Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 200 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Spencer J. Salend, James Cummins, Harry N. Chandler, Margarita Calderon, Anne-Lore Bregy, San Antonio Intercultural Development Research Association, Juan R. Juarez, David Alexander, Washington General Accounting Office, and Vitoria (Spain). Dept. of Education Basque Autonomous Community.

Intercultural Development Research Association, San Antonio, TX. (1977). The AIR Evaluation of the Impact of ESEA Title VII Spanish/English Bilingual Education Programs: An IDRA Response with a Summary by Dr. Jose A. Cardenas. This analysis reveals critical weaknesses surrounding the theoretical basis for the AIR (American Institutes for Research) evaluation design. It poses questions concerning the evaluation methodology. Specifically, it identifies major discrepancies in the identification of the target population, the selection of comparable control groups, test instruments used in the study, the amount of time between pre and post testing, lack of consistency in programs being studied, adequacy of instructional staff, and the source of funds being used. The major issues discussed include: (1) identification of language groups, (2) comparability of treatment and comparison groups, (3) instrumentation, (4) pre and post testing, (5) variability of instructional treatment, (6) variability of teacher characteristics, and (7) costing of bilingual education. It is the opinion of IDRA that inadequacies in methodology, sampling, instrumentation, controls, and implementation make the AIR findings highly questionable. The information gathered by AIR is not entirely useless, however, since it is obvious that there are problems and discrepancies in the implementation of bilingual education programs. It is recommended that the U.S. Office of Education should diligently pursue further analysis into these problems, and channel federal resources toward their solution. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Bilingualism, Evaluation Methods

Juarez, Juan R. (1982). Cognitive Considerations and Curricular Models for Bilingual Education: Application of the Research by Bruner, Gagne, and Piaget. The cognitive learning theories of Bruner and Gagne and the developmental psychology of Piaget play a central role in the development of curriculum models and instructional strategies to better serve the needs of bilingual children or those whose native language is not English. Each theory has components that may be useful to certain stages in development of a bilingual child. Depending on such factors as individual differences, degree of bilingualism, cultural heritage, and teacher and societal attitudes toward ethnicity and bilingual education, elements of any theory may be utilized in the schooling process. Caution must be exercised in the utilization of any single theory for any length of time. Only careful research and classroom experimentation with methodology–instructional strategies, materials, and testing mechanisms–will succeed in achieving humane results for bilingual students. The basic tenets of the work of Gagne, Bruner, and Piaget are discussed. Three learning models consistent with their thoughts are depicted and the problem areas with each model are discussed: Concept Attainment Model (Bruner), Developmental Model (Piaget), and Operant Conditioning Model (Gagne). A chart depicts the high points of each of the cited theoreticians and indicates how they correlate to bilingual education. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Cognitive Style, Curriculum Development

Harrison, Helene W. (1976). Final Evaluation for "The Forgotten Southside", Harlandale Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program, 1975-1976. Comprised of 60 pre-K-6 classrooms, the program was designed to provide bilingual education for pupils who have limited English speaking ability. Program objectives were to: prevent their educational retardation by instructing them in Spanish while developing their command of English; enhance their understanding and cognitive development in both languages; give them the advantage of becoming literate in both languages; and instill a knowledge of and pride in their bicultural heritage. During 1975-76, there were 1,726 pupils from 10 elementary schools and 2 junior high schools enrolled in the program. This evaluation report discusses the test results from the: Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test; Bilingual Syntax Measure; Boehm Test of Basic Concepts; Prueba de Lectura (Spanish Reading Test); Social Studies Units and Packages; Projected Self-Concept Inventory; Psychomotor Skills Learned and Demonstrated–Mexican music, songs, and dances; and Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills. Both English and Spanish versions of these tests were administered on a pre- and posttest basis. These tests indicated that continuing bilingual education resulted in higher performance.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Achievement Tests, Bilingual Education, Elementary School Students

