Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 104 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Carol Benson, Albuquerque. Coll. of Education. New Mexico Univ., Anne Driscoll, Eugene E. Garcia, Eugene C. Valles, Robert Rueda, Laraine Testa Zappert, Patricia Gandara, Kenji Hakuta, and Naomi Gittins.

Whitten, Carol Pendas (1986). Bilingual Education Policies: An Overview. Reforms in bilingual education currently sought by Secretary of Education Bennett would enable school districts to apply for and receive federal bilingual education funds regardless of the methodology they choose for those programs. The objective is to get the federal government out of the business of mandating curriculum to local schools. The rationale behind the reforms is based on the history of the federal role in bilingual education. Regulations issued in June 1986 for implementation of 1984 amendments to the Bilingual Education Act represent a major step in bringing about this reform. They have three main focuses: the autonomy of the local education agencies in deciding the amount of native language instruction to be used, recognition of the importance of parental involvement in the bilingual programs, and the need for local agencies to outline plans for managing and financing the instructional program when Title VII funds are reduced or are no longer available. These reforms recognize the major role of the local community in bilingual education. It is the responsibility of those who deal with the parents of limited-English-proficient students to carry the message to them about their role in the reform's success. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Court Litigation, Educational Change, Elementary Secondary Education

Workman, Randall H. (1983). Bilingual Education: Meeting the Needs of the Eighties. The National Advisory Council on Bilingual Education's seventh annual report outlines the Council's mandate and activities and looks at the current state and future needs of bilingual education in the United States. In a section on program implementation, the report outlines local, state, and federal support efforts, program design and effectiveness, and capacity building. A chapter on program needs addresses the specific needs of American Indian language groups, Alaskan language groups, Puerto Rican language groups, and rural populations, and the general need for public awareness of bilingual education practices and results. Bilingual education as a potential for economic development and legislative direction and reauthorization issues are discussed in separate chapters. Council recommendations are made in each of these areas of concern. The projected directions and general recommendations of the Council are outlined in a concluding section. Specific recommendations for initiatives in policy formation, program development, and research are made to the Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Language Affairs, the Secretary of the Department of Education, and the President of the United States. Appended materials include the Council's charter and the names and addresses of its members as of December 1982.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Needs, Elementary Secondary Education, Ethnic Groups

2001 (2001). School Directors' Handbook. The chapters in this book address a range of issues of interest to school directors, teachers, and parents and are intended to promote discussion about educational alternatives. A basic premise is that in the not-too-distant future, education will be provided where and when students and their parents can best access it, with educational venues and calendars changing. Chapters offer analysis and recommendations and focus on education in Washington state. Chapters are: (1) "School Financing Fundamentals"; (2) "Bilingual Education"; (3) "Educating Highly Capable Students"; (4) "Learning Assistance Program"; (5) "Student Assessment"; (6) "Privatization & Contracting Out"; (7) "Collective Bargaining"; (8) "Class Size"; (9) "School Construction"; (10) "Value Added Assessment"; and (11)"Distance Learning."   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Class Size, Collective Bargaining, Educational Finance

Benson, Carol (2005). Girls, Educational Equity and Mother Tongue-Based Teaching, UNESCO Bangkok. This study is the expanded version of the advocacy brief "Mother Tongue-Based Teaching and Education for Girls" [ED495413]. It highlights in more detail the correlations between girls, language and marginality, and shows that there are indeed positive links between the use of mother tongue in education and female participation and achievement in learning. While many challenges remain, the use of mother tongue in education has powerful pedagogical and social justifications and, thus, is a critical step in the right direction towards achieving Education for All. This paper argues that one of the principal mechanisms through which inequality is reproduced is language, specifically the language used as the medium of instruction. It shows how the learner's mother tongue holds the key to making schooling more inclusive for all disadvantaged groups, especially for girls and women. Contents include (1) Introduction; (2) Connections Between Language and Marginality; (3) Connections Between Girls, Language and Marginality; (4) The Proposal: Mother Tongue-based Bilingual Education; (5) Obstacles to Girls' Participation and Strategies that Address Them; (6) Mother Tongue-based Schooling as an Effective Strategy for Addressing Girls' School Participation; (7) Conclusion; (8) References; and (9) About the Author. The Conclusion sets out nine strategies that may provide the impetus for more far-reaching reform by demonstrating positive effects. Some examples are:(a) Getting local and national ministries of education to authorize oral mother tongue use in the classroom, especially where it has traditionally been prohibited; (b) Changing teacher placement practices so that teachers come from the same linguistic group as their students, a measure which is likely to increase the number of female teachers because they can stay in or near their home communities; (c) Implementing mother tongue-based teaching at the preschool level, which may be easier if preschools are less controlled by official structures; (d) Providing in-service training for teachers in first and second language development, themes which should be taught wherever there is linguistic diversity; (e) Providing for study of the mother tongue as a discipline, which involves no change in medium of instruction for other subjects in the curriculum; (f) Working with teachers and communities to operationalize local curriculum components of school programs; (g) Organizing extracurricular mother tongue-based language clubs; (h) Getting school children involved in local radio programming; and (i) Encouraging family members participating in mother tongue-based literacy classes to share their reading and writing skills. These and other measures that do not involve large-scale transformation of educational systems are likely to promote awareness and prompt participants to reevaluate traditionally marginalizing practices at school.   [More]  Descriptors: School Involvement, Mothers, Disadvantaged, Bilingual Education

