Bibliography: New Mexico (page 192 of 235)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Window Rock Navajo Tribe, Leodoro Hernandez, Joni L. Manson, Stephen Wallace, E. Richards Hart, Lorenzo A. Trujillo, Michael Shainline, Marsha V. Krotseng, Sandra O'Neal, and Carroll L. Riley.

McCarty, T. L.; Wallace, Stephen (1983). Navajo Leadership and Government: A History. Sixth-Ninth Grade Navajo Bilingual-Bicultural Social Studies Curriculum. This history of Navajo leadership and government, part of the sixth-ninth grade Navajo bilingual-bicultural social studies curriculum from the Navajo Curriculum Centers, covers types of government from the animal leaders of Navajo legend to modern times. The text is divided into five chapters: "The First Leaders,""New Neighbors–New Government,""Fort Sumner and Return," A Time of Change," and "Modern Leaders–Modern Tribal Government." The history of Navajo leadership before and after the arrival of the Spaniards, and subsequently the Anglo Americans, is given. Hostilities between Navajos and the United State government; Navajo government at Fort Sumner, New Mexico, after the "Long Walk" from Ft. Sumner; the first Navajo reservation; and the beginning of Bureau of Indian Affairs agencies, Navajo chapters, and the Navajo Tribal Council are discussed. Navajo government in the 1930's, the stock reduction problem, changes in the Tribal Council, Navajo participation in World War II, and Navajo leaders since the war are described. Eight blocks, containing from two to six questions to think about, are interspersed throughout the text. Drawings, maps, and photographs illustrate the text.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indian History, American Indian Literature, American Indian Reservations

Riley, Carroll L.; Manson, Joni L. (1982). Indian-Spanish Communication Networks: Continuity in the Greater Southwest. Trade and communication networks established by Indian groups in the 15th century A.D. linked the Southwest to Mesoamerica, the Plains and the Pacific littoral; these routes were later used by the Spanish and Americans, and today major highways follow ancient Indian routes. The main east-west route had major termini at Cibola (near Zuni) in the west and Pecos in the east; the north-south trunk road followed the Rio Grande from Taos south to the El Paso area, and was later extended by the Spanish to southern Chihuahua and called the Camino Real. From their arrival in the 1530's the Spanish, primarily concerned with reaching and controlling Indian settlements and resource areas, used Indian routes. Trails were widened for cart and pack animal transportation, but few other modifications were made. In the 16th century, the region split into two administrative divisions: upper (New Mexico) and lower (Sonora); the Camino Real fell into disuse until its reestablishment in the late 18th century. Before and after arrival of the Americans, new roads were built in previously unsettled areas because decline in Indian populations led to relocation of important centers, new technology opened up uninhabited regions, and railroads and automobiles demanded flatter terrain than the old roads. Descriptors: American Indian History, American Indians, Communication (Thought Transfer), Ethnic Relations

Hernandez, Leodoro (1979). Language of the Chicano. Bilingual Education Paper Series, Vol. 3, No. 1. Chicano Spanish in not only a product of two languages, but also the influence of middle-class environment and immediate realities. These realities are much different from those in Mexico, even though they derive from it, having a strong relationship to all factors that constitute social level and status. Three principal dialects are: Tex-Mex, spoken in Texas; Manito, spoken in New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado; and Calo, spoken in California. Chicano Spanish is not something to be ignored; it's the mother tongue of several million Chicanos and their only link to their culture. When teachers know what makes Chicanos tick, where they're coming from, they can be much more effective in improving the educational level of Chicanos. The Bilingual Education Act of 1968 brought about a rash of crash programs to educate children in two languages. Because the Chicano spoke broken English and/or had a Spanish surname, it was assumed the language they were comfortable with was Spanish; no real assessment was made. Bilingual teachers must know who the student is, their knowledge level of Spanish, and the type of Spanish used. Every child speaks the language of the family and community; therefore, family and community must be involved in bilingual education. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Community Involvement, Cultural Awareness

O'Neal, Sandra (1982). College Entrance Examinations, 1981/1982. ACT & CEEB Testing. The American College Testing Program (ACT) and the Admission Testing Program of the College Entrance Examination Board are programs in which a large number of Albuquerque Public School (APS) students voluntarily participate. A summary of test data for participating APS students is provided here. For the 1981-82 school year, the scores of APS students on the ACT compare very well with the national norms. Ten-year trends of APS and national composite scores, APS and national test results, scores for boys and girls, scores according to high school curriculum, grade level of APS students at time of testing, percent of APS seniors tested, and characteristics of APS students taking the test are reported for the ACT program. Although the large majority of college-bound students in New Mexico take the ACT, several hundred APS students choose to take the College Board's Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) each year. Both math and verbal SAT scores of APS students were above national averages. Three-year trends in APS and national scores; and APS, national, regional, and state scores are provided for the SAT. ACT and SAT information by high school, and the states where students plan to attend college are also provided. Descriptors: College Entrance Examinations, Educational Trends, Graphs, High Schools

