Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 114 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Cory Heyman, Salvatore J. Parlato, Todd Rosenkranz, Wayne P. Thomas, Virginia P. Collier, Marina Fanning, Diana Rivera-Viera, Evelyn M. Weisman, William E. Loadman, and Johan De Wilde.

American Federation of Teachers (2002). Teaching English-Language Learners: What Does the Research Say? ATF Educational Issues Research Brief Number 14. This policy brief describes the ongoing debates over the most appropriate methods for educating students, the need for stronger research into the educational attainment of English language learners (ELLs) and recommendations for developing quality programs for ELLs. The National Research Council (NRC) recommends that schools seek to implement programs that are closely aligned with what is known about what makes any school effective. The authors of this policy brief suggest several additional features to the NRC recommendations, including: (1) smaller class sizes; (2) an effective program of early reading instruction (including instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, and comprehension skills, as well as attention to building students' vocabulary and background knowledge); (3) early intervention programs to help struggling students; (4) a safe and orderly learning environment; and perhaps most important; and (5) fully qualified teacher in every classroom. In the case of bilingual education, this means that teachers should be certified, skilled and knowledgeable in the requisite content area(s), and fully proficient in both English and the students' native language. All teachers of English-language learners should also be given access to professional development in the process and strategies of language acquisition. Appendix A presents English-Language Learners: Facts and Figures. Appendix B, "Choosing a Program Model," which describes variables that influence a district's decision to develop a specific type of program for the instruction of English-language learners.   [More]  Descriptors: Phonemes, Second Language Learning, Early Intervention, Early Reading

Thomas, Wayne P.; Collier, Virginia P. (2002). A National Study of School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students' Long-Term Academic Achievement. This longitudinal study examined the education of language minority students in five school districts nationwide. Qualitative data included interviews, school visits, surveys, and source documents. Quantitative data included information from registration centers, language minority student databases, student information systems databases, testing databases, and other federal and state reporting databases. Overall, the districts have attempted to address the dimensions of the Prism Model of Language Acquisition for School (Thomas & Collier in Ovando & Collier, 1998) as they continue to improve programs for English language learners (ELLs). This model emphasizes four developmental processes that students experience through K-12 sociocultural, linguistic, cognitive, and academic processes. Findings demonstrate the importance of providing a socioculturally supportive school environment for language minority students that allows natural language, academic, and cognitive development to flourish in the native and second language. Findings note that each school context is different, and significant elements within each context can strongly influence students' academic achievement. Bilingually schooled students outperform monolingually schooled students in all subjects after 4-7 years of bilingual education. Short-term programs are not sufficient for ELLS with no English proficiency. The strongest predictor of L2 achievement is amount of formal L1 schooling. (Contains 24 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Students, Context Effect, Cultural Differences

Heyman, Cory; Brush, Lorie; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan (2002). Changing Girls' Education in Peru. Access to quality education is a problem for all rural children in Peru, but especially for rural girls, who complete primary school at far lower rates than other Peruvian children. In 1998, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity (GEA) in Peru, also known as New Horizons for Girls' Education, which aims to increase girls' completion of primary school, particularly among rural and indigenous populations. During 1998-2001, the project had a substantial impact on the general discourse about girls' education. Its activities improved general knowledge about the importance of girls' education, inspired national legislation on rural girls' education, and inspired girls' education projects at the regional and local levels. This report gives an overview of the project, describing the creation of a national network for girls' education (Florecer), national conferences, publications, a mass media campaign aimed at affluent citizens with political influence, advocacy efforts with policy makers, and interactions among national and regional networks and local committees. Several project studies are summarized, including a situational analysis and rapid rural appraisal of barriers to rural girls' education; a baseline study in pilot communities; evaluations of demonstration activities involving bilingual education, girls' self-esteem, community-based monitoring committees, and adult literacy; and the accomplishments of regional networks in Ayacucho and San Martin. An analysis of systemic changes in girls' education looks at GEA's progress in legitimizing its policy goals, building an active constituency, mobilizing resources, designing and modifying organizational structures, mobilizing action, and monitoring systemic change.   [More]  Descriptors: Access to Education, Advocacy, American Indian Education, Bilingual Education