Wiese, Ann-Marie; Garcia, Eugene E. (1998). The Bilingual Education Act: Language Minority Students and Equal Educational Opportunity, Bilingual Research Journal. Traces the Bilingual Education Act's (BEA) evolution from its inception (1968) through its most recent reauthorization (1994) as the primary federal legislative effort to provide equal educational opportunity to language minorities. Discusses assimilation versus multiculturalism as a philosophical basis for education reforms, litigation preceding the BEA, local control, bilingualism as a priority, and issues for future reauthorizations. Contains 38 references. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Philosophy, Elementary Secondary Education, Equal Education

Walker, Maria; Ogletree, Earl J. (1975). Latino Parents' Evaluation of Bilingual Education. The data collected for this study of attitudes of Puerto Rican parents toward bilingual education were obtained from parents whose children attend schools in Chicago's District 6 having bilingual programs. A 39 item attitude inventory was developed and administered to 150 parents: 75 of them parents with children enrolled in a bilingual program, and 75 of them parents with children who were not enrolled in a bilingual program. Four independent indices based on grouping of the 39 questions were used: (1) parental involvement in bilingual programs; (2) parental knowledge of and training in bilingual education; (3) parental evaluation of the school's bilingual program; and (4) parental opinions of the purposes and functions of bilingual programs. Analysis of the data showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups of parents. Parents with children in bilingual education programs had a higher level of participation in bilingual programs; showed increased knowledge of the purpose of bilingual education; and played a greater part in the evaluation of bilingual education programs. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Elementary Education, Parent Attitudes, Parent Participation

Gittins, Naomi, Ed. (2001). Educating Students with Limited English Skills, Inquiry & Analysis. This article examines the education of students in U.S. schools who have have limited skills in English. Ensuring that these children are able to participate in and benefit from educational programs and achieve high academic standards is a task of monumental importance for public schools. One component essential to this effort is understanding the legal requirements applicable to these children. Among the federal laws affecting the education of students with limited English proficiency are the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, Title VI of the Civil Rights ACT of 1964, the Equal Educational Opportunities Act, and the Bilingual Education Act. A list of Office of Civil Rights compliance recommendations is included in the article, and information on state laws and U.S. Supreme court decisions regarding the rights of speakers of languages or than English is provided.   [More]  Descriptors: Compliance (Legal), Court Litigation, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language)

Troike, Rudolph C. (1974). Statement on Linguistic Concerns in Bilingual Education. Bilingual education involves the use of two languages as mediums of instruction. The particular goals of a bilingual education program often determine the type of program established. The two polar types of program models are: (1) that in which the native language is used only as an oral medium until the national language can be learned, and (2) that in which a full range of skills is developed for both languages. At present there is little research data available to answer many of the questions concerning bilingual education, but it does appear that cultural and socioeconomic factors may play a larger part than native language in students' academic success. Questions relating to the use of the two languages in programs also involve matters of staffing, teacher training, and certification. It must be remembered that a person does not qualify to teach merely because he speaks a particular language. Linguists and anthropologists should play a larger role in organizing bilingual education programs, developing materials, and training teachers. Bilingual education is not simply teaching English as a second language, but a more inclusive concept which insures for all of our children the opportunity to participate fully in the benefits of American life without having to sacrifice part of themselves to do it. Descriptors: Anthropology, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teachers

