaking student participation in bilingual education programs. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Court Litigation, Non English Speaking, Program Evaluation

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of Bilingual Bicultural Education. (1982). Basic Principles for the Education of Language-Minority Students: An Overview. 1982 Edition. Drawing on and extending the work presented in a companion volume, "Schooling and Language Minority Students: A Theoretical Framework," five principles are presented that represent an integration of recent empirical research in bilingualism, bilingual education, and second language acquisition to help policymakers and educators meet the educational needs of language minority students. In an introductory section, previous theoretical frameworks for language minority programs are reviewed and their deficiencies noted. In five subsequent sections, these principles and their applications for this group are discussed. The principles are that: (1) bilinguals' first and second language development is positively associated with academic achievement; (2) language proficiency is the ability to use language for both academic purposes and basic communication; (3) for language minority students the development of the primary language skills necessary to complete academic tasks forms the basis for similar proficiency in English; (4) acquisition of basic communicative competency in a second language is a function of comprehensible second language input and a supportive affective environment; and (5) the perceived status of students affects the interactions between teachers and students and among students, in turn affecting student outcomes. These principles provide the empirical support for the Contextual Interaction Theory of bilingual education, and the implications of this theory for the teaching of language minority students are examined in the remainder of the report.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Educational Environment, Educational Needs, Educational Objectives

Docherty, F. J. (1988). Educational Provision for Ethnic Minority Groups in Nicaragua, Comparative Education. Examines effect of Nicaragua's 1979 revolution on education, especially for minority Miskito Indians. Summarizes history of Indian culture in region. Suggests Sandinista government began emphasizing bilingual, bicultural education in 1982-83, sparked by deteriorating economic situation. Concludes multicultural education program, while hindered by war, is impressive. 12 references, one map. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Cultural Differences, Developing Nations, Ethnic Groups

Paulston, Christina Bratt (1980). English as a Second Language. What Research Says to the Teacher. This publication is a discussion of what is known today about learning and teaching English as a second language, also known as TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages). The discussion is divided into three sections: (1) the historical development of the field in the United States; (2) the domains of TESOL; and (3) the teacher, the subject matter, the students, and methods and techniques. The second part focuses on bilingual education, outlining its development in the U.S., considering problems in implementation of federal legislation, and presenting conflicting views of TESOL and bilingual education supporters. This part also considers briefly the status of English as a Foreign Language, English as a Second Language, and English to Speakers of Other Dialects. The third part provides suggestions for sources of information, a discussion of the distinction between linguistic competence and communicative competence, a list of do's and don'ts for teachers regarding appreciation of the students' cultures, and a consideration of objectives, methods, and techniques. A list of selected references concludes the volume.   [More]  Descriptors: Applied Linguistics, Bilingual Education, Cross Cultural Training, Cultural Awareness

Warshaw, Carole; And Others (1991). Implications of Meyer and Scott's Theory of Institutional Environments for the Implementation of Cummins' Framework for the Empowerment of Students in Bilingual Kindergartens. Three bilingual kindergarten classrooms were studied in depth in their school settings to see what conflicts arise between the expectations of the mainstream administrative structure of the school and the expectations of the bilingual curriculum of the district and how such conflicts are handled. Particular attention was given to potential conflict between the structures that Cummins (1986) recommended for bilingual education and more traditional school structures. Fundamental to the study were Cummins' elements in the organization of schooling that affect the extent to which minority students are empowered or disabled. These elements are: (1) the incorporation of minority students' culture and language; (2) the inclusion of minority communities in the education of their children; (3) use of a reciprocal interaction model of pedagogy rather than a transmission model; and (4) advocacy in assessment rather than delegitimation. Cummins' writings were reviewed to identify the specific observable behaviors that he recommends, and observations and intervews were conducted in classrooms and schools. Descriptive syntheses of observations and interviews conducted in the three schools are presented. Study findings indicate there are two widely divergent types of implementation of bilingual education in the schools.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Comparative Analysis, Conflict, Educational Research

Carlisle-Zepeda, Veronica; Saldate, Marcario, IV (1977). Bilingual Bicultural Teacher Competencies: A Vehicle for Quality Education, North Central Association Quarterly. Teachers should be required to have certain competencies before being accepted as the educators to implement a program aimed at cultural pluralism. Discusses the teaching procedures involved in bilingual bicultural education and recommendations for the training of bilingual educators. Descriptors: Academic Standards, Accreditation (Institutions), Bilingual Education, Cultural Pluralism