McAlpine, Dave (1981). The Occurrence of Beliefs and Legends in Selected Chicano Literature from 1959-1979. Six Chicano anthologies, five novels, and one poem written between 1959 and 1979, selected for their usefulness as texts for a Chicano literature course, were investigated for occurrence of folk beliefs and legends. The 1959 novel "Pocho" contained one reference to a belief. In the 1967 poem "I Am Joaquin" were references which suggested the influence of legend. Two folk beliefs appeared in the novel "Chicano" (1970). One selection in the anthology "The Chicanos" (1971) featured four folk beliefs. The 1972 novel "Bless Me, Ultima" presented the reader with the greatest number and most skillful use of folkloric motifs, as well as witchcraft, curses and a legend from the Indian heritage of New Mexico. The anthology "Aztlan" (1972) contained references to legends about Joaquin Murrieta and la Llorona, a ghost. Another anthology, "Mexican-American Authors" (1972), contained only two examples of legends. Two legends appeared in another anthology, "Songs & Dreams" (1972). Three beliefs and legends were found in "Yearnings," a companion anthology. Some excellent beliefs and legends appeared in the anthology "We Are Chicanos" (1973). The novel "Heart of Aztlan" (1976) was an excellent source of New Mexican folklore. The novel "Tortuga" (1979) contained several beliefs and mentioned la Llorona.   [More]  Descriptors: Beliefs, Cultural Background, Folk Culture, Hispanic American Culture

Black, Talbot, Ed.; Hutinger, Patricia, Ed. (1981). Cost Effective Delivery Strategies in Rural Areas: Programs for Young Handicapped Children. Vol. I. Making It Work in Rural Communities. A Rural Network Monograph. Using a common format outlining program settings, agencies, children/families served, staff, services, delivery strategies, and program costs, descriptions of four cost-effective rural service delivery programs for young handicapped children provide evidence that good rural programs are affordable. The Early Lifestyle Program at King's Daughters' School (Columbia, Tennessee) serves 12 birth to 4 year olds in a Home-based Infant Model focusing on parent training at a cost per child/per year of $1,642 and 16 moderately to severely mentally retarded children (ages 4 to 8) in 2 Preschool Model Classrooms emphasizing social and emotional skills at a cost per child/per year of $3,627. The Multi-Agency Project for Pre-Schoolers is a home- and community-based intervention program based in Logan, Utah with replication sites in Idaho, Nevada, Wyoming, Arizona, and New Mexico. Operating year round, the Macomb 0-3 Regional Project (Illinois) provides home visits, sharing centers, water activities, and parent study topics for children from birth to age 3 at a recurring cost per child/per year of $2,237. Operating from Eastern Montana College (Billings) at a projected cost per child/per year of $625, Project Sunrise offers diagnostic and screening services, home visits, community education, and child advocacy services.   [More]  Descriptors: Agency Cooperation, Community Services, Coordination, Cost Effectiveness

Flora, Cornelia B. (1976). Kansas Migration Streams: Where They Come From; Where They Go. Bulletin 601. Gross migration from Kansas to other states and to Kansas from the rest of the nation between 1965 and 1970 was examined. Data were obtained through a comparison of where an individual lived in 1965 with where he or she lived in 1970. Twelve percent (250,832 people) of the 1970 population migrated to Kansas between 1965 and 1970. However, 14% (298,258 people) who lived in Kansas in 1965 left by 1970. People moved the most when they were 18 to 25 years old. Two important institutions that aided their mobility were the armed forces and institutions of higher education. More students went to California, Colorado, Oklahoma, and Texas than came from those states to school in Kansas. However, more students came from New Mexico, Missouri, Iowa, Montana, Illinois, New York, Delaware, South Dakota, and Nebraska than went to those areas. Kansas lost large numbers of servicemen to Missouri, Texas, Illinois, and California. The majority of servicemen came to Kansas from the Pacific region. Nonmetropolitan areas of Kansas were the most attractive for out-of-state migrants as well as for Kansans changing residence to another economic area in Kansas. The step-migration of Kansas residents who moved were from a farm to a small town, to a medium sized city, to a metropolitan area in the state and then to a metropolitan area outside Kansas. Few moved from metropolitan areas to metropolitan areas in Kansas.   [More]  Descriptors: Census Figures, Maps, Metropolitan Areas, Migrants

