Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 066 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Susan Keehn, Alicia Salinas Sosa, Enrique M. Cubillos, Washington Department of Education, Josie D. Cortez, Bertha Perez, Gordon S. Gates, Maria P. Walker, Heather Lotherington, and Jesper Dammeyer.

Yang, Jian (2005). English as a Third Language among China's Ethnic Minorities, International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism. This paper examines the teaching and use of, as well as the attitude towards, English among China's ethnic minorities. Starting with a critique of China English, a term used with increasing frequency in the literature on World Englishes and English nativised in the Chinese context, the paper attempts to show that English has yet to find its way into most of the minority communities. After a brief introduction to the 55 ethnic minorities and their languages, it describes the slowly developing English Language Teaching (ELT) industry among their communities, in comparison with the widespread teaching and use of English in China's coastal regions. This is followed by a discussion of the contributing factors, including a lack of funding, a low perceived value of English, Chinese-minority language bilingual education and Chinese-only instruction, as well as the challenge of learning a linguistically distant third language. In conclusion, the paper argues that the nativisation of English is hardly seen among minority communities in the west and calls for more professional attention to the investigation of English among China's 100 million-strong ethnic minority residents.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Bilingual Education, Minority Groups, Ethnic Groups

Fierro, Elsy; Rodriguez, Mariela A. (2006). Leadership for Bilingual Education: Reflections on Social Justice, Journal of School Leadership. The role of administrator preparation programs should be one of creating the conscientization (Freire, 2000) of aspiring administrators. Administrator preparation programs with a social justice perspective support and agitate aspiring administrators to act and address equity issues affecting all of those involved in the school learning community (Cambron-McCabe & McCarthy, 2005; Marshall, 2004). Conscientization leading to action is a key component in preparing school leaders to embody a social justice philosophy. The types of activities required of aspiring school administrators within the two courses described here encourage aspiring administrators to reflect and act on the social, economic, and educational inequities perpetuated in schools. This article describes assignments required within educational leadership preparation programs in two Hispanic-serving institutions in the Southwest. The purpose of each assignment is presented, followed by process, implications for social justice, and recommendations to enhance the projects.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Administrator Education, Bilingual Education, Instructional Leadership

Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of the Secretary. (1991). The Condition of Bilingual Education in the Nation: A Report to the Congress and the President. This report fulfills a requirement by the United States Department of Education to submit information on the condition of bilingual education in the nation. The report begins with a brief discussion of the history of bilingual education in the United States and a discussion of how bilingual education relates to the six national education goals identified by the President and the nation's governors. Chapter II provides an assessment of the need for bilingual education, as well as the needs of limited-English-proficient students, and the responses of school districts to meet those needs. Chapter III describes the instructional programs and the research and training activities administered by the Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs (OBEMLA). Chapter IV discusses the coordination of OBEMLA with other agencies and programs, and Chapter V identifies future issues in the Federal government's role in bilingual education.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Needs, Educational Objectives, Educational Research

Cubillos, Enrique M. (1988). The Bilingual Education Act: 1988 Legislation. New Focus, No. Occasional Papers in Bilingual Education, Number 7, New Focus. The content of the 1988 Bilingual Education Act, which is part of Public Law 100-297 (the Hawkins/Stafford Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendments) and which reauthorized bilingual education through September 30, 1993, is examined. The 1988 reauthorization was the fourth reauthorization of the original Bilingual Education Act of 1968. Major changes are summarized, and general provisions of the parts A, B, C, and D are explained. Part A, Financial Assistance for Bilingual Education Programs, includes transitional bilingual education programs for limited English proficient students, developmental programs, special alternative programs, and family English literacy programs. Part B, Data Collection, Evaluation, and Research, includes grants to state programs, evaluation assistance center, and the National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. Part C contains Training Technical Assistance provisions, and Part D explains provisions for Administration. The text of the legislation is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, English (Second Language), Federal Aid, Federal Legislation

