Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 033 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Yurrliq Nita Rearden, Lilliana P. Saldana, John Clegg, Kathy Escamilla, Karen Dunlap, Janet Goldenstein Ahler, Cikigaq Rachel Nicholai, Judith Purkarthofer, Jane Simpson, and Alexis Oviedo.

Dunlap, Karen; Hansen-Thomas, Holly (2011). Taking the Reins: Preservice Teachers Practicing Leadership, Educational Horizons. What makes the difference between a good teacher and a great one? Knowing one's content is important, but having strong leadership skills can tip the scales from mediocrity to excellence. The best time to begin practicing being a teacher leader is during the preservice years. By practicing leadership skills, one can begin to view oneself not only as a teacher, but also as a leader with the capacity to guide and direct others. This article highlights a collaborative preservice teacher leadership experience between three teacher certification candidates who were enrolled in their final semester of student teaching and three of their professors (the authors and one of their colleagues). The preservice teacher participants were chosen based on perceptions of potential leadership attributes, with students representing three of the programs within Texas Woman's University (TWU) College of Education (general education, special education, and bilingual education/English as a Second Language). The preservice teachers collaborated with their three professors to create and lead a panel presentation for high school students interested in education careers during a breakout session at the Future Educators Association[R] (FEA) 2010 national conference in San Antonio, Texas. Creating this presentation gave the preservice teachers the chance to learn leadership skills that, in turn, gave them the confidence, tools, and encouragement to serve as teacher leaders.   [More]  Descriptors: Student Teaching, Preservice Teachers, Teacher Effectiveness, Teacher Certification

Svartholm, Kristina (2010). Bilingual Education for Deaf Children in Sweden, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. In 1981, Swedish Sign Language gained recognition by the Swedish Parliament as the language of deaf people, a decision that made Sweden the first country in the world to give a sign language the status of a language. Swedish was designated as a second language for deaf people, and the need for bilingualism among them was officially asserted. This was reflected in the first bilingual curriculum, introduced in special schools for the deaf and hard of hearing in 1983, which stated that the language of instruction in these schools should be Swedish sign language as well as Swedish, the latter of which, for deaf children, was primarily intended to be in its written form. These provisions were designed to ensure that pupils would be able to develop their bilingualism. In 1994, this curriculum was replaced by a new one that raised the bar even higher. In accordance with this curriculum, schools became responsible for ensuring that all deaf and hard of hearing pupils would be bilingual by the time they completed school. In this paper, I will present details regarding the background of the Swedish Parliament's decision and also compare and discuss the steering documents for the schools in this regard. I will also describe some of the developmental work that was implemented early in schools for the deaf, where teachers collaborated closely with linguistic researchers. This work will be related to contemporary research on sign language linguistics and Swedish as a second language for deaf people. I will then present results from the bilingual approach, as reflected in the leaving certificates of deaf school leavers over the years. Finally, I will briefly discuss the current situation Swedish special schools face today, in which a quickly growing number of deaf children with cochlear implants are applying for admission. Although the need for bilingualism among these children is fully recognised, the attainment of this goal may require schools to adopt different means of instruction.   [More]  Descriptors: Special Schools, Sign Language, Second Language Learning, Bilingual Education

Wigglesworth, Gillian; Simpson, Jane; Loakes, Deborah (2011). NAPLAN Language Assessments for Indigenous Children in Remote Communities: Issues and Problems, Australian Review of Applied Linguistics. The National Assessment Program–Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) assessments are designed to assess literacy and numeracy of all Australian school children in years 3, 5, 7 and 9, and to act as diagnostics as to whether children are meeting intended educational outcomes. Tests began in May 2008, and have been run annually since then. Results of the 2008 tests indicated that Indigenous children in remote communities had the lowest test scores, and results were used to make a policy decision that effectively scrapped bilingual education in the Northern Territory. In this paper, we evaluate the literacy component of the NAPLAN test for Year 3, and the language samples for each year level. Literacy components assess reading, writing and language conventions (grammar,spelling and punctuation), and we focus on the reading and language conventions components. We argue that the NAPLAN tests need to be very carefully monitored for appropriateness for the assessment of children living in remote Indigenous communities. This is because tests are standardised on groups of English language speaking children. The content of some sample tests relies on cultural knowledge which Indigenous children cannot be expected to have. Spelling tests need to be monitored to ensure that they are testing spelling rather than grammatical knowledge. Finally, it is difficult to create language convention tests which are truly diagnostic because of the mixed test population of native English speakers, ESL learners and EFL learners in remote Indigenous communities.   [More]  Descriptors: Grammar, Punctuation, Spelling, Indigenous Populations