Berke, Iris Polk (1981). Evaluation and Incrementalism: The AIR Report and ESEA, Title VII. An impact evaluation of the Spanish/English component of the federal Bilingual Education Program (BEP) was done by the American Institutes for Research (AIR) between 1974-76. The AIR evaluation took three years, cost $2 million, and examined many aspects of the BEP. This paper explores the influence of the AIR evaluation on the 1978 reauthorization of the BEP. The evaluation had a greater influence on the Executive Branch then on Congress. The Executive Branch institutionalizes solicitation and utilization of evaluation to a greater degree than does Congress. Because Congress must deal with the entire spectrum of legislation, it must amalgamate more information–of a different nature–than the Executive. Congress placed greater weight on the media and constituent testimony then on the AIR evaluation findings in developing Title VII's 1978 reauthorization. However, as long as the issues which were addressed in the AIR evaluation remain important issues in the BEP, the findings of that evaluation will continue to influence the incremental evolution of bilingual education policy. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Policy, English (Second Language), Federal Programs

Olivares, Teresa (). Vocational Education Needs of Hispanic Women. The Minority Women's Series. The first half of this monograph deals with present attitudes towards Hispanic women and migrants, comparing stereotypes and facts about both groups, including population figures and other demographic data such as income level, family size, source(s) of income, maternal mortality, and morbibity rates. Self inventories on attitudes toward the groups follow each of these two sections. Highlighting pertinent aspects of the revised and extended program for vocational and bilingual education contained in the Education Ammendments of 1976, the remaining portion of the monograph is comprised of a question and answer section on the rationale underlying the concept of bilingual vocational education, an outline of fourteen components of bilingual vocational education, synopses of vocational programs in the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA), the state of Wisconsin Manpower Services, interagency programs provided for in the Vocational Education Title II Ammendments of 1977. Other legislation affecting the needs of Spanish speaking persons, notably Title IX and the Supreme Court's Lau decision and subsequent establishment by the Office of Education of a five-level continuum of English language proficiency, are summarized on the concluding pages. Descriptors: Attitude Measures, Bilingual Education, Demography, Educational Legislation

Friedman, Norman L. (1985). The Future of Ethnic Cultural Pluralism in America: Two School-Based Models and Scenarios–Jews and Chicanos, Urban Education. Compares two school-based models of ethnic cultural pluralism: the private religio-ethnic model of American Jews and the public-secular-ethnic model of Mexican Americans. Predicts that both will persist for a time, but that public and government discontent regarding financing bilingual/bicultural education might force Chicanos to develop private alternatives. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Cultural Pluralism, Elementary Secondary Education, Jews

Lawerence, Gay (1978). Indian Education: Why Bilingual-Bicultural?, Education and Urban Society. Today, Native Americans rank lowest in every measure of health, income, schooling, and achievement. A separate amendment to the Title VII Act is needed for bilingual-bicultural education for American Indian children based upon the unique status of the Indian peoples in order to improve this situation. Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indian Languages, American Indians, Biculturalism

Rodriguez, Rodolfo, Comp. (1973). A Preliminary Study of 5th Year ESEA Title VII Bilingual Bicultural Programs with High Concentrations of Mexican American Students. In preparation for the National Bilingual Institute which was held November 28-December 1, 1973, a mail survey of fifth year ESEA (Elementary and Secondary Education Act) Title VII Bilingual Education Projects was conducted. Its purpose was to obtain data relative to the progress of bilingual bicultural education programs since implementation of the original Title VII legislation in 1969. Since the institute was concerned with Bilingual Bicultural Education as it affects the Mexican American child, those projects with a heavy concentration of Mexican American students were selected. Fifty-eight projects were sent survey questionnaires; 30 responded. The questionnaire was divided into: Basic Program Information; Instructional Component; Impact of Program; and Parent and Community Involvement. Project directors were asked to make recommendations for: national legislation, state legislation, U.S. Office of Education, State Departments of Education, school boards, teacher training institutions, and Chicano communities and parents. Among the findings were: the pupil/teacher ratio varied noticeably from project to project; 87 percent indicated having a language maintenance program; and 50 percent reported having influenced the development of bilingual programs in adjacent districts.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Community Involvement, Educational Programs, Enrollment

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