Gates, Gordon S.; Lichtenberg, Kristi (2002). Use of Accountability Data for Decision-Making in Texas Bilingual Education Programs: An Examination of the Conduct Factor. The evaluation conduct factor involves matters such as whether correct methodology is being used, whether the measurements used are philosophically consistent with the goals of the program, timeliness, and format of the evaluation report, and whether recommendations provided in the report are usable. This study analyzed the conduct factor in the use of student data for decision making in Texas bilingual education programs. Surveys were completed by 93 directors of bilingual education programs, and survey data were merged with district data from the states information management system. Texas bilingual program directors reported that they do use data to improve education practices within their school districts. However, they do not use the wealth of data collected for reports to the state, but concentrate on a single component, Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) data. Examination of district practices shows that the use of only one source of data is not a sound educational practice, but the valuing of TAAS data over any other data type may actually be quite rational because these data are the only ones used by the state to determine school ratings. Survey results do show the importance of three components of the conduct factor: (1) a strong belief in using Spanish for instruction associated with higher levels of use of Spanish norm-referenced testing data; (2) correlation between data use and data availability; and (3) the great emphasis on TAAS data. (Contains 27 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Accountability, Administrators, Bilingual Education, Decision Making

Li, Ling (2006). Environmental Education Curriculum in a Bilingual Education School in China, Social Studies. In this article, the author discusses her experiences with developing an English-language science curriculum for students at the experimental Hai Bin Lu Primary School in China. She uses Schwab's (1973) four common denominators (or essential factors) of curricula–teacher, student, subject matter, and milieu–and Genette's (1980) three categories–narrative, story, and telling–to describe the lessons she devised, which were based on experiential narratives. She then discusses the outcomes of the curriculum, which show that experiential narratives are important tools in ethical and environmental education. Finally, she explains students' moments of encounter with the curriculum materials, the content about which they learned, and how their lives changed based on the lessons.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Science Curriculum, Bilingual Education, Environmental Education

Walker, Maria P.; Ogletree, Earl J. (1978). Puerto Rican Parents Knowledge of And Attitudes Toward Bilingual Education. One of the goals of the Bilingual Education Act, Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, was the involvement of parents and community members in the planning, implementation and evaluation of bilingual programs. A study of Chicago parents, some with children in bilingual programs and others with children in English-only programs, focused upon: (1) the extent and type of parent participation in bilingual program; (2) the extent of parents' knowledge of and training in the philosophy and goals of bilingual education; (3) parents' opinions of bilingual education; and (4) parents' evaluations of current bilingual programs. Findings and data presented indicate that Puerto Rican parents who have children in a bilingual education program have significantly positive attitudes toward and greater knowledge of bilingual education than parents whose children are not enrolled in a bilingual program. Recommendations are made for increasing parent participation and understanding of bilingual education. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Elementary Secondary Education, Language Programs, Parent Attitudes

Montecel, Maria Robledo; Cortez, Josie D.; Cortez, Albert (2002). What Is Valuable and Contributes to Success in Bilingual Education Programs. In 1999, the Intercultural Development Research Association was established to identify 10 promising and/or exemplary bilingual education programs in schools nationwide as determined by participating limited-English-proficient (LEP) students' academic achievement. Researchers requested data on achievement, retention rate, dropout rate, enrollment in gifted and talented/advanced placement (GT/AP) programs, enrollment in special education/remedial programs, test exemption rates, and program exiting standards. Other sources of data included student and school outcome data, school demographic data, teacher and administrator surveys, classroom observations, and focus groups with teachers, parents, and students. Results yielded 25 criteria or indicators of success, including the following: 98 percent or more of all students are not retained in grade; 95 percent or more of all students graduate with a high school diploma; LEP students are not underrepresented in GT/AP programs or overrepresented in special education programs; students participating in bilingual education programs since kindergarten are fully proficient in spoken English and their native language by fifth grade; the school climate is safe and orderly; all parents and community members know the rationale and critical components of bilingual and ESL programs; staff feel accountable for all students' academic success; and high expectations are held for all students.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Academic Standards, Academically Gifted, Access to Education

Sosa, Alicia Salinas (1993). Questions and Answers about Bilingual Education = Preguntas y Respuestas Acerca de la Educacion Bilingue. This resource booklet, in both English and Spanish, was developed to answer commonly asked questions about bilingual education. The booklet is intended to clarify the benefits to be derived from quality bilingual education. Questions and answers are divided under the following headers: (1) program questions (e.g., what is bilingual education and what are the goals of bilingual education); (2) rationale questions (e.g., why do we need bilingual education); (3) implementation questions (e.g., how long should a child remain in bilingual education?) and (4) evaluation questions (e.g., what should the school do if a child has not reached exit criteria?). The answers provided for each question are substantial. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education, Educational Objectives, Elementary Secondary Education

