Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 197 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Gerald E. DeMauro, Amefil Agbayani, Joseph E. Littlejohn, Salvatore J. Parlato, Lorraine P. Gutierrez, Grace Pung Guthrie, Helene W. Harrison, Ernest M. Bernal, Darwin (Australia). Northern Territory Dept. of Education, and Paula Allison Hassinger.

Harrison, Helene W. (1974). Final Evaluation Report of the San Marcos Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program. The program covers two public school districts, Harlandale and San Marcos, and Southwest Texas State University. This report, however, deals only with the San Marcos Bilingual Education Program, which provides bilingual education for pupils in grades K-5 who have limited English speaking ability. Due to parental requests, 19% monolingual English speakers were also accepted into the program. Objectives for Mexican American children are: to reduce their educational deficit by instructing them in Spanish while their command of English is being developed; to enhance their understanding and cognitive development in both languages; to give them the advantage of becoming literate in both languages; and to instill a knowledge of and pride in their bicultural heritage. Objectives for Anglos are to give them the opportunity to become bilingual and literate in two languages and to broaden their outlook on and understanding of languages and cultures. The project components are: (1) development of and revision of curriculum materials; (2) bilingual instruction in grades K-5; (3) staff development; (4) parental and community involvement, and (5) coordination of the cooperative efforts of the two school districts and the teacher training institution. In the 22 classrooms in the program, there are 625 children enrolled in the district's four elementary schools. Of these children 81% are Spanish surnamed. The eight recommendations cover such things as transferring pupils team teaching with monolingual and bilingual teachers, and test administration. Much of the data are presented in Spanish and English tests and tables.   [More]  Descriptors: Anglo Americans, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Community Involvement

Littlejohn, Joseph E. (1971). A Handbook for Teachers and Aides of the Choctaw Bilingual Education Program. The Choctaw Bilingual Education Program is a plan operating in 4 public school systems in Oklahoma to expand the educational opportunities of Choctaw children. The 4 major program components are inservice workshops, an inservice instructional program in the public schools, parental and community involvement, and a 5-year master's-level teacher-preparation program. Based on the idea that Choctaw children will find the most satisfying lives if they recognize and accept the fact that the Choctaw people live in a world of 2 languages and 2 cultures, the program is intended as a service through which teachers and aides may find or develop insights, materials, and techniques to help in working with Choctaw children. The handbook discusses major educational needs of Choctaw children, what teachers and aides need to know about language, and how the program can meet the needs of Choctaw bilingual children. Reference is made to materials available for the classroom, materials available for inservice training, and techniques in bilingual education. Appended is a list of terms, with definitions, commonly used in the study of language.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indians, Bilingual Education, Community Involvement, Educational Needs

DeMauro, Gerald E., Ed. (1981). The Impact of Bilingual Education on English Acquisition in New Jersey. The Language Assessment Battery was administered as a pre- and post-test to 731 students (mostly Spanish-speaking) in bilingual programs in New Jersey. In all grades tested, results consistently showed that third-year bilingual students outscored first and second year students in English language skills. This supports the contention that bilingual education promotes English skills development. It was also demonstrated that bilingual students had made significant gains relative to English-speaking children in eight of the twelve grades tested. For example, the average post-test score of second grade students who had started bilingual programs in kindergarten surpassed the average English-speaking student's theoretical norm (54.3 as compared to 50.0). This finding argues in favor of early bilingual education intervention. Finally, it was discovered that, in general, elementary school students made much larger gains than high school students. Recommendations for adjustments to bilingual policy based on these findings are set forth. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Assessment, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language)

Guthrie, Grace Pung (1985). A School Divided: An Ethnography of Bilingual Education in a Chinese Community. This book reports on a ten-year-old maintenance Chinese bilingual education program in a public school located at the heart of a Chinatown community in California. It uses a multilevel ethnographic approach, considering the classroom, the school, and the broader community. First covered are the ways that a bilingual education program is initiated, implemented, and perceived in a Chinese community, emphasizing the need for long-term participant observation and ethnographic interviewing in the target school and community. The collection and analysis of ethnographic data are described fully. Then the program itself is described, both in general and in its specific application in a sample school. The book next addresses the life and aspirations of Chinatown Chinese-Americans, a segment of society little studied or understood. Through firsthand reports, Chinatown residents speak about their background, goals, and perspectives on education. Finally, interaction between the school and the community is described. To provide an illustrative model of how a multilevel ethnography may be designed, carried out, and reported, a detailed methods and procedures chapter is included. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingualism, Chinese

