Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 195 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Sau-Lim Tsang, Francesco Cordasco, John B. Tsu, Stephen E. Barnett, Joshua A. Fishman, Carlos Cruz, Linda Avila, John Read, TX. Clear Lake City Branch. Houston Univ., and Andrew D. Cohen.

Connecticut State Board of Education, Hartford. (1987). Bilingual Education Program Evaluation Report–1985-86. The bilingual education programs of Connecticut are described. The 12 programs serviced 11,482 students in 1985-86; 93% of the program participants were dominant in Spanish. Seventy-one percent were in kindergarten through grade 5. Over 3,000 were new entrants to the program in that year. About 1 in 5 students in bilingual education were late entrants or left the program prematurely; most of these students were in the program less than 90 days, usually because their families moved out of the district. Local districts supplied most of the program costs; the state contributed 5.5%. About 10% of the students exited the bilingual program and entered all-English classrooms. The longer students continued in bilingual instruction, the more likely they were to exit to all-English instruction. In the lower grades, exiting students were more likely to perform at targeted levels than were high school students. The most important characteristic of these students is their extreme mobility. Several years in bilingual instruction may be needed before students catch up on English skills. Fifteen figures are included, and 49 tables providing data on Spanish and English reading and mathematics achievement are appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Annual Reports, Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingual Students

Avila, Linda (1990). Peer Coaching To Enhance the Effectiveness of Bilingual Education Teachers. In an effort to deliver practical staff development opportunities to bilingual education teachers and build a support system for them, a peer coaching inservice workshop model was developed. Over a period of one school year, about 40 elementary bilingual and English-as-a-second-language teachers participated in a 6-session workshop series with a peer coaching component. Released time was given to the teachers for these sessions. The workshop format included time for the teachers to explore their latest cycle of peer coaching as a whole group, explaining practices they had observed their peers using which they considered worthy of dissemination to other bilingual education teachers. They also reflected orally and in writing on their own observing, coaching, and conferencing skills. In each segment of the workshop series, whole group presentations, role-playing, brainstorming, small group activities, independent activities, and group sharing of actual teaching strategies and lessons were used by the participants as instructional vehicles for the concepts to be mastered. Each workshop ended with a segment on principles and strategies to support the peer coaching component of the project. Written comments from teachers indicated that, for them, the most valuable component of this staff development program was the opportunity to observe and give feedback to one another. Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingual Teachers, Elementary Education, English (Second Language)

Milwaukee Public Schools, WI. Dept. of Educational Research and Program Assessment. (1972). Milwaukee Bilingual Education Program, 1971 – 1972. Evaluation Report. The Milwaukee Bilingual Education Program has been guided by behavioral objectives related to desired pupil, staff, management, parent and community outcomes. The objectives were developed and revised mainly by curriculum supervisors. Frequent references are made to two publications, "Milwaukee Public Schools Bilingual Elementary Program K-4," and "Performance Objectives for Bilingual Education Offerings at the Secondary Level," which define the totality of the behavioral objectives and contain the test item pools of expected pupil behaviors. Of the several objectives in each subject content area, supervisory and/or teaching staff members selected two to be evaluated for each component in 1971-1972. Some behavioral objectives were analyzed in terms of percent of pupil achievement by language dominance. Tests of significance have been included for comparisons of pre/post scores and comparison of Bilingual Program groups with other groups. The report of pupil outcomes is divided into three sections: kindergarten, primary, and secondary. Each section is subdivided into curriculum areas. Under each curriculum area, there are statements of goals, objectives measured, classroom procedure, evaluation procedure, findings, and conclusion. A summary concludes each section.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Behavioral Objectives, Bilingual Education, Comparative Analysis

