Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 031 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Jasone Cenoz, Kimberley K. Cuero, Durk Gorter, Josephine Arce, Stacey Neuharth-Pritchett, Margherita Langellotti, Tim McNamara, Joshua A. Fishman, Kayoko Hashimoto, and Maria Grandinetti.

García, Shernaz B.; Ortiz, Alba A. (2013). Intersectionality as a Framework for Transformative Research in Special Education, Multiple Voices for Ethnically Diverse Exceptional Learners. Multicultural and bilingual special education scholars have long advocated that research and practice situate (dis)ability in its social, cultural, racial/ethnic, linguistic, historical, legal, and political contexts. Still, the special education literature reflects more restricted conceptualizations of culture, language, and diversity than required to understand how these mutually influence an individual's, family's and/or community's response to (dis) ability and how organizations address the needs of diverse populations. We propose that an intersectionality framework offers a starting point for conceptualizing, developing and conducting transformative research related to disability and difference. We begin by defining intersectionality and exploring related assumptions, followed by implications for two key aspects of such research: deep understanding of the intersections among multicultural/ multilingual students, communities and schools; and researcher reflexivity.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Theories, Special Education, Disabilities, Multicultural Education

Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey (2007). Research into Practice: Views of Children and Researchers in Learning in Complex Environments, Journal of Research in Childhood Education. This issue highlights seven distinct studies. The first helps us understand how children use language in a computer-supported learning environment. The second investigates the longitudinal outcomes associated with the provision of bilingual education. The third is a case study that examines young boys' beliefs about second language acquisition. The fourth and fifth studies provide new insights into teaching in kindergarten. The sixth and seventh studies use participant research methods to examine inclusion practices in preschool and how standards for early childhood education are constructed. This column briefly summarizes the content of the articles and suggests implications for the conducted research as well as future research.   [More]  Descriptors: Early Childhood Education, Research Methodology, Bilingual Education, Computer Assisted Instruction

Hashimoto, Kayoko (2013). "English-Only", but Not a Medium-of-Instruction Policy: The Japanese Way of Internationalising Education for Both Domestic and Overseas Students, Current Issues in Language Planning. While the medium-of-instruction (MOI) has been seen as one of the most crucial decision-making areas in language policies, it is curious that the equivalent Japanese expression to MOI is absent from educational policy documents. In a nation where the Japanese language is called the national language and enjoys the status of an official language, the absence of the MOI in policy documents is closely related to the fact that the so-called English education in Japan has been removed from bilingual education. In the new millennium, the Japanese government has continuously sought to increase the profile of English in two ways: by improving the overall English proficiency of Japanese students, and by attracting overseas students to Japanese universities in the name of internationalisation. The new senior-high-school English curriculum that aims to "conduct English classes in English" was fully implemented in 2013, and the so-called Global 30 Project is expected to attract some 300,000 overseas students by 2020 to "English-only" degree programmes established at core universities. This article argues that rather than equating with the MOI, the "English-only" initiative can be seen as a tactic for facilitating the co-existence of the national language and English without formalising the status of English as a MOI. By examining government education policies and relevant documents using critical discourse analysis, it also argues that Japan's dualism (Japanese and the Other) or the mechanism of Othering is behind these initiatives.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Policy, Bilingual Education, English (Second Language), Foreign Countries