Hakuta, Kenji (1986). What Research Evidence Says about Bilingual Education. Much information of interest to bilingual education policymakers has emerged from basic research on language learning, bilingualism, and cognition. Among the conclusions drawn from it are the following: (1) bilingual education is superior to submersion education in many contexts;(2) one major bilingual education goal should be development of the full repertoire of English linguistic skills, in preparation for mainstreaming; (3) time spent learning the native language in bilingual programs is not time lost in developing English skills; (4) children can become fluent in a second language without losing the first language, and maintenance of the first language does not retard second language development; (5) there is no cognitive cost, and there may be advantages, in the development of bilingualism in children; (6) bilingual education programs should have the flexibility of adjusting to the large individual and cultural differences among children, including need for lengthy bilingual education; (7) educators should understand that for primary grade children second language learning may be a slow process and that older learners can learn languages quickly and efficiently; (8) reading should be taught in the native language; and (9) actions upgrading the status of limited-English-speaking children's culture and language contribute to their opportunities for friendship with native English-speaking children.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Educational Policy, Educational Research

Bernbaum, Gerald (1979). Comparative Bilingualism. Bilingual Education Monographs, No. 1. The worldwide phenomenon of rising national and ethnic interest has manifested itself in the demand for bilingual education in North America and in the struggles over language usage, bilingualism, and the sense of nationhood in developing countries. In this context, some attempts at national solutions of the problem are discussed and the practicalities and dilemmas of bilingual education are outlined. Bilingual education issues in western societies are examined against the background of the social and political issues related to language usage in developing countries. Underlying the bilingual education question are issues that involve ethnicity, social class, and poverty, and the principles regulating life and opportunity in western societies. Some of the questions examined are: (1) the fact that non-English speaking groups in both England and America are generally poor; (2) the difficulty of establishing objectives and the shortage of revenues; and (3) the magnitude of the social problem. Attempts made in Toronto, New York, San Diego, and Salt Lake City to deal with bilingual education programs are examined. It is pointed out, in conclusion, that the purpose of the paper was to lay bare the issues and dilemmas and to show that what looks like a language issue is actually one aspect of deep-seated cultural and social problems. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Cultural Pluralism, Ethnicity

Graves, Anne W.; Valles, Eugene C.; Rueda, Robert (2000). Variations in Interactive Writing Instruction: A Study in Four Bilingual Special Education Settings, Learning Disabilities Research and Practice. A study of four bilingual special education settings found teachers chose different approaches for teaching writing: interactive journals, Optimal Learning Environment (OLE), Writer's Workshop, and a combination of journal writing, brainstorming-planning, and spelling practice. One year later, only participants in OLE demonstrated significant ongoing improvement in writing performance on compositions. (Contains references.) Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Disabilities, Elementary Education, Outcomes of Education

New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. Coll. of Education. (1979). Handbook. American Indian Bilingual Education Center. As part of the National Network of Centers for Bilingual Education, the American Indian Bilingual Education Center (AIBEC) provides resource and training services for administrators, teaching staff, parents, and others active in all phases of Title VII bilingual education in a region (comprised of New Mexico and parts of Arizona, Utah, and Colorado) in which the principal tribes are Apache, Navajo, and Pueblo. AIBEC also attempts to coordinate Title VII bilingual education activities in regional LEAs, SEAs, and Institutions of Higher Education (IHEs) via a service delivery system which involves: (1) conducting needs assessments and compiling linguistic information; (2) training, technical, and programmatic assistance coordinated with other agencies; (3) pilot testing of instructional materials; (4) a regional communications network; (5) collecting and disseminating American Indian bilingual education materials via the AIBEC Materials Bank; (6) parent training; and (7) comparative analyses and linguistic surveys of major American Indian languages in the region. The Handbook describes the Center's staff and services, and the complete procedures for requesting and receiving AIBEC services, including services provided by consultants. Appendices contain sample request and evaluation forms; lists of regional LEAs, SEAs, and IHEs; and addresses of General Assistance Centers. Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indians, Bilingual Education, Consultants