Read, John; And Others (1975). Socioeconomic Implications of Bilingual Education on the Navajo Reservation. Bilingual education programs are usually evaluated by means of educational testing instruments whose validity and reliability is such that conclusive findings are unlikely. in reference to Navajo bilingual education evaluation, it is particularly important that consideration be given to the economic, sociological, political, cultural, and psychological context in which the program is developed, as the Navajo Nation is experiencing social change. For example, if the Navajo Division of Education meets its goal of producing 1,000 Navajo teachers in 5 years, the socioeconomic impact of teachers coming back to the reservation from mainstream society may well alter reservation communities. The bilingual Navajo teacher may serve as a change agent or "cultural broker", for he will undoubtedly bring some mainstream values back to the reservation which could influence the sociological, socioeconomic aspect of reservation life and ultimately the development of bilingual programs. It is important, therefore, that key social factors affecting bilingual programs be identified. A more concrete goal would be to construct matching typologies–types of communities which give rise to types of sociolinguistic situations leading in turn to types of bilingual programs.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indian Reservations, American Indians, Bilingual Education, Change Agents

Cruz, Carlos (1996). Implementation of Bilingual Education Programs in South Texas. The history of Texas' implementation of bilingual education is examined through a review of relevant literature and court litigation, and a survey of school district superintendents and administrators on this topic is reported. In interviews with the administrators, it was found that bilingual education and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction are widely misunderstood. Eight of the 10 participating school districts did not take advantage of federal funding opportunities. In several South Texas schools, the curriculum is geared to transitioning students into all-English instruction as quickly as possible, with Spanish language use discouraged. Parents of students identified as limited-English-speaking (LEP) frequently declined bilingual program participation, did not respond accurately to home language surveys, and did not volunteer for language proficiency assessment committees. Other problems included inconsistency in committee functions, lack of equity between bilingual, gifted and talented, and special education, difficulty in hiring qualified ESL teachers, and communication problems within schools. Implications are drawn. A summary in Spanish of administrators' responses to interview questions is appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Court Litigation, Educational History, Federal Legislation

York, Pamela A.; Barnett, Stephen E. (1977). Bilingual/Bicultural–Health Education for Children of Migrant Farmworkers, Health Education (Washington D.C.). This article focuses on issues affecting the development of bilingual/bicultural health education programs for children of migrant farmworkers faced by the Colorado Migrant and Rural Coalition, including program issues and development, educational strategies and program evaluation techniques.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Goal Orientation, Health Education, Migrant Education

Cohen, Andrew D.; And Others (1979). Evaluating Evaluation. Bilingual Education Series: 6. Papers in Applied Linguistics. Results from three small-scale investigations of specific aspects of bilingual schooling as well as results of a more traditional large-scale evaluation of bilingual education programs in downstate Illinois are presented. The three small studies were designed to assess natural language in the classroom, compare criterion-referenced versus norm-referenced reading tests in bilingual classes, and provide an ethnographic description of bilingual language use patterns. An introduction to Evaluating Evaluation by Margaret Bruck and Andrew D. Cohen is included. The study articles are as follows: (1) "Assessing Bilingual Speaking Skills: In Search of Natural Language" by Andrew D. Cohen and Charles L. Roll; (2) "Assessing Bilingual Reading Skills: Criterion-Referenced versus Norm-Referenced Testing of Spanish Reading" by Flora V. Rodriguez-Brown and Andrew D. Cohen; (3) "Assessing Language Use in Bilingual Classrooms: An Ethnographic Analysis" by Margaret Bruck, Jeffrey Shultz, and Flora V. Rodriguez-Brown; and (4) "Assessing Bilingual programs: Methodological Considerations in Large-Scale Evaluations" by Andrew D. Cohen and Flora V. Rodriguez-Brown. Selected additions to the literature on bilingual education are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Criterion Referenced Tests, Educational Assessment, Educational Research