Grandinetti, Maria; Langellotti, Margherita; Ting, Y. L. Teresa (2013). How CLIL Can Provide a Pragmatic Means to Renovate Science Education–Even in a Sub-Optimally Bilingual Context, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. This study responds to the Italian Ministry of Education mandate that, starting the 2013-2014 academic year, CLIL be implemented in the "final" year of high school, during content time, by content teachers with C1-level competence in English. This decision raises numerous concerns, at least in Calabria: most content teachers have, at best, B1-level English competence and consider CLIL the final straw in an overburdened scholastic curriculum. Secondly, EFL teachers without sufficient content competence are reluctant to contribute to CLIL initiatives, seeing themselves reduced into "walking (technical) dictionaries." Content-driven task-based activities were therefore developed to enable both the EFL teacher (Grandinetti) to work within her comfort zone on an advanced-level science topic and an experienced science teacher (Langellotti), with "only" B1-level English-competence, to fulfil the L1-science curriculum. Such "professional limitations" prompted the development of CLIL activities which necessarily scaffold between "comprehensible language" and "accessible content", transforming teacher-centred lecturing into learner-centred learning. The materials used and the theories guiding their development are presented, alongside analyses of classroom discourse. Positive learning outcomes were obtained and more importantly, maintained, especially from normally disaffected students. Since the sub-optimally bilingual reality of Calabria may reflect many international contexts, delineating how content and language teachers "can CLIL" within their comfort zones will ensure that CLIL contributes successfully to international mainstream bilingual education.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, English (Second Language), Teaching Methods, Science Teachers

Rangel, Javier (2007). The Educational Legacy of El Plan de Santa Barbara: An Interview with Reynaldo Macias, Journal of Latinos and Education. In this interview, Reynaldo F. Macias, chair of the recently established Department of Chicana/o Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), talks about the historical significance of El Plan de Santa Barbara, its impact on Chicana/o studies throughout the Southwest, and its relevance in establishing a department at UCLA, and the future of the discipline. Reynaldo F. Macias is the author, coauthor, and editor of 6 books and more than 3 dozen research articles and chapters on such topics as bilingual education, Chicanes and schooling, language choice, language policies, and media research.   [More]  Descriptors: Mexican American Education, Hispanic American Students, Interviews, Higher Education

Fishman, Joshua A. (2009). Is a Fuller Relinguification of TESOL Desirable?, TESOL Quarterly: A Journal for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages and of Standard English as a Second Dialect. The author well remembers the First TESOL War (TW1), in the 1950s, a "war" personified by an obvious altercation between Professors Rudy Troike and Jim Alatis, as to whether TESOL was good or bad for bilingual education. It was imperfectly resolved, for the time being, at least, by the National Association for Bilingual Education's (NABE's) relative weakness, on the one hand, and by TESOL's declaration that it was in favor of fostering both the mastery of English and of their other-than-English home language on the part of the pupils taught by its members. Whether TESOL ever kept its promise or even made a promise in the latter connection (or whether it was merely a tactical concession to begin with) has never been formally or fully evaluated. A question now arises as to whether a Second TESOL War (TW2) is or will be required, a civil war in this case, in order to satisfy the unmet aspirations of some of the members of its special interest groups (teachers of Spanish, teachers of Japanese, teachers of speakers of other than English home or world languages) as to whether their concerns can better be addressed by TESOL than were the concerns of their NABE counterparts some half a century ago. The exact nature of the interest-section goals of teachers of languages other than English within TESOL need to be explored and opened to public debate, both pro and con. This article may be considered a preemptive strike on behalf of a peaceful but a more genuine solution to the "other" language concerns of TESOL members who are also teachers of languages other than English. A few of these concerns and some recommendations concerning their possible amelioration are briefly sketched in this article as examples of problems and possibilities in this connection.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, War, English (Second Language), Bilingualism