Purkarthofer, Judith; Mossakowski, Jan (2011). Bilingual Teaching for Multilingual Students? Innovative Dual-Medium Models in Slovene-German Schools in Austria, International Review of Education. Traditional bilingual education programmes in regional linguistic minority contexts face major challenges within the recent paradigm of linguistic diversity against a background of increasing migration, mobility and trans-locality. Based on three case studies, the authors of this paper focus on how particular dual-medium models are applied in Slovene-German schools in Carinthia, Austria. They examine not only how these schools provide for a balanced bilingual teaching and learning environment, but also how they deal with their students' multilingual realities and support their identification with bi- and multilingualism. The authors regard schools as institutional sites where linguistic dispositions are subject to discursive power relations and where language policies and educational goals are negotiated by teachers, parents and students alike. Drawing on speaker-centred and ethnographic approaches in sociolinguistic research, the authors seek to document experiences of all actors involved as well as spatial and discursive practices. Through this the authors show how these dual-medium schools achieve particular profiles in multilingual education which are potentially regarded as innovative examples of best-practice and as being of interest for students and families with heterogeneous linguistic backgrounds.   [More]  Descriptors: Language Minorities, Bilingual Education, Multilingualism, Foreign Countries

Sierra, Josu (2008). Assessment of Bilingual Education in the Basque Country, Language, Culture and Curriculum. The evaluation of bilingual education in the Basque Country has gone through different stages during the last 25 years. From 1983 onwards, language models of schooling A, B and D were developed, according to parental choice. Model A is not considered a bilingual education model, since L2 is taught as a subject only, while models B and D are immersion programmes. The first doubt that arose in those years was whether the learning of L2 would affect the competence level of pupils in L1, and how the different language models of schooling would function. This was the main reason for the EIFE 1, 2 and 3 studies and the HINE study. These evaluations compared models A, B and D on scores obtained in the two official languages. Around 1995 a new phase started in Spain when the first evaluations of academic achievement in Primary Education were set up. Many people were convinced then that bilingualism had a price, and that the academic achievement of bilingual pupils would be lower than the academic achievement of monolingual pupils. This preconception vanished when the results of the 1995 evaluation mentioned above were known: the Basque Country and Navarre obtained the best scores in all Spain. Later in 2000, the PISA International Evaluation of the OECD raised the issue of the language used to administer the test: in which language do pupils score better? Finally, in 2004, the Basque education system was evaluated using the Common European Framework of Reference so as to find out the level of competence pupils reach at the end of compulsory education.   [More]  Descriptors: Language of Instruction, Compulsory Education, Bilingual Education, Official Languages

Galindo, Rene (2011). The Nativistic Legacy of the Americanization Era in the Education of Mexican Immigrant Students, Educational Studies: Journal of the American Educational Studies Association. Nativism is a forgotten ideology which nevertheless operates in the current era as illustrated by the resurgence of anti-immigrant sentiment and restrictionistic policies in response to growing Latino/a immigration. This response to Latino/a immigration recalls a historic era from the early 1900s known as the Americanization period which was also characterized by a strong nativist agenda and harsh restrictionistic policies. Developments from the Americanization period continue to influence immigration and education policies in the current era and are visible in the attacks against bilingual education, in mandated English-only laws, in locating struggles over national identity in the schools, and in the narrow focus on the acquisition of English in immigrant education. Identifying nativist themes from the Americanization era that have been reinvigorated in today's anti-immigrant climate makes visible a type of discrimination directed at immigrants that is not often recognized as discrimination due to a Black and White view of prejudice termed racial dualism. In addition to identifying the influence of the nativist legacy of the Americanization period in the current era, the implications of the conflict of legacies between the Civil Rights and Americanization eras for the education of immigrant students are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Civil Rights, Nationalism, Immigration, Immigrants

Saldana, Lilliana P.; Mendez-Negrete, Josephine (2005). "Hablando" Spanish, English, and Tejano: Bilingualism and Its Practices, Teacher Education and Practice. Although advocates of critical education such as Darder (1991), hooks (1994), and Macedo (1994) have critically assessed ethnic and language minority education, few studies have empirically examined bilingual education practices from a critical perspective. In this project, we investigated the pedagogical practices of educators, with classroom observations and in depth interviews with three bilingual teachers in San Antonio, Texas. Linguistic and cultural experiences and consciousness were implicated as teachers learned about themselves and their students. We found that participants supported bilingualism depending on their ideologies about language and culture as they facilitated inclusion of non-dominant-language learning and student empowerment. Additional research on teaching ideologies and consciousness within bilingual education pedagogies is necessary.   [More]  Descriptors: Spanish, English, Teaching Methods, Ideology