Office of Education (DHEW), Dallas, TX. Regional Office 6. (1975). Bilingual Education in P. L. 93-380. Based on an analysis of the Education Amendments of 1974 (P.L. 93-380), this paper provides an overview of the more than 20 different types of bilingual educational activity found in the law and raises some of the issues of management, policy, and coordination. Issues tend to cluster around interface areas in which there is inherent institutional, programmatic, or organizational stress. An analysis of the problem of developing a nationally coordinated bilingual education program suggests 5 potential areas of major stress: (1) the "continuity" issue characterized by stress between new and existing programs and products; (2) the "communication" issue resulting from expanded internal, as well as, external linkages; (3) the "cooperation" issue arising from new interface areas at the local, state, and national level; (4) the "coordination" issue involving interaction between Federal and non-Federal activity, among funded bilingual centers and clearinghouses, and with related state and local efforts; and (5) the "compliance" issue involving adherence to laws, rules, and regulations. Some unresolved questions regarding further implementation of the law are presented. The appendices include a listing of: (1) legislation amended by P.L. 93-380, (2) new acts or legislation embodied in P. L. 93-380, and (3) implications in bilingual education and for American Indian Education.   [More]  Descriptors: Administration, American Indians, Bilingual Education, Content Analysis

Coballes-Vega, Carmen; And Others (1979). The Title VII (Bilingual Education) Fellowship Program: A Preliminary Report. Bilingual Education Paper Series, Vol. 2, No. 9. A survey instrument to evaluate the program's effectiveness was sent to project directors of 49 institutes of higher education (IHE's) that participated in the Title VII Bilingual Education Fellowship Program from 1975 to 1978. Data from the 44 completed survey instruments were gathered and tabulated in July and August 1978. Areas addressed were: total number of students in the programs; disciplinary concentrations of students in the programs; number of students who dropped out of the programs; current employment status of the graduates; estimated number of teacher trainers needed in the region served by programs; and significant achievements of program graduates. Students (both masters and doctoral) in the Title VII fellowship program numbered 1,675 and bilingual teacher trainers in the same program, but not receiving fellowships numbered 1,194. Most masters students had disciplinary concentrations in bilingual education, but other significant concentrations were seen for elementary education teacher training, administration, English-as-a-second-language, and counseling. Of the 442 masters graduates (1975-1978), the majority were employed by local education agencies, and 35 were unemployed. Of the 316 doctoral degrees expected from Title VII funds between 1975-78, 82 degrees were granted, most graduates were working for IHE's, and 2 were unemployed.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Doctoral Programs, Dropout Rate, Employment Level

Fishman, Joshua A.; And Others (1977). Bilingual Education: Current Perspectives. Volume 1.: Social Science. Recognizing a need for an objective, multidisciplinary and comprehensive look at the field of bilingual education, the Office of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Center for Applied Linguistics cooperated in a state-of-the-art study of the field. State-of-the-art papers were commissioned in four general areas concerning bilingual education: social science, languages and linguistics, law, and education. Each paper formed the central focus for a separate conference at which it was discussed and elaborated upon by specialists from various fields within a given discipline. This volume is the first in a series of four volumes that present a collection of the major papers and the viewpoints of the discussants. The focus of the volume is social science. The state-of-the-art paper is "The Social Science Perspective," by Joshua Fishman, and the viewpoints include: "Social History," by Shirley Brice Heath; "Ethongraphy," by Hugh Mehan; "Anthropology," by Sarah Nieves-Squires; "Sociology and Education," by H. Ned Seelye; and "Political Science," by Brian Weinstein. A bibliography concludes the volume. Descriptors: Anthropology, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Bilingualism

Tsu, John B. (1977). The Future of Asian Bilingual and Bicultural Education, Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association. A historical overview of Asian bilingual and bicultural education and projections for the future are presented. Criticisms of these programs and corrective measures or responses supporters should make are outlined. Legal and legislative mandates are cited. Descriptors: Asian Americans, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Chinese