Feinberg, Rosa Castro (2002). Bilingual Education: A Reference Handbook. Contemporary Education Issues. This book describes the evolution of bilingual education in the United States, emphasizing its relationship to educational and civil rights reform. Federal, state, and district policies affecting the implementation of bilingual programs are identified, along with related legal, political, demographic, and economic factors and controversies. International comparisons of bilingual education programs illustrate additional types of language education and policies that incorporate diverse groups into mainstream society. Eight chapters include the following: (1) "Introduction: What Is Bilingual Education?" (e.g., English language instruction, indigenous students, and submersion); (2) "Chronology: The Evolution of Teacher Education"; (3) "Local Bilingual Education Policies and Curriculum" (e.g., characteristics of language minority students, funding, and two-way programs); (4) "State Policies and Bilingual Education" (e.g., state action in education, bridge programs, and state profiles); (5) "Bilingual Education and Federal Law" (e.g., federal authorization, federal incentives, and federal requirements or prohibitions); (6) "Politics and the Challenge of Linguistic Diversity" (e.g., immigration, school finance reform, and identity politics); (7) "Directory of Agencies and Organizations Associated with Bilingual Education"; and (8) "Print and Nonprint Resources" (annotated bibliographies). (Chapters contain references.) Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Civil Rights, Diversity (Student), Educational Finance

Arce, Josephine (2013). Latina Professor Revitalizing Historical Memory: Resistance Politics and Transformation within Teacher Education, Studying Teacher Education. This study focuses on how a Chicana/Latina professor contributed to the development of social consciousness with Spanish bilingual credential candidates in a Teacher Education Multiple Subject Credential Program, in California, USA. As a teacher educator, my goals were to look deeply at my teaching approach and to evaluate what the students and I were learning from the structure and contents of this course that emphasized issues on Latinos in the USA. The aims for evaluating my teaching both on theoretical and practice levels were to provide insights into the potential tensions in teaching a highly political course within Teacher Education, to explore implications for faculty in Teacher Education, and to investigate how bilingual Teacher Education programs can prepare future teachers to question and challenge inequities in school settings.   [More]  Descriptors: Hispanic Americans, Minority Group Teachers, Teacher Educators, Women Faculty

Despagne, Colette (2013). Indigenous Education in Mexico: Indigenous Students' Voices, Diaspora, Indigenous, and Minority Education. The purpose of this article is to investigate whether, despite a shift in political and educational discourses over the last decades that suggests that Indigenous cultures and languages are recognized, any real change has occurred in terms of Indigenous education in Mexico. It is possible that official bilingual intercultural education is still just a goal. Data presented include four Indigenous students' accounts of their educational experiences in monolingual and bilingual schools. The findings suggest that Indigenous education still has assimilationist tendencies, as far as the mestizo identity and the use of Spanish are concerned, and these tendencies are based on a (neo)liberal vision of multiculturalism that promotes "ethnophagy". There is room for more changes to occur.   [More]  Descriptors: Indigenous Populations, Cultural Pluralism, Foreign Countries, Multicultural Education

Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk (2008). Applied Linguistics and the Use of Minority Languages in Education, AILA Review. Research on minority languages is ordinarily not well known by speakers of "big" languages but it has focused on several areas of Applied Linguistics and it is relevant to many areas. This current volume of "AILA Review" features five articles. Each of the articles emphasizes some aspects of research, depending on the recent developments in each case and on the availability of specific types of research results. In the first article, "Achievements and Challenges in Bilingual and Multilingual education in the Basque Country," Jasone Cenoz summarizes the results of different educational linguistic models in the Basque Autonomous Community regarding achievement in Basque, Spanish, English and other school subjects. Cenoz also discusses the new challenges for the Basque educational system, which include the need for more effective teaching of languages of wider communication and the integration of immigrant students. F. Xavier Vila i Moreno discusses the situation of Catalan in "Language-in-Education Policies in the Catalan Language Area." He provides an overview of the main school models in the fragmented Catalan language area from a comparative perspective. His summary of recent research results emphasizes language learning, language practices, effects on social cohesion and academic achievement. The challenges of the education systems are to adapt to a new multilingual, multicultural environment, where immigrant languages combine with globalization. At the same time, these systems may be regarded with suspicion by majority speakers, especially those who live in traditionally monolingual areas. The next article by John Harris, "The Declining Role of Primary Schools in the Revitalisation of Irish" focuses on the major challenge of the education system in Ireland, which has to constantly produce a high proportion of people with good Irish in order to maintain the small proportion of Irish-speaking households. He examines evidence from national surveys of pupil achievement and attitudes in order to establish how well this strategy is working. Results show a long-term decline in success in learning Irish in mainstream schools and to a lesser extent in Gaeltacht schools. The situation in Wales is discussed by W. Gwyn Lewis in "Current Challenges in Bilingual Education in Wales." He commences with a brief summary of the development and current statistics on bilingual education in Wales. He then discusses the inadequacies of current typologies and terminology in bilingual education models. The early results from a 2007/08 survey of language allocation in bilingual schools in Wales are presented, along with an emerging new typology. He points out that if Welsh-medium and bilingual education is to flourish in the twenty first century, it must do so in accordance with the needs and aspirations of the children and parents. In the fifth case study, Durk Gorter and Cor van der Meer discuss "Developments in Bilingual Frisian-Dutch Education in Friesland." They give an outline of the weak position of Frisian in the education system and the slow development of language policy. They discuss the research outcomes on language attitudes, school achievement in Dutch and Frisian and an experiment with a number of trilingual schools. Although the general point of departure for Frisian is encouraging, the way Frisian is taught in the schools reflects the position of Frisian as a predominantly spoken language in society at large. These five situations focus on the achievements and challenges faced by minority languages in education in some countries in Europe but the authors strongly believe that they are relevant for applied linguists all over the world.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Applied Linguistics, Language Minorities, Language Usage

