Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 161 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Lockie Kirksey, Marta Rado, Carolyn J. Benson, Ricardo J. Cornejo, Irma N. Guadarrama, Tadeo Reyna, Sacramento. Assembly Special Subcommittee on Bilingual – Bicultural Education. California State Legislature, Washington General Accounting Office, Marilyn Babcock, and G. Kasten Tallmadge.

California State Legislature, Sacramento. Assembly Special Subcommittee on Bilingual – Bicultural Education. (1976). Toward Meaningful and Equal Educational Opportunity. Report of Public Hearings on Bilingual-Bicultural Education. This report summarizes testimony taken from 103 witnesses during six public hearings on bilingual-bicultural education held between October 27 and December 9, 1975 in San Diego, Los Angeles, Fresno, and San Francisco by the Special Subcommittee on Bilingual-Bicultural Education of the California State Assembly. The report is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1, "Bilingual Program Background," describes the history and status of federal and state bilingual programs. Chapter 2, "Legal and Philosophical Aspects of Bilingual-Bicultural Education Programs," provides a brief history of the philosophies of bilingual education in the state and the nation through the various court decisions preceding and including the Lau decision. Chapter 3, "Synopsis of Testimony Presented to the Special Subcommittee," groups the testimony presented from the major language-cultural groups in the state (Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Portuguese, Southeast Asians, and Native Americans) under the three general areas of Program, Evaluation, and Funding. Chapter 4, "The Legislative Options for Bilingual Bicultural Education," categorizes over two hundred recommendations presented to the Special Subcommittee in the public hearings and communications to the Subcommittee concerning bilingual policy, program and administrative options available to the Legislature. Among the recommendations were the following: (1) that the "Lau Remedies" should be a minimum program requirement; and (2) that local boards of education should be required to adopt policies in conformity with federal regulations.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indians, Asian Americans, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education

Tallmadge, G. Kasten; And Others (1987). The Evaluation of Bilingual Education Programs for Language-Minority, Limited-English-Proficient Students: A Status Report with Recommendations for Future Development. A discussion of the evaluation of bilingual education programs focuses on building a comprehensive framework for local efforts at evaluation. The discussion begins with an introduction to the legislative history of bilingual education programs and the evolution of their evaluation. This is followed by a review of the literature on current practices and problems in program evaluation, looking at the kinds of inferences that can be drawn from program evaluations and the threats to the validity of those inferences. Strategies for reducing threats to validity are examined. A chapter is devoted to treatment, student, and setting variables that have been identified as potentially interactive on the basis of either theoretical formulations or empirical findings. Lists of the variables and methods for obtaining and documenting relevant information are presented. Four sources of systematic error associated with simple measurements of growth are discussed, and types of tests and other measures for assessing bilingual education program impact are examined. Eight evaluation designs reported in the literature are described, and problems associated with them are reviewed. Several approaches to the measurement of outcomes on a common scale are evaluated. A bibliography of over 400 items is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language), Evaluation Methods

Nieto, Julia (). B.A.B.E.L. Career Lattice Program. The Bay Area Bilingual Education League (BABEL) is a five-district consortium joining forces to confront the need for bilingual education. It encompasses pre-kindergarten through high school. The program incorporates teacher and instructional assistant training ranging from teaching techniques and methodology to cultural awareness. All of the teaching participants are bilingual; either Spanish/English or Chinese/English. The Career Lattice Program provides career opportunities for bilingual individuals with zero years of college and extends to a highly sophisticated, skilled doctorate program. This report details the recruitment and selection of personnel; the career lattice program; college training/education of participants; and auxiliary training in areas such as counseling, audit/evaluation; methodology; inservice training, teacher supervision, and a bilingual Ph.D. program.   [More]  Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Schools, Bilingual Students