Gort, Mileidis (2002). A Preliminary Model of Bilingual Writing Development for Spanish-Dominant and English-Dominant Students: Portraits from Dual-Language Classrooms. This study investigated the writing processes of first grade bilinguals from majority- and minority-language backgrounds who were in a two-way bilingual education (TWBE) program. The program integrated native English and native Spanish speakers for all or most of the day, promoting high academic achievement, dual language and literacy development, and cross-cultural understanding for all. Researchers examined the following: how English- and Spanish-dominant first graders developed as writers in a TWBE program that used a process writing approach; trends and patterns of bilingual writing processes and skills; and the nature of the transfer of writing skills and processes from one language to the other. Researchers observed and videotaped students composing stories in Spanish and English writing workshops, collected artifacts from all stages of the writing process, and conducted interviews at the end of the writing workshops. Results highlighted similarities and differences in students' cross-linguistic skills and patterns of transfer of writing processes and skills. Patterns of bilingual writing related to code switching and literacy transfer for bilingual writers. This led to the creation of a preliminary model of bilingual writing development for such students that presents phenomena unique to bilingual writers, relates them to bilingualism and biliteracy, and proposes anticipated expression of the phenomena for students from linguistic minority and majority backgrounds. (Contains 72 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Students, Code Switching (Language), Elementary Education, Grade 1

Arizona State Univ., Tempe. Hispanic Border Leadership Inst. (2002). A Compromised Commitment: Society's Obligation and Failure To Serve the Nation's Largest Growing Population. A Report on the Educational Experience of Latinos in Five Western States. The Latino population in the United States is growing, especially school-aged children. Yet, because most of the increase in the Latino population is concentrated in the Southwest, the educational problems and needs of this population are viewed as state or regional issues. Policymakers must look beyond their state borders and realize that in this matter, the Southwest is a bellwether for the country, and systemic changes that address Latino educational issues will benefit all of America. This report presents a snapshot of the current educational conditions and circumstances of Latino youth in Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. Sections on the region and on each state provide data on Latino population growth, Latino K-12 enrollment, enrollment of students with limited English proficiency, Latino high school graduates, dropout rates, enrollment in community colleges and four-year colleges and universities, and state expenditures. Discussion focuses on the deficiencies of education for Latino students; social attitudes, as reflected in the mindset of policymakers and voter endorsement of anti-bilingual education initiatives; court litigation on behalf of Latino students; and state legislation and expenditures. Specific recommendations are offered for each state. (Contains 50 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Educational Attainment, Educational Indicators, Educational Needs

Rosenkranz, Todd (2002). CPS Test Trend Review: Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, 2001. Research Data Brief. Academic Productivity Series. This report tracks student performance on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) in the Chicago Public Schools' (CPS) elementary schools in 2001. To make valid cross-year comparisons, this update adjusts statistics reported by the CPS by establishing a common procedure over time for including bilingual education students. Test scores are tracked by age to account for the effect of the CPS retention policy, and the score reporting method used is the mean grade equivalent score rather than percent at or above national norms. The ITBS trend results reported are generally consistent with patterns noted in the Consortiums 1999 and 2000 test trend reviews. Beginning with the 1999 report, a concern was raised about possible stagnation in productivity improvements in CPS elementary schools. Data for 2001 allow the firm conclusion that this is, in fact, the case. The gain scores indicate that CPS made improvements in student learning throughout much of the 1990s, the improvements stalled after 1997. There is no evidence of any significant productivity growth in elementary schools since that time. (Contains 5 tables, 10 endnotes, and 5 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Trends, Elementary Education, Elementary School Students, Productivity