Veintie, Tuija (2013). Practical Learning and Epistemological Border Crossings: Drawing on Indigenous Knowledge in Terms of Educational Practices, Diaspora, Indigenous, and Minority Education. This article examines the incorporation of Indigenous knowledge into an intercultural bilingual teacher education program in the Ecuadorian Amazon. The article focuses on student teachers' and teacher educators' views on the ways in which Indigenous knowledge can guide educational practices. An ethnographic study was conducted in one teacher education institute in the Ecuadorian Amazon. The article is based on interviews with student teachers, teacher educators, and elementary school teachers. The student teachers and school teachers are Amazonian Indigenous (Shuar, Achuar, & Kichwa), and the teacher educators represent Indigenous and Spanish-speaking majority populations. The data suggest that the research participants recognize Indigenous knowledge in the communities, but have a narrow view of how to incorporate that knowledge into educational practices. The article argues that the teacher education program fails to connect with the Indigenous community, and does not help the students to cross the epistemological borders between Indigenous and Western knowledge.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Indigenous Knowledge, Intercultural Programs, Bilingual Education

Mohamed, Naashia (2013). The Challenge of Medium of Instruction: A View from Maldivian Schools, Current Issues in Language Planning. In the era of globalisation, language-in-education policies continue to present challenges as policy-makers across the globe aim to balance the emphasis given to students' first language and the pressing need for students to be proficient in English as the global "lingua franca" [Hanna, P. (2011). Gaining global perspective: Educational language policy and planning. "International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism," 14(6), 733-749]. Within this debate, the impact of the medium of instruction (MOI) on students' linguistic, cognitive and affective development has received much attention ([Tam, A. C. F. (2011). Does the switch of medium of instruction facilitate the language learning of students? A case study of Hong Kong from teachers' perspective. "Language & Education," 25(5), 399-417]). This study focuses on the case of the Maldives, a small Asian nation with its own unique language and homogeneous culture that adopted English as an MOI in an early partial immersion model half a century ago. Using a case study research design, it seeks to uncover the perspectives of students, educators and parents on the benefits and challenges of a policy that adopted a second language as the MOI in a monolingual, monocultural situation, without providing any options for gaining an education in the first language. The survey data indicate that while the need for students to be proficient in English is not disputed, questions are raised regarding its role as the MOI throughout a student's school education. Observational data from classrooms and analysis of instructional materials show the need for urgent reform of the language policy so as to promote students' linguistic diversity and enhance academic achievement. Policy changes that can foster student learning and satisfy language-based civil rights are recommended.   [More]  Descriptors: Instructional Materials, Civil Rights, Cognitive Development, Affective Behavior