Gray, Tracy (1977). Response to AIR Study "Evaluation of the Impact of ESEA Title VII Spanish/English Bilingual Education Program.". Interim results of the American Institutes for Research study on the impact of the ESEA Title VII Spanish/English Bilingual Education Program imply that certain inferences can be made about the program, inferences which are unjustifiable. By providing only statistical averages on a national sample, the report does a serious disservice by failing to distinguish between the effects of good programs and weak programs, and treats bilingual education as funded under Title VII of ESEA as an undifferentiated uniform whole. The report is subject to criticism on several grounds: (1) weakness of Pre-and post-test design over a five-month period; (2) inappropriate use of gain scores to assess effects of experimental treatment; (3) unreliability of teacher assessment of students' language ability; (4) inappropriate use of the California Test of Basic Skills to assess English reading ability with limited English and monolingual Spanish speakers, possibly invalidating the results; (5) lack of adequate teacher training and curriculum during the first five years of Title VII funding; (6) distortion of information, defeating the intended purpose of the report, i.e., to provide information for policy makers; and (7) aggregation of students who have received a variety of educational treatments funded by Title VII and who demonstrate varying language ability.   [More]  Descriptors: Achievement Tests, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Bilingualism

Landry, Rodriguez; Allard, Real (1993). Beyond Socially Naive Bilingual Education: The Effects of Schooling and Ethnolinguistic Vitality on Additive and Subtractive Bilingualism. The position taken in this paper is that the basic debate concerning the effectiveness of bilingual education has been totally "socially naive." A study investigated the concept that the ethnolinguistic vitality of a community determines the quality and quantity of linguistic contacts with one's own linguistic group and with other ethnolinguistic groups, which in turn strongly influence linguistic proficiency, ethnolinguistic identity, and desire to integrate first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) communities. A model to that effect is proposed and applied to about 1,500 grade 12 anglophone and francophone students in seven Canadian provinces. Effects of the degree of L1 schooling and those of the strength of the L1 network of linguistic contacts in the social milieu were analyzed. It was found that the latter were stronger than the former for these variables: desire to integrate L1 and L2 communities, ethnolinguistic identity in L1 and L2, L1 and L2 self-rated oral proficiency, and L2 cognitive-academic proficiency. L1 schooling had the strongest effect on cognitive-academic proficiency. Results support the hypothesis that additive bilingualism is best promoted by immersion in L2 for high-vitality groups and by L1 schooling for low-vitality groups. It is concluded that the effects of bilingual education cannot be understood without taking account of the strong influences of the students' sociolinguistic environment.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Community Role, Educational Attainment

Bregy, Anne-Lore; And Others (1996). Evaluation de l'experience d'apprentissage bilingue de Sierre, 1994/95 (Evaluation of the Bilingual Education Experiment in Sierre, 1994/95). The report evaluates a Swiss bilingual education program in the City of Sierre/Siders in which 19 Francophone children aged 5-6 years received half their instruction in French and half in German over a period of a year. Participants were evaluated for their German language skill development in November, February, and June. Results indicate that the children gained the targeted communication skills for daily classroom interaction, with limited production in German in most cases. The children's attitudes toward German and toward activities in German and with German speakers were generally positive. Basic instructional objectives were met and not compromised by bilingual instruction. Results were similar to those of comparable programs. Contains 29 references. The brief report is supplemented by substantial appended materials, including a program outline, the mandate for a bilingual education research group, a sociolinguistic survey of program participants, the three tests administered during the year, transcriptions of June language samples, the teachers' report, and evaluation data on each participating child.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Educational Objectives, Foreign Countries, French

Salend, Spencer J.; Fradd, Sandra (1985). Certification and Training Programs for Bilingual Special Education, Teacher Education and Special Education. The 50 states and the District of Columbia were surveyed on certification and training programs for bilingual special education. Results indicated that a single state had established a certification program for bilingual special educators, but that and institutions of higher education in only 16 states offered training for bilingual special teachers. Descriptors: Disabilities, Elementary Secondary Education, Limited English Speaking, National Surveys