Capa, Yesim; Loadman, William E.; Bryant, B. J. (2002). Current Status of Teacher Shortage in the United States. Every year the American Association of Employment in Education (AAEE) conducts a survey of the status of teacher supply and demand in the United States. In 2001, the 25th annual survey sent a survey instrument to 1,265 teacher preparation institutions to study the supply side of teacher availability, and responses were received from 494 institutions (39%). Data were analyzed by the Research and Data Analysis Consultation Service at The Ohio State University. Data indicated that there are significant shortages in the supply of K-12 teachers and administrators. The survey indicates that 23.81% of the 63 teaching fields studied have a considerable shortage, especially English as a Second Language, special education, and bilingual education. Data indicate that 42.86% of fields experience some shortage. Results show that 33.33% of the teaching fields experience balanced supply and demand. These are generally larger fields, such as elementary education, and some specialized areas, like journalism, business education, and the arts. None of the fields fell into the categories of some or considerable surplus. Up-to-date and accurate information about teacher shortage and surplus is important for policy making and educational planning. (Contains 2 tables and 17 references.) Descriptors: Bilingual Teachers, Elementary School Teachers, Schools of Education, Secondary School Teachers

Bratlien, Maynard J.; McGuire, Margaret A. (2002). Teachers for Our Nation's Schools. This study examined teacher education graduates' perceptions of the effects of their educational preparation curriculum on teaching success in their first 3 years in the classroom. Surveys examined respondents' level of satisfaction with content area preparation, preparation in working with diverse students, preparation for developing professional communications and collaborative skills, preparation in instructional methodology, specific coursework, and the overall program. Overall, graduates reported strong positive levels of satisfaction with three facets of their program: content area preparation, instructional methodology, and ability to create a learner centered community. They had somewhat positive perceptions of their preparation for student diversity and strong positive perceptions of their preparation for being reflective practitioners who demonstrate a commitment to learning, improving the profession, and maintaining professional ethics. They had only somewhat positive perceptions of their preparation for being an advocate, communication, collaborative relationships with parents and colleagues, and professional development. They had strong perceptions of satisfaction with their preparation in elementary education, reading, special education, and early childhood coursework. Those who took bilingual education coursework were less satisfied with preparedness in comparison to other specialization responses. Overall, graduates had strong positive perceptions of satisfaction with their preparedness to teach. (Contains 13 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Beginning Teachers, Elementary Secondary Education, Higher Education, Participant Satisfaction

Cervantes, Robert, Comp. (1980). Bilingual Program, Policy, and Assessment Issues. The challenge of educating the limited- or non-English-speaking (LES/NES) student is discussed in four papers: "Aspects of Bilingual Education for LES/NES Students" by Heidi Dulay and Marina Burt, "Definition and Measurement of Bilingual Students" by Edward A. De Avila and Sharon E. Duncan, "Bilingual Education for the English Dominant Language Minority Student" by Richard Barrutia, and "Bilingual Education and the English-Speaking Majority" by Thomas Carter (a number of California programs are described in this paper). The findings of these papers include the following: (1) a critical need exists for bilingual bicultural education, (2) bilingual bicultural education is far more complex than heretofore assumed, (3) a need exists for empirically derived definitions of LES/NES and bilingual terms, (4) only a limited number of children are being served even though the need is great, (5) programs must be expanded to serve bilingual and fluent English speakers, and (6) research in bilingual bicultural education is critical.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Assessment, Educational Planning, Educational Policy