Gandara, Patricia; Maxwell-Jolly, Julie; Driscoll, Anne (2005). Listening to Teachers of English Language Learners: A Survey of California Teachers' Challenges, Experiences, and Professional Development Needs, Policy Analysis for California Education, PACE (NJ1). As long as students with limited English language skills have attended California schools a debate has raged among educators and policy-makers regarding how best to educate these children. A major focal point of this debate is bilingual education. That is, the viability, advisability, and effectiveness of using students' primary language in instruction. However, everyone agrees that ELs must learn English, learn it well, and meet rigorous standards. No matter what the method or program of instruction, teachers of English language learners need special skills and training to effectively accomplish this task. While this debate continues outside the classroom, inside the classroom teachers are called on to meet the challenge of teaching English learner students every day. Teachers who speak their students' home language and those who do not, teachers with special training and those without, teachers who have years of experience and those who have taught for only weeks are in front of classrooms with EL students. Teachers are both on the front line and responsible for the bottom line when it comes to providing these students with the skills and knowledge they will need to survive and thrive in U.S. society. Seldom are teachers invited to share their experiences and their concerns with those who shape education policy. It is critical to ascertain the perspectives of teachers who have so central a role and such a large stake in these issues if instruction for EL students is to significantly improve. This study sets out to ask teachers about their greatest challenges with regard to educating English learners, to analyze how these challenges vary according to factors such as teacher experience, training, and student need, and to discover the kinds of support they have–and need–for doing their jobs effectively. Appended are: (1) California Commission on Teacher Credentialing Authorizations for Working with English Language Learners; (2) Teacher Ethnicity; (3) OLS Regression Models Predicting Elementary and Secondary Teachers' Self-Rated Ability to Teach ELs; and (4) Percent of Elementary, Secondary and All Teachers Reporting Reasons Why They Found Particular Kinds of In-Service Most Helpful. (Contains 4 graphs, 9 photographs, and 7 tables.) [Funding for this initiative was also provided by the Clarence E. Heller Charitable Foundation.]   [More]  Descriptors: Elementary School Teachers, Secondary School Teachers, Teacher Surveys, Public Education

Zappert, Laraine Testa; Cruz, B. Roberto (1977). Bilingual Education: An Appraisal of Empirical Research. The volume presents an appraisal of the empirical research in Bilingual Education. Over 180 research studies and project evaluations were reviewed and evaluated for the soundness of their research designs. Chapter I presents a discussion of the types of research conducted in bilingual education. It includes an introduction to the problems encountered in such research, and a description of the objective criteria used in selecting the research included in the volume. Chapter II presents an examination of the effects of bilingual education and bilingualism on the academic, cognitive and affective aspects of student performance — the development of oral language skills, reading and writing ability, mathematics and social studies achievement, cognitive functioning, cultural attitudes and school attendance. In Chapter III the findings of the methodologically sound research are described, and their implications for policy-making decisions on bilingual education programs are discussed. This chapter also includes a discussion of future directions in research on bilingual education. The charts in Chapter IV illustrate the methodological weaknesses of a particular study or project evaluation which was excluded. Chapter V is a comprehensive research bibliography of studies and project evaluations included and excluded in the volume. It provides the necessary reference information required to locate the original research source. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Accountability, Attendance, Bilingual Education

Lessow-Hurley, Judith (1991). A Commonsense Guide to Bilingual Education. A discussion of bilingual education analyzes current issues, reviews related research, describes innovative and exemplary program formats for dual-language programming, and examines issues in bilingual education for both limited-English-proficient (LEP) students and monolingual native-English-speakers. The first chapter provides an overview of language policy, because language policy is part of the political environment within which bilingual education must be considered. Chapter 2 focuses on language proficiency assessment. The third and fourth chapters discuss program models and methods of instruction used in bilingual classrooms. The roles of teachers and paraprofessionals in bilingual classrooms is addressed in chapter 5. The subsequent chapter analyzes legal issues and clarifies requirements for serving LEP children. The final chapter answers questions frequently asked about bilingual education, including special language-learning situations, optimal age for second language learning, mainstreaming, raising a bilingual child, the rights of undocumented students, national official language policy in the United States, salient political issues, and the scope of bilingual education. A 62-item bibliography and addresses for obtaining additional resources and support are appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Classroom Techniques, Educational Research, Educational Strategies

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