Trujillo, Lorenzo A. (1983). Hispanic Tradition-Folkloric Music and Dance. The Hispanic folkloric tradition of Colorado and New Mexico had its beginning in the 1500's and 1600's when the area was colonized by the Spaniards. The "manito" (used by Hispanics in the Southwest to refer to descendants of the area's Spanish colonials) culture has maintained a strong sense of ethnic identity because of geographic isolation in rural and urban areas, close family ties, close relationship to the land, and definite patterns emphasizing culture and language maintenance. The "Valse de los Panos" (waltz of the scarves) is a unique example of how the Hispanic tradition still survives. This dance and music originated in the court dance of 16th century Spain. During that period, it was forbidden for physical contact to occur between a man and a woman. An acceptable way to dance without touching was to have a material scarf bind the dancers together. The woman's scarf was symbolic of her honor, which has always been the highest of values for the Hispanic caballero. Therefore, the dance's historical and cultural value assumes a greater significance when the psychological and cultural values that have given rise to this kinesthetic statement are considered. The dance has traditionally been performed at the initiation of a ball. The paper describes the dance and music.   [More]  Descriptors: Cultural Activities, Dance, Folk Culture, Hispanic Americans

Shainline, Michael (1986). District Report. 1985-86 High School Dropouts. September, 1986. This report provides eleven tables containing dropout statistics for Albuquerque, New Mexico Public Schools for the 1985-86 school year. Data for the district and for individual schools are included. The table break down total statistics into categories such as ethnicity, gender, and grade level. Major findings were the following: (1) the district dropout rate for 1985-86 was 5.67%; (2) the highest dropout rate among ethnic groups occurred for those classified as "other," which includes Oriental, North African, and East Indian students (7.75%), while the lowest occurred for black students (4.56%); (3) dropout rates for Grades 9 through 12 were 2.60%, 5.98%, 7.36%, and 7.18%, respectively; (4) males dropped out of district high schools at a rate of 5.51%; and (5) a total of 78% of all high school students who dropped out within the district left due to either a lack of motivation or interest or else failed to re-enroll at the beginning of the school year. Descriptors: Dropout Rate, Dropouts, Ethnicity, High Schools

Navajo Tribe, Window Rock, AZ. Div. of Education. (1985). Navajo Student Enrollment & Basic Educational Data: Navajo Area School Systems SY-1984-85. During school year 1984-85, 61,586 Navajo preschool-grade 12 students were enrolled in 241 schools serving the Navajo Nation in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah. Approximately 62.8% of the Navajo students attended 157 public schools, while 25.4% attended 53 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) operated schools, 6% attended 9 community-controlled and 22 mission schools, and 5.8% attended preschools under the Division of Navajo Child Development. Navajo student enrollment appeared to be increasing at a rate of 01.4% per year. BIA schools showed the lowest rate of increase (00.7%), with public school enrollments increasing at 01.9% per year and contract school increasing at 3.4% per year. Only two of the 26 public school district superintendents were Navajos. Of the 423 administrators in Navajo area schools, 110 were Navajos, with 64% administering the contract schools. While only 739 of the 4,839 teachers were Navajos, 1,160 of the 1,638 teacher aides were Navajos. A total of 38 schools were accredited by the North Central Accreditation Association: 14 BIA schools, 21 public schools, 2 contract schools, and 1 mission school. Most schools taught Navajo history, government, and culture; and bilingual instruction was delivered by teacher aides in most public and BIA schools. Descriptors: Accreditation (Institutions), Administrators, American Indian Education, American Indians

Seifert, Edward H. (1982). Career Status of Secondary Principals in Small Schools in the Southwest. A Research Report. A 24-item questionnaire was mailed to 559 randomly selected secondary principals in Arkansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and Oklahoma to determine the career status of secondary principals working in buildings with student populations of 400 or fewer. The greatest single factor influencing the decision to become a principal was need for increased salary. The largest group of respondents was in the 36-40 age bracket (22%), 27% had served 1-3 years as a secondary principal, and over 31% had taught 11 years or more. Salaries ranged from less than $18,000 to more than $33,000 depending on school size and principal's longevity. About 27% indicated a desire to stay in their present position for the duration of their career. About 39% reported no formal evaluation system was used to determine principals' employment status. Eighty-eight percent held one year contracts and vacation days differed widely. Based on the results, it is recommended that: salary and fringe benefits must be competitive with larger schools to get quality people; principals must be given greater autonomy within their buildings; multi-year contracts should be used unless prohibited by statute; and a formal evaluation system must be implemented for principals. Descriptors: Age, Career Choice, Contracts, Employment Experience