Cuero, Kimberley K.; Dworin, Joel E. (2007). Lessons from Jeniffer: Addressing Common Assumptions Regarding "Former" English- Language Learners, Voices from the Middle. This article draws attention to the ever-increasing population of middle level students who come from bilingual education programs and find themselves in our classrooms still learning to use English for academic purposes without the benefit of ESL or primary language supports. Authors Cuero and Dworin advocate for curriculum and teaching that values bilingualism and biliteracy development for students, and for programs whose goals and structures support those ends. They offer ways that teachers may better acknowledge the complexities of educating bilingual students and their specific needs, both in and out of school.   [More]  Descriptors: English for Academic Purposes, Bilingual Students, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Education Programs

McEwan, Patrick J.; Trowbridge, Marisol (2007). The Achievement of Indigenous Students in Guatemalan Primary Schools, International Journal of Educational Development. This paper analyses the difference in academic achievement between indigenous and nonindigenous children that attend rural primary schools in Guatemala. The gap ranges between 0.8 and 1 standard deviation in Spanish, and approximately half that in Mathematics. A decomposition procedure suggests that a relatively small portion of the achievement gap is explained by differences in the socioeconomic status of indigenous and nonindigenous families. Other results are consistent with the notion that school attributes play an important role in explaining the achievement gap. The paper discusses several explanations–such as the lack of bilingual education–that are consistent with the empirical findings.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Indigenous Populations, Foreign Countries, Educational Policy

Hill, Kathryn; McNamara, Tim (2015). Validity Inferences under High-Stakes Conditions: A Response from Language Testing, Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives. Those who work in second- and foreign-language testing often find Koretz's concern for validity inferences under high-stakes (VIHS) conditions both welcome and familiar. While the focus of the article is more narrowly on the potential for two instructional responses to test-based accountability, "reallocation" and "coaching," to undermine the validity of score-based inferences about achievement by inflating scores and exaggerating mastery of the domain of interest, rather than the broader set of problems around test-based accountability (Haertel, 2013), the issues raised have also been extensively discussed for several years in the field of language testing, using somewhat different terminology. "Washback" (or "backwash") is the specific term used to refer to the effects of high-stakes assessment on teaching and learning and is considered a subset of test impact more generally (Cheng, 2008). The inflationary or deflationary effect of nonsubstantive (construct irrelevant) "performance elements" on scores (associated with coaching in the article) is known as "test method effect" (Bachman, 1990). The context of the article, where outcomes-based control of educational effort is found to have a distorting effect on teaching and learning efforts, has many parallels in language testing, not only in the United States, where the negative impact on bilingual education of test-based accountability under No Child Left Behind and more recently the Common Core Standards has been widely discussed (Menken, 2008), but internationally, particularly in studies of the problematic impact of the Common European Framework of Reference (Council of Europe 2001) and PISA testing on language education (McNamara, 2011). Issues around validity inferences under high-stakes conditions arise in language testing in more contexts than the kind of test based accountability scenarios that are the focus of this article. Since the appearance of a special volume in "Language Testing" (the leading journal in the field) featuring an article on washback by Messick (1996), there has been a significant amount of research undertaken on washback and the broader impacts of language assessment, including a suite of studies sponsored by the major language testing agencies themselves. However, the high-stakes language assessments forming the focus of these studies are typically used for selection and/or accreditation purposes rather than for school and teacher accountability: language tests act as gatekeeping devices to control access to employment, education, migration, and citizenship. There is a general consensus in language-testing research that high-stakes language assessment influences "what" is taught but not necessarily "how" it is taught.   [More]  Descriptors: Language Tests, Test Validity, High Stakes Tests, Inferences

Leave a Reply