Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 198 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include G. Kasten Tallmadge, Leodoro Hernandez, Choya L. Wilson, Washington ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, Sally Peterson, Victor Rodriguez, Tatiana P. Gale, Raleigh Association of Farmworker Opportunity Programs, Muriel Saville-Troike, and Andrew D. Cohen.

Hernandez, Leodoro (1979). Language of the Chicano. Bilingual Education Paper Series, Vol. 3, No. 1. Chicano Spanish in not only a product of two languages, but also the influence of middle-class environment and immediate realities. These realities are much different from those in Mexico, even though they derive from it, having a strong relationship to all factors that constitute social level and status. Three principal dialects are: Tex-Mex, spoken in Texas; Manito, spoken in New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado; and Calo, spoken in California. Chicano Spanish is not something to be ignored; it's the mother tongue of several million Chicanos and their only link to their culture. When teachers know what makes Chicanos tick, where they're coming from, they can be much more effective in improving the educational level of Chicanos. The Bilingual Education Act of 1968 brought about a rash of crash programs to educate children in two languages. Because the Chicano spoke broken English and/or had a Spanish surname, it was assumed the language they were comfortable with was Spanish; no real assessment was made. Bilingual teachers must know who the student is, their knowledge level of Spanish, and the type of Spanish used. Every child speaks the language of the family and community; therefore, family and community must be involved in bilingual education. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Community Involvement, Cultural Awareness

Peterson, Sally (1990). A Practicing Teacher's Views on Bilingual Education: The Need for Reform. Issue Brief. A California elementary school teacher discusses the school-wide transitional bilingual education (TBE) program in her school, the problems associated with it, and her participation in an initiative to promote English language instruction for language minority populations. The institutional context of the TBE program, demographic changes that prompted its development, and school district policy are described, and ways in which the TBE program did not serve its intended function are detailed. A number of problems are attributed to Los Angeles School District policy and procedures, including discrepancies between the way the program is presented to parents and teachers and the way it actually works, program placement deficiencies, inappropriate testing and exit criteria, and the waiver system by which bilingual education teachers are transferred from their local schools. A reform effort, the Learning English Advocates Drive (LEAD), begun in 1987 is also chronicled, and the major reasons that reform has not occurred are outlined. These include political influences, unrealistic teacher education requirements, teacher unions, and teacher morale. Appended materials include a list of acronyms, the California home language survey form, school form letters to parents, and a teachers' union referendum ballot. Contains three references. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education, Change Strategies, Educational Change

Gale, Tatiana P. (1977). The Role of Language Instruction in Bilingual Education in the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union (USSR) is an immense multinational and multilingual country. At the time of the Revolution (1917) there were 150 national languages spoken in the USSR and 180 recognized linguistic groups, however, 70% of the total population of the USSR was illiterate and the literacy rate of the Middle Asia varied from 1% to 5%. After 1917, mass education was commenced with minorities given the right to be educated in their mother tongue. In 1938 Russian was made a compulsory language that was required to be taught in all schools. Bilingual education proceeded with students of as many as thirty nationalities attending one school and twenty-two different languages being taught in another. In the national schools of the various republics, students were taught in their national tongue, with Russian taught as a second language. In the Russian-medium schools, found in various republics, Russian was the primary language of instruction with the students' native tongue being either taught as a second language or used as a second language of instruction. Through bilingual education the USSR has overcome illiteracy, destroyed racial and linguistic groups and provided a common means of communication.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Educational Policy, Language Instruction

Tallmadge, G. Kasten; And Others (1987). Bilingual Education Evaluation System. User's Guide, Volume I, Recommended Procedures [and] Volume II, Technical Appendices. The Bilingual Education Evaluation System was developed to help local bilingual education projects overcome evaluation obstacles and design sound, useful evaluations within the constraints of available funding and with responsiveness to current federal legislation and regulations. The evaluation system proposed involves a process component, an outcome component, and procedures for integrating them. An innovative element is a gap-reduction design for assessing student outcomes. This element assesses the academic growth of project participants relative to one of two recommended comparison groups: national norms or non-project students in the same grade. The user's guide to the evaluation system consists of two volumes. The first volume contains all of the system's procedures and practices. The system is divided into nine steps, each corresponding to a chapter of this volume: assuring that the project is evaluable; planning the evaluation; documenting program processes; selecting/adapting/developing instruments for assessing student outcomes; collecting outcome data; implementing the gap-reduction design; processing and analyzing data; integrating and interpreting results; and preparing evaluation reports. The second volume contains explanations and discussions of the rationale underlying recommendations for procedures and practices made in the first volume, and detailed guidelines on how to perform certain tasks. Topics include the following: classroom observation; interrater reliability; functional level testing; translating tests into other languages; major publishers of nationally standardized achievement tests; test reliability; quasi-experimental designs; gap reduction calculations; extrapolation procedures; and correcting for regression.   [More]  Descriptors: Achievement Tests, Administrator Guides, Bilingual Education Programs, Classroom Observation Techniques