Northern Territory Dept. of Education, Darwin (Australia). (1974). Second Progress Report on the Bilingual Education Program in Schools in the Northern Territory. This is the second progress report on the Bilingual Education Program implemented in 1973 in the Northern Territory of Australia. As of December 1974 the program includes 11 schools and 10 aboriginal languages used as medium of instruction. The topics discussed include the following: the four types of bilingual programs seen as evolving, and the appropriate approaches to each one; criteria important to the success of bilingual education; the administration of the program; the O'Grady/Hale Report, which reviewed the program favorably and made some recommendations; the importance of linguistics in the success of the program, as well as the establishment in 1974 of the School of Australian Linguistics as part of Darwin Community College; experiments in the use of Creole as medium of instruction; and the teaching of English as a Second Language. In addition, the report provides a list of school materials published by the Education Department in eight Aboriginal languages. An appendix contains reports from individual schools on programs incorporating Aboriginal languages.   [More]  Descriptors: Australian Aboriginal Languages, Bilingual Education, Creoles, Educational Programs

Bernal, Ernest M., Jr. (1974). Models of Bilingual Education, Grades K-3, for a Planned Variation Study. The Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) and, most recently, the National Institute of Education (NIE) have been involved in contemplating a national planned variation study of bilingual education. In order to determine the feasibility of such a massive study, several approaches to bilingual education, with emphasis on bicultural as well as bilingual considerations, were developed. Next, usable models were extracted and cast into a planned variation experimental design. It was specified that these models represent a theoretical or methodological base, embody an observably distinct approach to education, be operational long enough to make a difference in the children's academic competencies (in this case K-3), and have reasonable possibilities of acceptance by the professional and ethnic communities having to implement and support them. The four models delineated shared the following characteristics: (1) affective, academic, and linguistic objectives on which to base lesson sequences and content, student placement, and progress; (2) growth in both English and Spanish language proficiency; (3) provision for staff training, classroom materials, and community participation at each site; (4) specific strategies relating to awareness of and respect for the cultural, linguistic, and social variables of the installation site; and (5) specific methods for assessing these strategies and objectives and for monitoring the installation and its effects on the population. The models are: the Behaviorist Model, the Immersion Model, an Eclectic Model, and a Child-Centered Model.    [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Early Childhood Education, Educational Theories, Evaluation Criteria

Harrison, Helene W. (1973). Evaluation Report of the San Marcos Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program. The San Marcos Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program for 1972-73 was evaluated in this report. The program consisted of 684 students in grades K-5 in 4 elementary schools. The majority of these students were Mexican American with only 18% monolingual English speakers. The program's objectives were, first, to provide bilingual education for pupils who have limited English speaking ability and, second, to give English speakers the opportunity to become bilingual and to broaden their outlook and understanding of other people. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, in both English and Spanish, was administered to students in grades K-1 in September and again in March. The Metropolitan Readiness Test, Form A, was also given in kindergarten while the Metropolitan Achievement Test was given in grades 1-5. Also used was the Inter-Americana Spanish reading test, the Prueba de Lectura. Educational achievement for the students improved to some extent throughout the year. Tabular data covered teachers, schools, and pupils; dropouts; results of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, the Metropolitan Achievement Test, and the Pruebra de Lectura and inferred Self-Concept Judgment Scale results. The appendix gives the Spanish versions of the Peabody Test. (For related document, see RC 007 265.)   [More]  Descriptors: Attitudes, Bilingual Education, Dropouts, Elementary Education