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. (1987). Bilingual Education: A New Look at the Research Evidence. GAO Briefing Report to the Chairman, Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives. This report presents the findings of a study which assessed the validity of statements made by officials of the Department of Education supporting their policy position that a requirement of native-language teaching be dropped from the current Bilingual Education Act. In response to the officials' claim that research in this area is inconclusive, the study analyzed judgments on that issue provided by a panel of ten experts. The report consists of three major sections. The first section provides information on bilingual activities funded by current law, describes proposed changes in the Bilingual Education Act, and explains study methodology. Section 2 presents findings on the native language requirement and the learning of English and other subjects, and discusses the experts' views on the merits of alternative approaches, long-term education outcomes, and targeted versus generalized answers about teaching students of limited English proficiency. Section 3 reviews the Department of Education's response to an earlier draft of this report. A majority of the experts believed that the department is incorrect in claiming: (1) that there is insufficient evidence to support the law's present requirement; (2) that evidence supports the promise of teaching methods that do not use native languages; and (3) that there was inadequate evidence to permit them to reach a conclusion about the research basis for the legal requirement. Four appendices present: (1) objective, scope and methodology; (2) survey instrument; (3) experts surveyed; and (4) comments from the Department of Education.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Policy, Educational Research, Elementary Secondary Education

Alexander, David; Nava, Alfonso (1977). The How, What, Where, When and Why of Bilingual Education: A Concise and Objective Guide for School District Planning. This book's purpose is to satisfy a perceived need for a straightforward, non-academic, non-bureaucratically worded guide to bilingual education planning and to provide objective information on compliance procedures and federal and state funding opportunities to school district policy planners, whether they be administrators, teachers, or parents. The guide is designed to fill a gap in the literature that has arisen with the passage of "Lau vs. Nichols" and with the establishment of rigorous enforcement procedures by the (HEW) Office For Civil Rights. It is hoped that the book will help clarify issues, suggest strategies for interacting with state and federal bureaucracies, present alternatives, and suggest additional resources. Each of the book's seven sections explains the public policy issues and answers the most commonly asked questions. The sections are: Lau Centers (Technical Assistance Units); the "Lau vs. Nichols" Supreme Court decision; letter of non-compliance; California state laws and advisory opinions; task force findings; compliance timelines; and funding opportunities for bilingual education programs. Descriptors: Administrator Guides, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Schools, Bilingual Students

Chandler, Harry N. (1984). The Bilingual Special Education Interface: Issues in Assessment, Journal of Learning Disabilities. The author discusses the complex nature of assessing bilingual special education students, recommends a textbook on the topic, notes the contributions of J. Mercer's System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment, and cites the need for special educators to focus on the issue. Descriptors: Disability Identification, Elementary Secondary Education, Evaluation Methods, Limited English Speaking

Basque Autonomous Community, Vitoria (Spain). Dept. of Education, Universities, and Research. (1990). 10 Anos de ensenanza bilingue, 1979-80 – 1989-90, 24 Euskara Zerbitzua Zablkunde-Lanak (Ten Years of Bilingual Education, 1979-80 – 1989-90). This report provides an overview of bilingual education in the Basque area of Spain over the last 10 years. Since 1982, a government decree established that public education was to be conducted following 1 of 3 models of bilingual education: 1) instruction is basically in Spanish, with Basque taught as a separate course; 2) content instruction is 50% in Spanish and 50% in Basque; 3) instruction is basically in Basque, with Spanish taught as a separate course. The models are in clear expansion, which will be reflected at the high school level in the next 5 years. There has been a remarkable increase in the number of bilingual teachers during the last 10 years. Because the Department of Education has taken measures to make it possible for Basque to be used in the workplace, around 38% of administrative staff at public schools, school district, and the central education office are speakers of both Spanish and Basque. The Basque Aptitude Test (EG) is now taken by both younger and older teachers who want to improve their qualifications, and by students in bilingual instructional models one and two who have not yet entered university. Several other standardized tests to measure Basque language proficiency have been developed. A training program for Spanish-speaking teachers offers Basque language seminars at schools during or after working hours. Literacy programs are also offered in Basque.   [More]  Descriptors: Basque, Bilingual Education, Elementary Secondary Education, Foreign Countries