Navarro, Ann M. (2008). Building Schema for English Language Learners, Online Submission. Background: Many classrooms today have ESL students who do not speak English and are completely lost. How can teachers help these students comprehend what they are learning in English? Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify effective reading strategies to build schema for English language learners (ELLs) to help them comprehend. Research Design: Descriptive. Findings: When working with ELLs, teachers must be cautious with the assumptions about what they already know about the topic being discussed. According to Echevarria and Short (2004/2005), when ELLs are struggling with class work, teachers should take under consideration that the problem may be linked to background knowledge and does not necessarily mean it is due to intellectual ability. To help students learn new information, it is important to find out what they already know. This requires specific preparation in working with ELLs in order to determine what their prior education experiences were. A way to assess a student's background knowledge is to brainstorm and cluster in small groups on a topic that will be taught. Teachers cannot assume that a student has the same background experiences as their peers because they live in the United States and are the same age (Rea & Mercuri, 2006). Given the importance of building background knowledge and helping ELLs create schema, various strategies can be implemented including: Pre-reading, Communicative Pre-Reading, Vocabulary Instruction, Visual Cues, Questioning Methods, Comprehension Instruction, and Appreciating Their Culture. Conclusion: In conclusion, the research presented reveals meaningful strategies that will help ESL students build and activate background knowledge. This in turn will help them develop a schema when reading or listening to a message and be able to say, "Aha, that reminds me of" and make connections to the text. With enough practice, modeling, and exposure, teachers can implement some of these strategies in their classrooms to accommodate ESL students that may be present. Building background knowledge is critical for ELLs because they do not bring the same experiences that others may have due to their culture and/or past experiences. Teachers must be conscientious of these factors and keep them in mind when planning instruction.  Most importantly, teachers must take time to listen to their students discuss different topics and texts by asking probing questions that promote elaborate responses and provide experiences to make this possible. By helping ESL students feel that their culture is valued through literature, they will become comfortable in discussing prior experiences; this helps teachers become familiar with their students' prior knowledge and cultural backgrounds. The more teachers know about their students' culture and background knowledge, the easier it will be to identify what strategies they need to build schema and help them become independent readers. Citation: American Federation of Teachers. (2002). Teaching English-Language Learners: What Does the Research Say? Educational Issues Policy Brief, 14, 1-8. Carrell, P. L. (1989a). SLA and classroom instruction: Reading. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 1988, 9, 233-242. Echevarria, J., & Short, D. (2004/2005). Teacher Skills to Support English Language Learners. Educational Leadership, 62(4), 8-13. Fitzgerald, J., & Graves, M. F. (2004/2005).  Reading Supports for All. Educational Leadership, 62(4), 68-71. Freeman, D. E., & Freeman, Y. (2000). Teaching reading in multilingual classrooms.  Portsmouth NH: Heinemann. Grabe, W. (1991). Current Developments in Second Language Reading Research. TESOL Quarterly, 25(3), 375-406. Kant, Immanuel. (1963). Critique of pure reason. (1st ed. 1781, 2nd ed. 1787, N. Kemp Smith, Trans.). London: MacMillan Publishing Co. Leos, K. (2004). No child left behind Paper presented at the annual conference of the National Association for Bilingual Education, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Mercuri, S. P. & Rea, D. M. (2006). Research-Based Strategies for English Language Learners. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Pearson-Casanave, C. R. (1984). Communicative Pre-Reading Activities: Schema Theory in Action. TESOL Quarterly, 18(2), 334-336. Peregoy, S. F., & Boyle, O. F. (2000). English Learners Reading English: What We Know, What We Need to Know. Theory into Practice, 39(4), 237-247   [More]  Descriptors: English (Second Language), Second Language Learning, Reading Strategies, Instructional Effectiveness

Rican (1974). An Interview with Hernan LaFontaine. "The Rican" conducted this interview with Hernan LaFontaine, discussing bilingual-bicultural education in New York City.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Ethnic Groups, Interviews