Wyman, Leisy; Marlow, Patrick; Andrew, Ciquyaq Fannie; Miller, Gayle; Nicholai, Cikigaq Rachel; Rearden, Yurrliq Nita (2010). High Stakes Testing, Bilingual Education and Language Endangerment: A Yup'ik Example, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. A growing body of research documents how educational policies and accountability systems can open or close "ideological and implementational spaces" for bilingual education, shaping the language planning efforts of Indigenous communities. Using collaborative research, Indigenous and non-Indigenous researchers investigated the intersection of policy, schooling, and language maintenance/shift within a school district serving 22 Yup'ik villages in Alaska. This article demonstrates how, as multiple communities are witnessing emerging signs of a language shift to English, high stakes testing practices accompanying No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation are simultaneously weakening support for bilingual programs in village schools. Yet the article also illuminates the ways in which Yup'ik educators are acting as local language planners, negotiating language maintenance/shift/revitalization, and testing regimes in contested school spaces. Authors discuss the urgent need for, and the promise within, spaces for locally directed language investigation and language planning in national contexts of educational standardization and high stakes assessments.   [More]  Descriptors: Language Maintenance, Language Planning, Educational Policy, Federal Legislation

Rubagumya, Casmir M.; Afitska, Oksana; Clegg, John; Kiliku, Patrick (2011). A Three-Tier Citizenship: Can the State in Tanzania Guarantee Linguistic Human Rights?, International Journal of Educational Development. This paper explores how the concept of linguistic citizenship can be applied to the Tanzanian situation in terms of the delivery of bilingual education as well as addressing issues of equity and quality in education. It starts by a brief overview of how the concepts "linguistic human rights" and "linguistic citizenship" are theorized. It then goes on to show that in the Tanzanian context the "linguistic human rights" paradigm cannot adequately address the concerns of speakers of marginalized languages. The paper argues that all efforts to guarantee linguistic human rights in Tanzania have so far been top-down and have to a large extent failed. The paper further argues that it is the people who can empower themselves by giving value to their marginalized languages. This valorisation will make education meaningful in people's struggle towards socio-economic development. The paper discusses in particular the role which African languages play in raising achievement in African education and highlights the importance of research into educational language use and persuasive communication of this research in increasing this role. Finally the paper emphasises the role of advocacy and the increasing status of African languages in society in the development of mother-tongue medium education.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, African Languages, Economic Development, Civil Rights

Oviedo, Alexis; Wildemeersch, Danny (2008). Intercultural Education and Curricular Diversification: The Case of the Ecuadorian Intercultural Bilingual Education Model (MOSEIB), Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education. Thirteen Ecuadorian indigenous nationalities follow the Intercultural Bilingual Education Model in Ecuador (MOSEIB). This paper analyses the present situation of MOSEIB, the challenges to it and future prospects. First, in order to understand how MOSEIB today has relieved the intercultural tensions of the past it is necessary to look at the history of Ecuadorian education. Second, in order to explore the particular characteristics of the MOSEIB model and the challenges of implementing intercultural education in non-intercultural societies we ask how and to what extent the intercultural education policies and practices in Ecuador differ from those developed in other Latin-American countries. Third, we consider curricular diversity, seeking to clarify how the MOSEIB curricula relate to the reality of the "Kichwa" indigenous nationality and its communal environment, rituals and agricultural schedules. We conclude with comments on future prospects and remaining challenges to the establishment of a truly intercultural society inside a multicultural country.   [More]  Descriptors: Multicultural Education, Bilingual Education, Foreign Countries, Bilingualism

Ahler, Janet Goldenstein (2007). The Impact of Immigration on Bilingualism among Indigenous American Peoples, Forum on Public Policy Online. Early federal government policies for American indigenous people alternated between extermination and assimilation. Imposing the colonists' and immigrants' language on indigenous people was important for achieving the latter. In the 1970-90's, federally funded grants for bilingual education for indigenous schools were offered to accommodate Native American pressures to reverse the tragic results of those former policies. The stated bilingual goals were to teach them Standard English and to revitalize indigenous languages. Many of these Native American students speak "Indian English" (W. Leap, 1993), a dialect resulting from sociolinguistic interference (see theory, D. Hymes, 1971). Few know any of their Native language. The "Indian English" dialect is ignored, even denigrated as a substandard communication form in these programs. This paper's purpose is to trace the evolution of bilingual education programs and their impact on Native American bilingualism and language revitalization for selected communities in the Northern Plains. Thirty years of evaluating these programs with ethnographic methods have resulted in these conclusions: 1) the local English dialect must be recognized as viable for Standard English to be acquired, 2) indigenous language revitalization requires infinitely more effort than what was provided, and 3) the government's covert goal remained assimilationist, not truly bilingual.   [More]  Descriptors: Immigration, Bilingualism, Ethnography, American Indians