Tsang, Sau-Lim (1982). Bilingual Education in a Chinese Community. Final Research Report. A study is reported which examines the following issues: the linguistic and cultural values that the Chinese community attaches to education and to the processes and outcomes of education; and the nature of the community's involvement with school programs and the degree of match and mismatch between the school and the home culture. Data were collected from King School and Wilson School in Cherrywood, California (all fictitious names), using a case study methodology over a period of 13 months. In addition to the description of the background to the study and the methodology, a detailed report of the following is given: (1) the history of the Chinese community in Cherrywood; (2) a linguistic profile of the community; (3) a description of the two schools; (4) development of bilingual education at King School; (5) bilingual classes in grades 2, 5, and 6 at King School; (6) issues of language use and dialect choice of the bilingual program at King School; (7) language use in bilingual classrooms; (8) student outcomes; and (9) questions on the status of bilingual education at Wilson School. The study concludes with a summary and recommendations, and two appendices which provide a linguistic comparison of the Chinese dialects and observation fieldnotes of a reading lesson.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingualism, Case Studies, Chinese Americans

Houston Univ., TX. Clear Lake City Branch. (1988). Bilingual Education. English as a Second Language Programs. This report discusses the bilingual education/English as a Second Language (ESL) program at the Univesity of Houston-Clear Lake. These programs have attracted qualified preservice and inservice teachers and support personnel who serve or will serve the 20 local school districts. The student population in the programs has grown 900% since 1979 and the programs are now supported by two full-time and two adjunct faculty. Innovative features of the training program include: the use of technology in the dual language classroom; the integration of parent education in the curriculum; and the incorporation of field observations and research. The programs emphasize such things as: addressing levels of achievement; identifying and addressing individual differences and learning styles; learning to organize the classroom to stimulate learning; and learning how social, cultural, and environmental factors impact learning. Long range goals include: sensitizing the preservice and inservice trainees to the needs of the minority student population; increasing the enrollment and retention of minority faculty and students; and infusing instructional technology into the curriculum. These programs have made a substantial contribution to teacher education in the areas of instruction, research, and service. Supporting materials in an attached booklet include a table on meeting long range goals, a bilingual education/ESL organizational chart, a detailed budget, and a journal article discussing the project. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, English (Second Language), Higher Education

Cordasco, Francesco, Ed. (1978). Bilingual Education in New York City. A Compendium of Reports. In this book, four reports on education and the educational status of Puerto Ricans in the United States (primarily New York City) are reprinted. In "Puerto Ricans On The Mainland: The Educational Experience" by Francesco Cordasco, the social history of Puerto Ricans on the mainland is outlined and major factors concerning their education are described. In "A Program of Education for Puerto Ricans in New York City: A Report Prepared by a Committee of the Association of Assistant Superintendents" problems of assimilation and education of the Puerto Rican pupil are described. In "The Puerto Rican Pupils in the Public Schools of New York City: A Survey of Elementary and Junior High Schools by the Subcommittee on Education, Recreation and Parks of the Mayor's Advisory Committee on Puerto Rican Affairs in New York City" results of a 1951 survey are tabulated and analyzed. In "Bilingual Education in New York City: Prepared for the Program of Recruitment and Training of Spanish-Speaking Teachers", the history, rationale, methodology, and funding of bilingual education programs for Puerto Ricans are examined in detail. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Acculturation, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teachers

Zintz, Miles V. (1969). What Classroom Teachers Should Know About Bilingual Education. Chapter I of this classroom teacher's guide to bilingual education discusses cross-cultural education and English language learning, with illustrations from Navaho, Alaskan Indian, Zuni, and Mexican-American cultures. It is stressed that teachers must be alert to the differences in languages, values, customs, and the cultural heritage of their students. They must understand their students' feelings, attitudes, and emotional responses. One way of life or one language for communication is not better, or "more right." than another. Chapter II discusses several basic linguistic principles and components of language. Some contrastive points of Spanish and English grammar and pronunciation are also presented, in non-linguistic terminology. In Chapter III, some techniques for teaching oral substitution, expansion, and transformation practices are illustrated. Chapter IV presents some techniques for developing vocabulary and briefly describes several TESOL texts. Chapter V defines and discusses some principles underlying bilingual education and cites programs observed in South Africa, Wales, Canada, and Miami, Florida. Materials for Spanish-English bilingual programs, and selected bilingual readings for classroom teachers are listed. Annotated bibliographies of studies on cultures, language, vocabulary, and TESOL texts are appended.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indians, Bibliographies, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education

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