Prochnow, Harold G. (1973). Final Evaluation Accomplishment Audit of the Harlandale Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program. The audit report was made in compliance with the contractual agreements, legal prescriptions, and official directives under the provisions of Title VII of Public Law 89-10, as amended, for the establishment and operation of bilingual education programs. The audit report (June 12, 1973) is on the Bilingual Education Program (in its 4th year of operation) of the Harlandale Independent School District. This report gives a critique of the quality of the project evaluation, discusses the findings of the project and the audit, and confirms or questions the need for program modifications proposed as a result of the evaluation. The scope follows the suggested U.S. Office of Education audit report areas–(1) introductory and general comments concerning the quality and significance of the final evaluation report; (2) detailed critique of the product and process evaluation conducted for operation and management, based on an assessment of the instruments used, data collection procedures, data analysis techniques, and data analysis presentation; (3) findings and observations as a result of on-site visits and examination of evaluative data with a summary of consistencies and discrepancies; (4) recommendations for evaluation design revision; and (5) the need for program modification. (For related documents, see RC 007 266, 268.)   [More]  Descriptors: Accountability, Bilingual Education, Cost Effectiveness, Elementary Education

Smith, Howard L. (1999). Bilingualism and Bilingual Education: The Child's Perspective, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Explores the understandings that young Mexican-American students develop about the status of languages and language use in their bilingual school. A case study documents the the social and educational processes through which bilingual children in one U.S. school come to appreciate the prestige and power of English versus Spanish. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Case Studies, Elementary School Students

Foster, L.; And Others (1980). Exploring Student Attitudes in Australia Towards Ethnic Language Maintenance and Bilingual Education. Research Report. Students in grades seven, nine, and eleven from 38 post-primary state and private schools in Melbourne, Australia were given a language attitude survey. A structured interview schedule was administered to school staff representatives. Data analysis was guided by a review of language policy as expressed in official reports and an original ethnolinguistic vitality model for schools. Major findings are cited. A highly complex language situation and low institutional support for migrant-oriented programs and services exist in these schools. Bilinguals hold more favorable attitudes toward ethnic language maintenance and bilingual education than do monolinguals. The perceived attitudes of parents, friends, and teachers differed between monolinguals and dilinguals, with the former reporting consistently negative attitudes and the latter generally positive. Reasons indicated by monolinguals for bilingual education were the ability of monolinguals to learn a new language and of migrants to learn more subject matter. Bilinguals indicated bilingual learning would enable migrants to continue learning their own language. The findings, presented in text and tables, yield implications and recommendations of use to educators. Appendices provide samples of the student opinion survey and the student language attitude study, and a synopsis of the pilot study. Descriptors: Attitude Measures, Bilingual Education, Ethnic Groups, Foreign Countries

Gutierrez, Lorraine P. (1972). Attitudes Toward Bilingual Education: A Study of Parents with Children in Selected Bilingual Programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes toward bilingual education of parents whose children were in bilingual programs and to find if attitude differences related to sex, age, mobility, and education existed between income groups. The sample consisted of 110 pairs of parents whose children were in bilingual programs in 10 schools in the Albuquerque Public School System. The sample was divided into 2 socioeconomic groups based on occupation and subdivided by sex, age, mobility, and education. A 63-item questionnaire was administered to each pair of parents by a trained Spanish-speaking interviewer. The results indicated an homogeneous positive attitude toward bilingual education with few significant differences between socioeconomic groups. It was also found that those under age 35 were more positive in their attitudes than were the older group, that amount of education did not seem to alter attitudes significantly, and that the amount of mobility significantly affected the response toward certain statements. The major conclusion of the study was that parents enthusiastically approved of the on-going bilingual and bicultural programs to which their children were being exposed. [Not available in hard copy due to marginal legibility of original document.]   [More]  Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Community Attitudes, Family Income

Parlato, Salvatore J. (1991). All about English as a Second Language. A Basic Guide to ESL and Bilingual Education. This manual, a basic guide to the field of English as a Second Language (ESL), including bilingual education (BE), lists nearly 1,000 U.S.-based organizations that service ESL/BE educators. The core of this guide consists of ESL-oriented data in the form of names, addresses, and telephone numbers. Resources are presented in the following categories: ESL and Bilingual Education (principal association, affiliates and related organizations, state Title VII offices and evaluation assistance centers, and multifunctional resource centers); Literacy Organizations; Related Organizations (languages and linguistics, federal agencies, foundations and research centers, special education interpreters and translators); Multicultural Organizations (ethnic societies, embassies); Immigration/Resettlement Agencies (U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, migrant services and education, advocacy/reform/interest groups); Professional Development Opportunities (graduate education, overseas employers and brokers, travel/study/exchange programs); Publishers (books, periodicals, tests); and Media and Technology Producers (video/films, computer software). A list of postal abbreviations is included. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Literacy Education) Descriptors: Bilingual Education, English (Second Language), Graduate Study, Literacy Education