Lotherington, Heather (2000). What's Bilingual Education All About? A Guide to Language Learning in Today's Schools. This publication is intended for parents, teachers, and anyone in the wider community who has an interest in language, language acquisition, and second language learning; bilingual and multilingual education; bilingualism; language, culture, and society; language and power; and literacy. Extensive long-term research was conducted on a number of the complex issues related to language and bilingual education. This book shows how children who study through two languages can achieve higher levels of proficiency in these languages than if they had only studied the languages as academic subjects. With these advantages, and the potential spin-off that bilingual education can have on children's general educational progress and intellectual development, it is becoming a more popular option for parents and children in Australia. A very extensive glossary and suggestions for further reading is included. (Contains 25 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language), Foreign Countries

Braun, Shirley W. (1975). Bilingual Education, Old and New Style, in a New York School District, Bilingual Review. This article presents impressions following an evaluation of bilingual-bicultural education programs in a New York school district. Different approaches to bilingual education are compared and contrasted.   [More]  Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Educational Objectives

Dammeyer, Jesper (2014). Literacy Skills among Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students and Students with Cochlear Implants in Bilingual/bicultural Education, Deafness and Education International. Research has shown that many deaf students do not develop age-appropriate reading and writing abilities. This study evaluates the literacy skills of deaf students, hard of hearing students, and students with cochlear implants in bilingual/bicultural schools in Denmark. The results show that 45 per cent of the students did not have any reading and writing difficulties (i.e. they were no more than 1 year behind in school). Regression analysis models show that language abilities (either aural-oral or signed) and additional disabilities were explaining factors. Neither the level of hearing loss nor cochlear implantation was found to be significantly related to literacy skills. The results are discussed in relation to the Danish bilingual/bicultural approach in deaf education, an approach which appears to improve literacy skills among students with hearing impairment but does not eliminate all literacy difficulties.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Deafness, Literacy, Partial Hearing

Flores, Belinda Bustos; Keehn, Susan; Perez, Bertha (2002). Critical Need for Bilingual Education Teachers: The Potentiality of "Normalistas" and Paraprofessionals, Bilingual Research Journal. A case study examined a Texas bilingual teacher education program that recruited local paraprofessionals and Mexican teachers (normalistas). Interviews, writing samples, and observations of seven students revealed that normalistas were open to seeing merit in U.S. educational methods, while paraprofessionals began to question the deficit model pervasive in the schools in which they had worked. (Contains 49 references.) Descriptors: Bilingual Teacher Aides, Bilingual Teachers, Case Studies, College School Cooperation

Oladejo, James (2006). Parents' Attitudes towards Bilingual Education Policy in Taiwan, Bilingual Research Journal. This paper investigates the opinions of parents on some critical issues relating to recent educational reforms and their effects on foreign language education in Taiwan, particularly those aspects of the reforms that relate to the learning of English as a foreign language in the country. The paper noted that educational reforms in the country are dictated down from the authorities with little input from the public at large. This process has often resulted in complaints and confusion among the population, and consequently further reforms have often been rushed through in order to plug the emerging lacunae. The study found that much of the changes embarked upon by the government are out of tune with parental perceptions and expectations. It strongly recommends the need to develop a process of societal participation and parental consultation in educational planning and language policy issues, prior to the implementation of such reforms through the education process. This way, frequent changes and the attendant confusion that have characterized the education system in Taiwan can be minimized. Other suggestions are offered towards enhancing the teaching of English as a foreign language in Taiwan.   [More]  Descriptors: Parent Attitudes, Bilingual Education, Educational Policy, English (Second Language)

Mackey, William F.; And Others (1977). The Bilingual Education Movement: Essays in Progress. Studies in Language and Linguistics, 1977-78. This collection of six essays discusses the topics of language diversity, ethnic problems, and a worldwide drive for bilingual education. The main thrust in the essays is toward a global view of these phenomena, particularly bilingual instruction, with special attention given to the American southwest. Both similar and dissimilar patterns emerging throughout the world are examined and prospects for success in the bilingual education movement are discussed. Part 1, Language and Educational Factors, includes chapters on: (1) the Bilingual Education Movement: Patterns and Prospects; (2) Research Priorities in Bilingual Education in the United States: Challenges for the Present and Future; and (3) Evaluating Bilingual Education Programs: Critical Variables. Part 2, Social and Political Dimensions, includes chapters on: (4) Language and Culture in the Global Community; (5) Bilingual Education as an Ecology; and (6) The Revolt of the Ethnics. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Schools, Educational Policy, Ethnicity

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