George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership. (1977). Bilingual Education. Options in Education: Program Transcripts of a Weekly Series Broadcast by Member Stations of National Public Radio. Program No. 98. Transcripts of weekly programs broadcast by National Public Radio on bilingual education are presented with Wendy Blair and John Merrow. Contents are as follows: (1) Introduction; (2) "History of Bilingual Education" by Noel Epstein; (3) "Passamaquoddy Language Instruction in Maine" with Wayne Newall, Robert Leavitt, and Anna Arnois; (4) "Are Only Transitional Bilingual Programs the Answer" with Jose Cardenas; (5) "Bilingual Programs in South Philadelphia High School: with Binh Tham and Sung Choi; (6) "The American Institutes for Research Study" with Noel Epstein and Michael O'Malley; (7) "Why Bilingual Programs Are Not Successful" with Jose Cardenas; (8) "Bilingual Programs in New England" with Lucile Parchick; (9) "Bilingual Programs in Wisconsin" with Louise Strasbaugh and Nelia Olivencia; (10) "Bilingual Programs in California"; (11) "Noel Epstein Versus D. Jose Cardenas"; and (12) "Have Bilingual Education Programs Become Political?" by Noel Epstein. Descriptors: Accountability, American Indian Culture, American Indian Languages, Bilingual Education

Goldsmith, Ross P.; Babcock, Marilyn (1979). Colorado Bilingual Program Evaluation Forms. Evaluation forms used by the Colorado bilingual program are presented. Contents include forms concerning the following information: (1) pupil numbers by category information, (2) pupil attendance data, (3) parent advisory council information, (4) parent participation by specific activity, (5) reading achievement data–district level test data summary, (6) reading achievement data–grade level summary, (7) reading achievement data–district pre-post test summary for L/D and non-L/D students in bilingual education programs, and (8) reading achievement data–district pre-post test summary for L/D and non-L/D students not in bilingual education programs. Additionally the following materials are included: instructions for summarizing district achievement data, formulas for use in reporting district-level achievement data, instructions for reporting class reading achievement data, and tables for conversion of percentile ranks to NCEs. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Comparative Analysis, Elementary Secondary Education, Parent Participation

Cornejo, Ricardo J. (1974). A Synthesis of Theories and Research on the Effects of Teaching in First and Second Languages: Implications for Bilingual Education. The paper provides up-to-date factual information for first and second language acquisition and bilingualism for administrators, teaching staff, parents, students, and others concerned with this subject. The overview of present educational theories, research and development, practices, and legislation in the areas of language acquisition and language learning includes: (1) a general view of theories and research on language acquisition; (2) a review of conferences and experimental designs in some European and Latin American countries; (3) a summary of the 3 most relevant taxonomies of bilingual education to date; (4) a list of the 123 programs in this country designed specifically for Mexican American children; (5) discussion summaries of exemplary programs in the Southwest; (6) a description of the unique immersion program being implemented in Culver City, California; (7) selected excerpts from legislation dealing with bilingual education; and (8) general conclusions and recommendations. Among the general recommendations are: (1) planning of bilingual curriculum to provide for all bilingual students; (2) providing a program flexible enough for slow learners and bright students as well; and (3) having all universities in the Southwest offer a bilingual education major. The form used to gather information on exemplary bilingual programs is presented in the appendix.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Classification, Conference Reports, Curriculum Development

Benson, Carolyn J. (1997). Relatorio Final Sobre o Ensino Bilingue: Resultados da Avaliacao Externa da Experiencia de Escolarizacao Bilingue em Mocambique (PEBIMO) (Final Report on Bilingual Education: Results of External Evaluation of an Experiment in Bilingual Education in Mozambique). The PEBIMO project was designed to determine whether bilingual education could improve the quality of primary education in Mozambique, recognizing that Portuguese is not the native language of the majority of Mozambican students. The project began in 1992 with 8 cohorts of first grade in 2 provinces; during this investigation, students were in fourth grade. For this program evaluation, data were gathered using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Results were mixed, due primarily to difficulties in applying an appropriate bilingual education model. Teachers, administrators, and parents were pleased because use of the first language has facilitated teaching and learning in all subject areas, and students have learned to read and write in both languages, and parents reported their children are more motivated, take initiative at home, and help others with homework, indicating increased prestige of native languages. The principal short-term program recommendation is to continue developing students' first- language skills while working intensively on Portuguese as a second language, concentrating on oral skills to facilitate transition to all-Portuguese instruction in sixth grade. The ministry of education is encouraged to expand bilingual education gradually. Appendixes contain materials used in study. (Contains 38 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Elementary Education, Foreign Countries, Language of Instruction