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Early Childhood and Family Education Unit. (2002). UNESCO Policy Briefs on Early Childhood, 2002. This document consists of eight double-sided briefs addressing aspects of the field of early childhood education. Titles of the briefs are as follows: (1) "Early Childhood Care? Development? Education?," outlining the distinctions between these terms; (2) "Planning for Access: Develop a Data System First," highlighting Brazil's census to collect baseline data on child care centers and preschools as a first step to broadening early childhood education beyond pre-primary; (3) "Integrating Early Childhood into Education: The Case of Sweden," on that country's transition to a preschool system serving 1-5 year olds with a national curriculum, and expansion of entitlement to preschool education; (4) "Women, Work, and Early Childhood: The Nexus in Developed and Developing Countries (I) [and] (II)," on the relationship between women and the labor force in developed nations and developing nations and government policy for supporting young children and their working parents; (5) "Home-Based Early Childhood Services: The Case of New Zealand," summarizing key details and implications of participation and administration of New Zealand's home-based services; (6) "Papua New Guinea's Vernacular Language Preschool Programme," on that nation's reform of the country's English-only educational system and subsequent bilingual education policy; and (8) "Social Transformations and Their Implications for the Global Demand for ECCE," on trends likely to dramatically affect demand for early childhood care and education.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Child Care, Data Collection, Developed Nations

Rivera-Viera, Diana (1975). The Historical and Theoretical Perspectives of Mass. Legislation Chapters 766 and 71A. The paper deals with the theoretical and historical aspects of special education and bilingual education which have contributed to the appearance of Chapters 766 and 71A of the General Laws of the state of Massachusetts. It is explained that Chapter 766 mandates the provision of an educational program tailored to each child's special needs and that Chapter 71A recognizes the need to maintain, rather than destroy, linguistic and cultural diversity. Some of the commonalities between special and bilingual education are established, and the most important aspect in which they differ, mainstreaming, is pointed out. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Handicapped Children, History, State Legislation

Parlato, Salvatore J. (2002). ESL LITE: English as a Second Language for Teachers of Other Stuff. This paper helps mainstream teachers and administrators demystify English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) education, providing techniques to help immigrant students make sense of English and their new culture. Ten chapters examine the following: (1) "We're Moving to Where?" (how it feels to move to a totally alien environment); (2) "The Essence and Isn'ts of ESL" (e.g., teaching ESL is not remedial, bilingual education, or a branch of the speech discipline); (3) "On a More Positive Note" (teaching ESL is a new profession that embraces the same principles of planning and presentation that every good teacher knows); (4) "Top Ten Teaching Tips" (e.g., prepare students for their new classmate, appoint a same-sex buddy, slow down English speech, and print rather than using cursive); (5)"An Open Letter to Learners" (with suggestions for practicing American English); (6) "Question-and-Answer Time" (e.g., whether ESL teachers learn all the different languages, learning differences, and the importance of using both the home and school language); (7) "By the Numbers Now" (learning numbers); (8) "Wit, Wisdom, Whatever" (second language learning through the eyes of philosophers, students, parents, poets, and professors); (9) "Sources, Resources, and Centers"; and (10) "After-Words." (Contains 14 resources.)   [More]  Descriptors: Acculturation, Cultural Awareness, Cultural Differences, Elementary Secondary Education

Fitts, Shanan; Weisman, Evelyn M. (2010). Exploring Questions of Social Justice in Bilingual/Bicultural Teacher Education: Towards a Parity of Participation, Urban Review: Issues and Ideas in Public Education. This qualitative study examined the development of bilingual and bicultural preservice teachers' beliefs and attitudes about social justice and its role in the education of language minority children. Fraser's in Redistribution or recognition: a political-philosophical exchange. Verso, New York, (2003) perspectival dualist framework, which calls for the consideration of both the distribution of resources and the recognition of cultural identity, was applied to the investigation of participants' social justice claims. In addition to observing these preservice teachers in their courses and conducting interviews, the researchers also analyzed the teaching practices of their bilingual-bicultural professors. Findings indicate that bilingual teacher candidates need to have space and support for reflecting upon the conflicting meanings they might ascribe to experiences and insights gained through the occupation of different identity positions. Bilingual-bicultural university professors' ability to recognize and legitimate the experiences and perspectives of bilingual/bicultural teacher candidates was significant and empowering.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Language Minorities, Preservice Teacher Education, Preservice Teachers

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