Thonis, Eleanor (1977). The Dual Language Process in Young Children. Bilingual Education Paper Series, Vol. 1, No. 4. A review of available research supports the observation that the young child who lives and grows in the midst of dual language opportunities may enjoy benefits of mental flexibility or may suffer burdens of mental confusion. Further research must explore the language-thought relationship, consider the effects of dual language learning on cognitive processes and draw conclusions relevant to objectives and methods in bilingual education during the period of optimum language learning. Central to this question is a consideration of refining the mother tongue even when it is not the dominant language of the community. For those children in dual language settings, parents and teachers should keep the two languages growing in separate contexts so that coordinate language systems may result. They should provide good models and a rich background of environmental encounters. An early childhood bilingual education program will provide experiences to help children understand and relate to their environment and the larger society as well as providing language to enable the child to label, classify and store the experience for later retrieval. As the program continues, it will give due consideration to the best language of instruction in the various subject areas, the teaching of reading and writing, and the distinction between learning concepts and learning the language to express concepts. The challenge lies in guiding learners through the process so they may be competent, knowledgeable and comfortable in two environments and in two languages. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Bilingualism, Child Language

Saville-Troike, Muriel (1979). Sociocultural Dimensions of TESOL and Bilingual Education. CATESOL Occasional Papers, No. 5. Considerations in teaching students from linguistically diverse backgrounds are outlined. The instructional program must consider: (1) the social, economic, and political circumstances of the students' families; (2) their reasons for being in the United States and the length of their residence; (3) their attitudes toward the English-speaking group and English; (4) their attitudes toward their own language and cultural maintenance; (5) parental aspirations; and (6) the social, economic, and political considerations within the United States. In light of these points, the merits of four education models–the Monolingual Mother Tongue, Transitional Bilingual Education, Maintenance Bilingual Education, and Monolingual Second Language Education–are discussed. Any model chosen must: (1) utilize a variety of techniques and texts appropriate to the situations; (2) explore pre-existing parent, student, teacher, and community attitudes; (3) increase the cultural awareness of teachers; (4) provide teachers with curriculums from their students' home countries, (5) help teachers utilize community resources; and (6) train teachers to maintain classroom discipline appropriate for all age groups. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Cultural Awareness, Curriculum, Educational Objectives

Cohen, Andrew D. (1975). A Sociolinguistic Approach to Bilingual Education: Experiments in the American Southwest. This book incorporates a general discussion of bilingualism and its relation to sociolinguistic facts with a description of the Redwood City, California, bilingual education project, begun in 1969. Chapter 1 describes the phenomenon of bilingualism, while Chapter 2 deals with the concept of bilingual education. The relationship between bilingualism and intelligence is discussed in Chapter 3, and Chapter 4 provides a broad-ranging discussion of the Mexican American people. Chapters 5 through 12 deal with the Redwood City study, and cover the research design and methodological procedures and a description of the Redwood City community (Chapter 5), school instructional programs during the time of the study (Chapter 6), the measurement of Spanish and English language proficiency of children in the bilingual program and the control group (Chapter 7), a linguistic account of deviant forms in the childrens' language (Chapter 8), a sociolinguistic account of language use patterns (Chapter 9), the effects of bilingual schooling on the acquisition of mathematical skills and on the development of certain intellectual abilities (Chapter 10), and children's attitudes towards Mexican and American culture and toward school and parental attitudes toward Spanish and English (Chapter 11). Chapter 12 states the conclusion of the study and offers a series of recommendations. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism

Association of Farmworker Opportunity Programs, Raleigh, NC. (1979). The Interface Between Desegregation and Bilingual Education As It Affects Hispanic Migrant Children. Literature review, questionnaire survey, and personal interviews were the primary methods of gathering information about the educational opportunities available to Hispanic migrant students needing bilingual instruction. Four major findings were supported: (1) the number and percentage of Hispanic migrant students attending segregated schools is increasing due to the segregation of Hispanic students generally and the failure to identify "migrancy" per se as an illegal basis for discrimination; (2) although bilingual education is a matter of civil rights (Lau v. Nichols), few non-English-speaking or limited English-speaking migrants receive appropriate language instruction; (3) educational statistics, e.g., under enrollment and high dropout rates, document the exclusion of the migrant student from the public school system; (4) even when Hispanic students are served in a desegrated, bilingual setting, there are no clear legal obligations to ensure that Hispanic migrants receive a desegrated, bilingual education. Full educational equity for the Hispanic migrant student demands comprehensive educational reform including national legislation to protect the migrant's access to a public education. Survey forms, chronology of key court decisions, bibliography, and other supporting documents are appended. Descriptors: Access to Education, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Desegregation Litigation

Ripple, R. E.; And Others (1984). Cognitive and Affective Costs of Bilingual Education: A Look at the Hong Kong Experience. A study of the impact of language of instruction in schools on the divergent thinking, self-esteem, and locus of control of expatriate and Hong Kong native Chinese adolescents is reported and some of the cognitive and affective costs of the immersion method of bilingual education are examined. Hong Kong children in most schools must change abruptly from Cantonese to English instruction in secondary school. In this study, four groups of students aged 13-15 were identified based on school type and language of response to the study instrument: (1) an expatriate school, English response; (2) an Anglo-Chinese school, responses in language of preference; (3) a Chinese middle school, Chinese response; and (4) an Anglo-Chinese school, forced English responses. Standard measures of divergent thinking, self-esteem, and locus of control were administered to each group and compared. A significant negative effect of the shift of language of instruction on divergent thinking of Chinese students required to respond in English was found. Expatriate adolescents long instructed in English were found to be significantly higher in self-esteem, internal locus of control, and willingness to accept personal responsibility for negative outcomes than the three groups of Hong Kong Chinese. It is suggested that this immersion method of bilingual education may contribute to a decrease in creative contributions in adulthood even when the ability to make such contributions exists. Serious reconsideration of the use of immersion in such circumstances is recommended. Descriptors: Adolescents, Bilingual Education, Cantonese, Divergent Thinking

ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, Washington, DC. (1994). Two-Way Bilingual Education Programs in Practice: A National and Local Perspective. ERIC Digest. Two-way bilingual education has taken root in many schools across the United Sates. In these programs, students develop dual language proficiency by receiving instruction in English and another language in a classroom that is usually comprised of half native speakers of English and half native speakers of the target language. Two-way programs work toward academic, language, and affective goals. Language minority students benefit from the opportunity to develop and learn through their native language as well as English, while English speakers achieve well academically in an immersion environment. The first part of this Digest looks at the issues involved in implementing a two-way program, future directions and concerns of two-way bilingual education, and emerging results of two-way bilingual programs. The second part of the Digest concentrates on the Amigos Program, a two-way program established in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1985-86 that now serves nearly 300 students. Program design, program assessment, and student responses to program participation are highlighted. Contains eight references.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Trends, English (Second Language), Futures (of Society), Program Descriptions

Harrison, Helene W. (1974). Final Evaluation Report of the Harlandale Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program. The program covers two Texas public school districts, Harlandale and San Marcos, and Southwest Texas State University. This report, however, deals only with the Harlandale Bilingual Education Program, which provides bilingual education for pupils in grades K-5 who have limited English speaking ability. Objectives are: to reduce their educational deficit by instructing them in Spanish while their command of English is being developed; to enhance their understanding and cognitive development in both languages; to give them the advantage of becoming literate in both languages; and to instill a knowledge of and pride in their bicultural heritage. The project embodies several components: (1) development of and revision of curriculum materials for bilingual classes; (2) bilingual instruction in grades K-5; (3) staff development; (4) parental and community involvement; and (5) coordination of the cooperative efforts of the two school districts and the teacher training institution. In the 58 classrooms in the program, there are 1,700 children in grades K-5 in 7 of the district's 15 elementary schools. A majority of these children (99%) have Spanish surnames. The eight recommendations cover such things as transferring pupils, team-teaching with monolingual and bilingual teachers; and test administration. Much of the data are presented in Spanish and English tests and tables.   [More]  Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Community Involvement, Cooperative Programs