Harrison, Helene W. (1975). Final Evaluation Report of the San Marcos Consolidated Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program, 1974-1975. The program is primarily designed to provide bilingual education for pupils, in grades K-6, with limited English-speaking ability. Due to parental requests, approximately 16 percent monolingual English-speakers have been accepted into the program. Of the 529 children enrolled in the program, 89 percent have Spanish surnames. Objectives for the Mexican American pupils are to: (1) prevent their educational retardation by instructing them in Spanish while developing their command of English; (2) enhance their understanding and cognitive development in both languages; and (3) instill a knowledge of and pride in their bicultural heritage. Objectives for Anglo pupils are to: (1) give them the opportunity to become bilingual and literate in 2 languages and (2) broaden their outlook and enhance their understanding of other peoples. Program components are: development of and revision of curriculum materials for bilingual classes, bilingual instruction in grades K-6, staff development, and parental and community involvement. This 1974-75 evaluation report deals only with the instructional component. Discussed are the results from the: Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Boehm Test of Basic Concepts, Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, Prueba de Lectura (Spanish reading test), Bilingual Education Program Test in Social Studies and Science (given in the appendix), and Projected Self-Concept Inventory.   [More]  Descriptors: Achievement Tests, Anglo Americans, Bilingual Education, Elementary School Students

Cox, Barbara G.; And Others (1974). New Approaches to Bilingual, Bicultural Education, No. 8: Self-Assessment Units. These 21 self-assessment units are intended to accompany the seven teaching manuals in the series "New Approaches to Bilingual, Bicultural Education." The units consist of three self-administered evaluation instruments for each manual. They are designed both as a review and as a means of emphasizing the important concepts found in the teaching manuals.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teachers, Educational Media, Measurement Instruments

Cummins, James (1979). Linguistic Interdependence and the Educational Development of Bilingual Children. Bilingual Education Paper Series, Vol. 3 No. 2. The proposed theoretical framework emphasizes the interaction between sociocultural, linguistic, and school program factors in explaining the academic and cognitive development of bilingual children. It is theorized that bilingualism that is cognitively and academically beneficial can be achieved only on the basis of adequately developed first language (L1) skills. This position is based on two hypotheses. The "developmental interdependence" hypothesis proposes that the development of competence in a second language (L2) is partially a function of the type of competence already developed in L1 at the time when intensive exposure to L2 begins. The "threshold" hypothesis proposes that there may be threshold levels of linguistic competence that bilingual children must attain both in order to avoid cognitive disadvantages and to allow the potentially beneficial aspects of bilingualism to influence their cognitive and academic functioning. This model of bilingual education explains educational outcomes as a function of the interaction between background, child input, and educational treatment factors. Attention is also directed to problems with bilingual education program evaluations that fail to consider these potential interactions. A review of relevant literature and studies is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Child Language

Calderon, Margarita (1982). Second Language Acquisition and Organizational Change through an Effective Training System. Bilingual Education Paper Series, Vol. 5 No. 11. Three research-based theoretical frameworks on which educational programs for language minority students might be based are discussed, along with a composite framework. The frameworks, which coincide with California's frameworks (described in "Schooling and Language Minority Students: A Theoretical Framework," 1981), are as follows: (1) a framework for communicative competence, (2) a framework for second language (L2) acquisition, and (3) a framework for primary language (L1) development and its implications for communicative competence in L1 and L2. Theories and research by Canale and Swain (1980), Strevens (1977), Shuy (1976), Cummins (1981), Krashen (1981), and Di Pietro (1979) are interwoven to develop a composite framework. This framework has been empirically tested as a teacher training device for 18 months and is now entering an observation stage at the classroom level. Included is a review of the state of the art in bilingual education that covers demographic projections, historical deficiencies in the definition of language minority students, and the progression of research trends and perceived needs. In addition, attention is focused on communicative competence and second language acquisition theories, as well as the framework for bilingual education. Finally, a composite model for teacher trainers is presented, with attention to its strengths and weaknesses, and implications for improving and expanding the model to meet the schooling needs of language minority students.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Communicative Competence (Languages), Elementary Secondary Education, Language Research

Leave a Reply