Harrison, Helene W. (1973). Evaluation Report of the Harlandale Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program. The 1973 report evaluates the Bilingual Education Program of Harlandale Independent School District. The bilingual program is designed for Spanish speaking pupils in grades K-5 (1,517 children in 8 of the district's 15 elementary schools) who have limited English-speaking ability. The 1972-73 project involved (1) development and revision of curriculum materials; (2) bilingual instruction in K-5; (3) preservice and inservice training of bilingual teachers and aides; (4) supervision of bilingual student teachers and student interns; (5) involvement of bilingual parents in their children's education; (6) increased community support for bilingual education; and (7) coordination of the cooperative efforts of 2 school districts and a teacher-training institution–Harlandale Independent School District, San Marcos Independent School District, and Southwest Texas State University. The 31 tables give results of tests used to evaluate the bilingual program–e.g., Peabody Picture Vocabulary Tests, Metropolitan Achievement Test, Prueba de Lectura, BEP Test in Social Studies and Science, Allocation of Time in Language Teaching (English and Spanish), and Inferred Self-Concept Scores. Eight recommendations are also included–e.g., the coordinator should emphasize to teachers the need to develop both English and Spanish reading comprehension. (For related documents, see RC 007 267, 268.)   [More]  Descriptors: Achievement Tests, Bilingual Education, Elementary Education, Federal Programs

Hassinger, Paula Allison (1979). The Development and First Year of Implementation of the California Bilingual Education Act of 1976. The first year of implementation of the California Bilingual Education Act of 1976 is documented and evaluated. The legislation is designed to provide bilingual education for limited-English-speaking and non-English-speaking students. It is concluded that the restrictive nature of the bill caused major delays in the first year of implementation and will make compliance with the law difficult in succeeding years. The validity of the San Diego Observation Assessment Instrument is in question because of its subjective scoring and lack of discrimination. An asset of the test is its availability in at least 22 languages. School districts found it difficult to recruit credentialed bilingual teachers holding the appropriate certificate of competency in the diverse languages needed.  Among the recommendations are the following: (1) more time should be allowed between the collection of data about the Home Language Survey, student testing, local school implementation, and the reporting of this information to the State Department of Education; (2) there should be continuing efforts to improve the validity of the language assessment instruments and to improve the training of the personnel responsible for administering these tests; and (3) funds to assist experienced monolingual teachers to gain certificates of competency or bilingual crosscultural credentials should be made available. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teachers, Compliance (Legal), Educational Legislation

Agbayani, Amefil (1979). Bilingual Education and Public Policy in Hawaii: Historical and Current Issues. Hawaii's history of immigration, language policy, and education are directly related to the issue of bilingual education in its schools today. Beginning with missionary contact, English became the dominant language of the islands, in terms of official policy if not in terms of numerical superiority of English speakers. Until World War II, there existed English language "standard" schools, "nonstandard" schools (which the white community called "pidgin" schools), and Japanese and Chinese language schools. However, with the war came pressures for the abandonment of any "non-American" characteristics, such as foreign languages. After the war, segregated schools ceased to exist. Since Statehood (1959), Hawaii has been concerned with meeting national achievement standards. Thus, although immigrants continue to flow into the State at the rate of 7,000 per year (2,000 of these of school age), Hawaii lags far behind other States in its application for Federal bilingual funds. One of the major reasons for this is the attitude against the use of languages other than standard English which prevails among much of the population. A further barrier to the acceptance of bilingual education is the under-representation of particular minority groups (i.e., Filipino and Hawaiian) in the Department of Education. In a State in which competition for jobs is fierce, language will thus continue to be an important factor in determining economic opportunity. Descriptors: Asian Americans, Bilingual Education, Educational History, Educational Policy

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