Harrison, Helene W. (1975). Final Evaluation Report of the Harlandale Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program, 1974-75. Comprised of pre-K-6 and LLD (Language Learning Disability) classrooms, the program is designed to provide bilingual education for pupils who have limited English speaking ability. There are 1,612 pupils from 7 elementary schools and 1 junior high school. Program objectives are to: (1) prevent their educational retardation by instructing them in Spanish while developing their command of English; (2) enhance their understanding and congitive development in both languages; (3) give them the advantage of becoming literate in both languages; and (4) instill a knowledge of and pride in their bicultural heritage. Project components are: development of and revision of curriculum materials for bilingual classes, bilingual instruction in grades pre-K-6 and LLD, staff development, and parental and community involvement. However, this report deals with the instructional component. This 1974-75 evaluation report discusses the test results from the: Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Boehm Test of Basic Concepts, School Readiness Survey, Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, Prueba de Lectura (Spanish reading test), Bilingual Education Program Test in Social Studies and Science (a copy included in the appendix). Projected Self-Concept Inventory, and Wide Range Achievement Test. These tests were administered on a pre- and posttest basis; both English and Spanish versions were administered.   [More]  Descriptors: Achievement Tests, Bilingual Education, Elementary School Students, English (Second Language)

Chu-Chang, Mae, Ed.; Rodriguez, Victor, Ed. (1983). Asian- and Pacific-American Perspectives in Bilingual Education: Comparative Research. The articles in this book together provide a state-of-the-art review of bilingual education research specifically dealing with Asian and Pacific Americans. Following an introduction by Mae Chu-Chang, chapters are grouped into 3 sections. In Section I, "Bilingual and Biliteracy Acquisition," works include (1) "The Basic Grammatical Structures of Selected Asian Languages and English," by Charles Li; (2) "English Language Acquisition by Speakers of Asian Languages," by Kenji Hakuta; (3) "Speech and Script Relations in Some Asian Languages," by William S-Y Wang; (4) "Cognitive Processing of Various Orthographies," by Ovid J.L. Tzeng; and (5) "Biliteracy Acquisition and Its Sociocultural Effects," by Agnes M. Niyekawa. Articles in Section II, "Assessment," include (6) "Cognitive Assessment of Asian-Americans," by Jayjia Hsia; (7) "Limited English Speaking, Handicapped, and Poor: Triple Threat in Childhood," by Kenyon S. Chan; and (8) "Assessment of Self-Concept: Bilingual Asian-American Children," by Kalei Inn. Section III, "Bilingual Education Instruction," contains (9) "Code-Switching Strategies in Bilingual Instructional Settings," by Chui-Lim Tsang; and (10) "Patterns of Classroom Interaction with Pacific Islands Children: The Importance of Cultural Differences," by Cathie Jordan, Kathryn Hu-Pei Au, and Ann K. Joesting. Several of the papers in this publication were originally presented at the "Symposium on Bilingual Research: Asian/Pacific American Perspectives," held September 3-5, 1980, in Los Alamitos, California. Descriptors: Asian Americans, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Cognitive Measurement

Wilson, Choya L.; And Others (1994). The Title VII Academic Excellence Program: Disseminating Effective Programs and Practices in Bilingual Education. The Department of Education's Academic Excellence Program, which focused on implementation and dissemination of information on effective bilingual education programs, is reported and evaluated. The project's goal was to understand the processes and activities that support successful marketing, adoption, implementation, and sustainment of practices that result in effective education for limited-English-proficient (LEP) elementary and secondary students. An introductory chapter gives an overview of federal involvement in bilingual education in general and the Academic Excellence Program in particular, and describes the study and report. The second chapter describes the nine original programs and the nomination and review processes. The programs have diverse designs, characteristics, and objectives, including target populations (Alaskan and Native American, LEP, limited-Spanish-proficient, gifted/talented, parents, non- English-proficient, English-fluent), grade levels, goals (English language arts, computer-assisted instruction, computer literacy, achieving creative and academic potential, parent participation, native language development, literacy, self-esteem), subject areas, methodologies, and geographic locations. The third chapter details the selection of sites and process of implementation. Chapter 4 discusses the importance of the Academic Excellence Program and dissemination of program information. A concluding chapter assesses the design of the overall program as a federal strategy for educational improvement. Contains 27 references.    [More]  Descriptors: American Indians, Bilingual Education Programs, Computer Assisted Instruction, Elementary Secondary Education

Heffernan-Cabrera, Patricia (1974). A Bilingual Education Programme in California. The Education of Migrant Workers — Where Do We Stand?, Prospects. The University of Southern California Teacher Corps Rural-Migrant Project in Bilingual-Bicultural Education is a joint teacher training effort between university and local education agencies and a two-year graduate studies programme that recruits and trains bilingual interns with commitment to careers in the education of the disadvantaged.   [More]  Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingualism, Disadvantaged Youth, English (Second Language)

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