Hart, E. Richards; And Others (1973). The Zunis: Experiences and Descriptions. Designed to use in schools, the booklet provides brief information on Zuni prehistory and a chronology of events occurring between 1539 and 1973 (e.g., Francisco Vasquez Coronado's occupation of one of the six Zuni villages in 1540, Juan de Onate's visit to Hawikuh in 1598, the establishment of the first Catholic mission at Halona:wa, the war between the Zunis and the Hopis, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, the beginning of the jewelry and blacksmithing trades by the Zuni, the opening of the first Bureau of Indian Affairs day school). Brief information is provided on the coming of the Spanish; the 1680 Pueblo Revolt to overthrow the Spanish and gain back control of the entire New Mexico area; the reconquest by the Spanish in 1692; the first Anglo Americans at Zuni; traders, anthropologists, rustlers and trespassers, and missionaries at Zuni; the Zuni trip to the East Coast; the Logan Case, an attempt by a group of white men, including Senator John A. Logan, to acquire Zuni land around Nutria Springs; the economy and technological advancements from 1900 to 1973; and the Zunis' system of government. Foods used by the Zunis in ancient times are listed. Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indians, Cultural Background, Cultural Interrelationships

Krotseng, Marsha V. (1987). The "Education Governor": Political Packaging or Public Policy? ASHE Annual Meeting Paper. The popular image of the "Education Governor" was investigated, with attention to: (1) the extent to which the specific education measures proposed in inaugural and state of the state addresses of 20 "Education Governors" of the 1960s through 1980s corresponded with the subsequent actions of these officials; and (2) the specific personal attributes, professional goals and activities, and actual involvement in education that characterize these "Education Governors" of the 1960s through the 1980s. The roots of the "Education Governor" idea are traced to four turn of the century governors, one from North Carolina, two from Virginia, and one from Alabama, all of whom held office between 1901 and 1911. The 20 recent governors and their states are as follows:. Jerry Apodaca (New Mexico); Reubin Askew (Florida); Edmund G. Brown, Sr. (California); John Chafee (Rhode Island); Bill Clinton (Arkansas); Winfield Dunn (Tennessee); Pierre S. duPont, IV (Delaware); Robert D. Graham (Florida); Clifford T. Hansen (Wyoming); Mark O. Hatfield (Oregon); Richard J. Hughes (New Jersey); James B. Hunt (North Carolina); Thomas Kean (New Jersey); Tom McCall (Oregon); Robert E. McNair (South Carolina); William G. Milliken (Michigan); Russell W. Peterson (Delaware); Calvin L. Rampton (Utah); Robert D. Ray (Iowa); and TerrySanford (North Carolina). Included are 30 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Change Strategies, Educational Change, Governance, Government Role

Askins (B.E.) and Associates, Lubbock, TX. (1980). A School and Home-Based Bilingual Education Model (Grades 3-6): End-of-Year Evaluation Report, 1979-80 (Fifth-Year Evaluation Study). A Clovis, New Mexico, project designed to develop over five years a model English-Spanish bilingual program for limited English proficiency students from nursery school through grade 6 did not fully meet its objectives during the 1979-80 school year, the project's fifth and final year. One hundred forty students enrolled in grades 3-6 in two Clovis schools were involved in the 1979-80 project. The evaluation used pretest and posttest scores on three subsets of the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills and three sets of scores on the Developmental Profile to measure student achievement in the areas of language arts, mathematics, reading, self-concept, and favorable emotional development. Language arts objectives were achieved by grades 3 and 4 and mathematics objectives by grades 3, 4, and 5, but reading objectives were not met by any grade level. Despite some growth in self-concept at the third grade level, projected growth in self-concept did not occur at any level. Grade 6 students showed no significant growth in any measured area. For all grade levels it was recommended that additional remedial reading assistance be provided and that the curriculum be modified to include a program to aid in the improvement of student self-concept. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education, Demonstration Programs, Elementary Education

Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div. (1985). A Statistical Profile of the American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut Populations for the United States: 1980. Twenty graphs and charts provide a 1980 statistical profile of American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut populations for the United States. Data indicate the 1980 Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut population was 1,420,400, an increase of 592,132 since 1970; little population change by region occurred during the decade, with 49% still located in the West; states with largest American Indian populations are California, Oklahoma, Arizona, New Mexico, North Carolina, Washington, South Dakota, Michigan, Texas, and New York, respectively; and in 1980, 34,144 Eskimos and 8,090 Aleuts lived in Alaska, while 8,018 Eskimos and 6,115 Aleuts resided in other states. Other graphs show that 50% of the 1980 American Indian population had nonmetropolitan residences; median age of Indian females was 23.5 years as compared with 31.2 years for the total female population; 23% of Indian families were maintained by women compared with 14% for the total population; 56% of Indians over age 25 had graduated from high school in 1980, compared with 33% in 1970; Indian unemployment was 13%, compared with 6.5% nationally; median 1979 family income for Indians, Eskimos, and Aleuts was $19,917; and 27.5% of Indians, 28.8% of Eskimos, and 19.5% of Aleuts lived in poverty as compared with 12.4% of the total population.   [More]  Descriptors: Age, Alaska Natives, American Indian Reservations, American Indians

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