Mora, Raúl A.; Golovátina-Mora, Polina (2011). Bilingualism: A Bridge to Cosmopolitanism?, Online Submission. The literature in English education has discussed at length the proposed goals of English as a tool for international communication, diversity, and the mutual sharing of cultures. In Colombia, different policies have aimed at making "bilingualism" a policy and educational priority that wants to help Colombian students turn these goals about communication and diversity into a reality. However, a more critical view of bilingual education and its larger role within culture questions what bilingualism really fosters. Specifically, there is a concern about the larger question of whether or not being "bilingual" does indeed make one more "cosmopolitan" or simply perpetuates certain cultural views to the detriment of others. Based on the presenters' positions as researchers in the fields of teacher education and literacy (Dr. Mora) and history and international relations (Dr. Golovátina-Mora), this presentation wants to offer a starting point for what the presenters hope will be a much larger conversation beyond this seminar. The seminar will comprise three parts: In the first part, there will be a discussion of different views about bilingualism and cosmopolitanism as social, linguistic, and cultural constructs. In the second part, the presenters will address how bilingualism may (or may not) contribute to a more cosmopolitan worldview. Finally, the presenters will discuss some possible implications for education of a more comprehensive view of bilingualism as a construct that may really promote a larger understanding of culture.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingualism, Second Language Learning, English (Second Language), Second Language Instruction

Gonzalez, Josue (2007). It's Time to Get Another Horse, International Multilingual Research Journal. In this article, the author comments on Peter Roos's article (this issue). The author sees a strong need to clarify whether the horse that is to be remounted is more and better English-as-a-second-language (ESL) programs or the goal of promoting bilingual education as a positive practice in the nation's schools or something else altogether. If the goal is "true" bilingual education over transitional subtractive approaches, any proposal for grants to schools, standing alone, is not viable in today's political climate. If, on the other hand, the goal is to improve programs of ESL in a massive way, there is little doubt that more money would help, particularly in retooling the skills of teachers. The author's conclusion is that neither new lawsuits nor a grant program is what is most needed today to advance the cause of language-minority groups in public education. The horse that one must seek to remount is the noble steed of democracy supported by widespread community education. What is desperately needed today is to prepare parents and families to play out their part of the bargain by becoming more active participants in the education of their children and by making schools more responsive to the needs and priorities of particular communities.   [More]  Descriptors: Grants, Minority Groups, English (Second Language), Public Education

Escamilla, Kathy; Chavez, Lorretta; Vigil, Peter (2005). Rethinking the "Gap:" High-Stakes Testing and Spanish-Speaking Students in Colorado, Journal of Teacher Education. This article challenges the pervasive notion that linguistic and ethnic diversity are causes of the perceived gap in achievement in schools highly affected by Spanish-speaking students participating in programs of bilingual education. The study examines existing data from the state of Colorado with regard to student achievement and compares these data to teacher and policy maker perceptions about Latino Spanish-speaking students and bilingual education programs. Results indicate that teachers and policy makers largely adhere to the notion that there is a gap in achievement between Spanish-speaking students and other Colorado students and that language in particular is a problem. Student-achievement data from the Colorado Student Assessment Program, however, indicate that Spanish speakers in English-language acquisition/bilingual classrooms are among the highest performing students in their schools. Furthermore, findings from this study challenge teacher educators and teachers to be more critical in interpreting the results from high-stakes tests.   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Educators, High Stakes Tests, Bilingualism, Bilingual Education

Krashen, Stephen D. (1999). Condemned without a Trial: Bogus Arguments against Bilingual Education. An expert on second language acquisition examines and refutes five commonly offered arguments against bilingual education: (1) it is responsible for the high Hispanic dropout rate; (2) most immigrants succeed without bilingual education; (3) the United States is the only nation that has bilingual education; (4) bilingual education failed in California; and (5) public opinion is against bilingual education. A final chapter comments on J. Greene's "A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Bilingual Education," a study that re-analyzed existing data on bilingual education. Contents are indexed. Contains 13 references. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Dropout Rate, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language)

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