Reyna, Tadeo (1980). The Status of the Criteria Used by Bilingual Education Teachers to Transfer Limited English Speaking Ability Students from Spanish Reading to English Reading in Selected South Texas School Districts with State Bilingual Education Programs in Grades First, Second, and Third. Questionnaires were mailed to first, second, and third grade state bilingual education program teachers in five selected South Texas school districts to examine criteria used by state bilingual education program teachers to transfer limited English speaking ability (LESA) children from Spanish reading to English reading. Three-fourths of the 31 teachers who responded used a specific set of criteria, determined by the curriculum used in a given school district, to transfer Spanish LESA children from Spanish to English reading. The criteria used were described in terms of one of seven models. One-fifth of the teachers placed Spanish LESA children with the mainstream of students in regular English instructional program. One-fourth of the teachers rated their criteria for transferring Spanish LESA children from Spanish to English reading as a good indicator of the Spanish LESA child's success in English reading after the transfer was made. It was hoped that results of the study would cause local and state education agency policy makers to assess the status of bilingual education programs in accordance with state laws and to assess the quality of specific criteria for transferring LESA children from Spanish to English reading. A replication study with a larger sample population, perhaps statewide, was recommended. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, English (Second Language), Evaluation Criteria, Grade 1

Jung, Richard K. (1983). The Impacts of Block Grants on the Governance of Federally Supported Bilingual Education Programs: Lessons Learned from Previous Block Grant Legislation. While most categorical programs are subject to problems stemming from local, state, and Federal overlap, the problems produced by these parallel structures in bilingual education appear to be dissipating through local capacity-building, increased state legislation for bilingual education, and Federal awareness of its role and support for state and local education agencies' efforts. In reviewing the track record of block grants, the Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations recommended the use of block grants instead of categorical programs "only under certain conditions." Three of these conditions do not seem to apply to most federal support of bilingual education: a high degree of consensus over general purposes among the Congress, the Federal administering agency, and recipients; widely shared program needs both geographically and jurisdictionally; and the broad functional area to be covered existing as a major component of the recipient's traditional range of services and direct funding. Major implications of these conditions for educational policymakers include: Congress and the Administration should encourage a wider dissemination and closer scrutiny of research on previous block grants; a systematic review should be made of present programs to determine which, if any, might logically be combined under a single authorization; and a systematic effort should be made to query the bilingual arena to obtain suggestions for improving intergovernmental relations. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Block Grants, Categorical Aid, Educational Finance

Guadarrama, Irma N., Ed.; Kirksey, Lockie, Ed. (1996). Transforming Ourselves through the Power of Mediated Instruction, Discovering Our Experiences: Studies in Bilingual/ESL Education. A collection of essays on English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and bilingual education focuses on issues in making curricula meaningful for teachers and students. Articles include: "Critical Mediation: When Teachers and Students Connect in the 'Ecliptic Zone'" (Irma N. Guadarrama); "Reflecting on Ideological Baggage: Latino Pre-service Teachers and Their Experiences as Students" (Elizabeth Sugar Martinez); "A Special Kind of Knowledge: When Teachers Do Research and Parents Teach" (Cathy Amanti); "An Interview with Cathy Amanti"; "Multicultural Literature in Bilingual Education: Exploring Story as a Guide in La Nueva Fabula" (Guadarrama); "Students Writing Fables: A Traditional Genre Gets a Modern Facelift" (Guadarrama); "A Teacher's Story on Becoming Critical" (Samuel D. Sarabia); and a poem, "Mi vieja cultura" ("My Cultural Journey") (Guadarrama). Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Classroom Research, Classroom Techniques, Creative Writing

Danoff, Malcolm N. (1978). Evaluation of the Impact of ESEA Title VII Spanish/English Bilingual Education Program. Overview of Study and Findings. The fourth and final report on this study of the impact of bilingual education provides an overview of the design of the study and a summary of the findings, which were discussed in more detail in three previously released volumes. The goals of the study were to: (1) determine both the cognitive and the affective impact of bilingual education on students in Spanish/English bilingual education projects funded through ESEA Title VII, (2) describe the educational processes operating in these projects, (3) identify those educational practices which result in greater gains in student achievement, and (4) determine per-student costs associated with each project. Projects selected for the study were Title VII Spanish/English bilingual projects in either their fourth or fifth year of funding, as of fall 1975. The following topics are discussed: data collection strategy; data analysis strategy; types of students served by Title VII projects in the Study; educational goals; costs associated with Title VII Bilingual Project Schools and Non-Title VII Schools for 1975-76; characteristics of teachers and teacher aides, the impact of Title VII Programs on student achievement and attitudes; the relationship between gains in student achievement and attitudes and classroom procedures and environment and teaching staff characteristics. A list of the participating projects and school districts is included. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Achievement Gains, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education

Rado, Marta (1976). Bilingual Education in Action: The Multilingual Project. Linguistic Communications: Working Papers of the Linguistic Society of Australia, No. 16. The language situation of immigrants to Australia, or social bilinguals, is distinguished from that of second language learners, or cultural bilinguals. The former lag behind in employment and school achievement. The solution proposed entails learning English, though both children and adults appear to reach a plateau in learning after initial progress. This study suggests mother tongue maintenance as a solution. Evidence from linguistic theory is cited from Fillmore and McCawley. Bilinguals should be given the opportunity to observe norms in both of their languages, and bilingual education is seen as a program that takes the student's two languages in his social environment into account. Four bilingual education models are described (transitional, emphasis on the native language, emphasis on the second language, and balanced), the balanced model being seen as most suitable for Australia. The Multilingual Project described here, a form of bilingual education primarily concerned with concept learning, has developed independent study units in social studies. 600 students in fifteen secondary schools are participating, and materials are provided in English and Arabic, Greek, Italian, Turkish, Serbian and Croatian. The goal of the project is to allow students to opt for aspects of each heritage rather than totally rejecting or accepting either one.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Cognitive Processes, English

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. (1987). Bilingual Education. Information on Limited English Proficient Students. Briefing Report to the Chairman, Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate. The numbers and status of limited- English-proficient (LEP) students who are supported by federal funds appropriated under the Bilingual Education Act are reported. The investigation included interviews with officials of relevant state and federal agencies, reviews of state reports and pertinent studies, and collection of statistical information from the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Topics addressed include: number of LEP students in the United States; concentration of LEP students of particular language minority groups by school districts within each state; number of LEP students served by Title VII and Non-Title VII funds; extent to which native language is used in transitional bilingual education programs; the minimum number of LEP students required for provision of bilingual education; and states' estimation of the number of years students remain in programs for LEP children. Results indicated that there are approximately 1.2 to 1.7 million LEP students in the United States. English was used predominantly for instruction in programs designed to serve LEP students. Most LEP students spent 2 to 4 years in a transitional program.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language), Federal Aid

Barrerra, Maria (1982). Bilingual Program Planning and Implementation. Teacher Edition. Bilingual Education Teacher Training Packets. Series A: Bilingual Program Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation. Packet 1. These bilingual education teacher training materials address the critical issue of effective planning and implementation of programs of bilingual education as well as efficient program evaluation. These materials are intended to provide the practical assistance necessary for successful bilingual program implementation. The first section of the module addresses two bilingual education models that are useful to the school practitioner: the transitional model and the maintenance model. These are theoretical models that can be implemented with a number of variations suitable to individual school districts. The second section deals with staffing patterns that address the type of teaching staff required as related to the types of students that need to be served. The instructional staff may include a bilingual teacher or a team of bilingual teacher and a non-bilingual teacher. The third section focuses on curriculum content and language usage. These three areas–program models, staffing patterns, and curriculum content and language usage–are crucial parts of bilingual program planning and implementation.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingual Instructional Materials, Bilingual Teachers, Language Maintenance

NCBE CrossCurrents (1997). NCBE CrossCurrents, 1996-1997. The four issues of the first volume of this National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education newsletter include articles on these topics: organization and programs of the Department of Education's Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs; identifying school reform practices in linguistically diverse schools; state data on enrollment of limited-English-proficient (LEP) students in the nation's schools; evaluation of linguistically and culturally diverse students and the programs that serve them; education priorities for the transition to a new century; charter schools and the linguistically and culturally diverse student; the America Reads Challenge and issues for language minority students; the Glendale Unified School District (California) systemwide improvement project; achieving technological literacy in America's schools; and an Illinois program to assess English language learners.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrative Organization, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Education Programs, Change Strategies

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