Bibliography: High Stakes Testing (page 77 of 95)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Christopher J. Moore, Mark R. O'Shea, Sara Goldrick-Rab, Patricia A. Wasley, Michael Kane, George F. Madaus, Michael Reiss, Robin Tepper Jacob, Dale D. Johnson, and Marguerite Clarke.

Madaus, George F.; Clarke, Marguerite (2001). The Adverse Impact of High Stakes Testing on Minority Students: Evidence from 100 Years of Test Data. This paper examines four aspects of current high stakes testing that impact minority students and others traditionally underserved by American education. Data from research conducted at Boston College over 30 years highlight 4 issues: high stakes, high standards tests do not have a markedly positive effect on teaching and learning; high stakes tests do not motivate the unmotivated; authentic high stakes assessments are not a more equitable way to assess the progress of students who differ in race, culture, native language, or gender; and high stakes testing programs have been shown to increase high school dropout rates, particularly among minority populations. The paper emphasizes the need to carefully monitor the four issues. Though raising educational standards and improving educational quality in American schools is important, efforts to foster academic achievement must involve more than simply setting demanding standards and mandating examinations that are referenced to them. The task remains to identify strategies for achieving the desirable reform objectives efficiently and effectively without having a negative impact on any subpopulation of students. An appendix presents: comparability of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Population 3 coverage index and data on dropouts in the United States. (Contains 59 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Diversity (Student), Dropout Rate, Elementary Secondary Education, Equal Education

Ross, Steve; Nunnery, John; Avis, Ashli; Borek, Tom (2005). The Effects of School Renaissance on Student Achievement in Two Mississippi School Districts: A Longitudinal Quasi-Experimental Study, Center for Research in Educational Policy (CREP). The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of students in 14 Pascagoula schools and 9 Biloxi schools implementing School Renaissance (SR) to that of students in matched control schools. The achievement measures to be examined were from the 2004 administration of the Mississippi Curriculum Test (MCT) for Reading, Language Arts, and Mathematics in grades 2-8 and the Mississippi Writing Assessment (WA) in grades 4 and 7.  Results showed that, although program effects were not as strong and consistent as in the prior school year, they remained generally positive: 16 out of 20 computed effect size estimates were positive. In both Reading and Language Arts, significant positive program effects were observed in 5th grade and 8th grade. In Mathematics, a strong, significant program effect was observed in 3rd and 6th grades. As in 2002-03, strong, significant program effects were obtained in both tested grade levels, particularly in 4th grade, on the Writing Assessment. Supplementary analyses examined outcomes separately by school district, and examined the relationship of student-level implementation measures to achievement effects. Results showed stronger and more consistent program effects in Reading, Language Arts, Math, and Writing for Biloxi than for Pascagoula. Further, implementation measures (particularly reading level and comprehension scores) accounted for substantial variance in achievement, especially in lower grades. These results overall indicate generally positive and sustainable impacts of SR on student performance in program-independent, high-stakes testing. However, these impacts were predominantly evident in Biloxi and only minimally so in Pascagoula, thus suggesting that sustained implementation (four years vs. two years, respectively) was critical to success. Assessment Scoring Rubrics are appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Grades (Scholastic), Academic Achievement, High Stakes Tests, Program Effectiveness

Predmore, Sarah R. (2005). Putting it into Context, Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers. This paper examines the place of contextual teaching and learning (CTL) in career and technical education. CTL is a much-discussed concept for integrating real-world experience and academics, and appears to show that students learn better when they are taught knowledge within the context of actual experience, rather than abstractly. Studies indicate that this method can be highly successful in increasing the motivation and retention of students, but what happens when the idea of CTL meets the reality of the classroom? How do today?s teachers–who often face the increasing pressure of high-stakes testing and large, diverse classes –make contextual learning into a practical reality? This is what researchers at the University of Georgia's College of Education spent five years studying. In 1998, the University of Georgia (UGA) received funding from the U.S. Department of Education to develop a "model of excellence for contextual teaching and learning in preservice teacher education." The resulting model included both new courses and a revamping of existing ones. In 2001, the U.S. Department of Education extended its support of UGA with the goal of learning how new teachers have applied CTL strategies in their classrooms. The research included eight case studies as well as a cross-case analysis and other research methods. The most significant, according to researchers, is that students simply learn more when teachers incorporate contextual strategies. The research revealed what many CTE educators have been arguing for years: there are significant benefits to using contextual teaching in the classroom.   [More]  Descriptors: Technical Education, Context Effect, Career Education, Teaching Methods

O'Shea, Mark R. (2005). From Standards to Success: A Guide for School Leaders, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. In this era of accountability and high-stakes testing, school leaders must find more sophisticated ways to help all students succeed. But how can districts make adequate yearly progress without a coherent system for addressing state standards? In "From Standards to Success", education professor Mark R. O'Shea introduces the Standards Achievement Planning Cycle (SAPC), a comprehensive protocol for meeting the standards. To illustrate his multi-layered approach, O'Shea takes readers to a fictional school as it prepares to install the SAPC. Readers meet the superintendent, who organizes the district for curriculum reform; the principal, who supervises standards-based instruction; and the teachers, who collaboratively plan lessons and evaluate their students' work. From teacher observation to student assessment, O'Shea offers innovative strategies to help school leaders (1) identify and analyze which standards are most important (2) select appropriate curriculum materials and resources (3) provide instructional planning time for teachers (4) create a benchmark-testing program; and (5) design effective professional development. Checklists at the end of each chapter highlight best practices, and sample lessons show how to plan curriculum that enables students to meet state standards. The result is a thorough and sensible guide to realizing the promise of standards-based education. Mark R. O'Shea is a professor of education at California State University?Monterey Bay. He is the founder and executive director of the Institute for the Achievement of Academic Standards. Chapters contained in this book include: (1) A Visit to a Standards-Based School; (2) An Overview of Curriculum Management for Standards Achievement; (3) The Standards Achievement Planning Cycle; (4) The District's Plans for Standards Implementation; (5) The Principal's Role in a Standards-Based School; (6) Evaluation of Standards Achievement; and (7) Professional Development for Standards Achievement.   [More]  Descriptors: State Standards, Planning, Instructional Leadership, Curriculum Development

Huber, Richard A.; Moore, Christopher J. (2002). High Stakes Testing and Science Learning Assessment, Science Educator. Discusses the problems arising with standardized testing which play an important role in the structure and politics of K-12 education. Describes the benefits of using interactive Internet technologies for the assessment of inquiry-based science instruction. (Contains 21 references.) Descriptors: Computer Uses in Education, Educational Technology, Elementary Secondary Education, Evaluation Methods

Protheroe, Nancy (2001). Meeting the Challenges of High-Stakes Testing. Essentials for Principals[TM]. The often-competing issues that accompany high-stakes testing pose challenges for even the best and most experienced principals. For example, time allotted for teaching test-taking skills and practice is sometimes "stolen" from science and social-studies courses. Some parents are concerned that students are missing out on a critical part of their education as a result. This publication discusses many of the elements surrounding high-stakes testing. Its focus is on providing the school leader with tools to make it a less stressful and more successful situation for staff and students. Topics include test-preparation issues, the pros and cons of test prep, how much time should be spent, and what approaches will be most helpful to students. Tips are given on how teachers can use classroom activities, homework, and ongoing assessment practices to help students perform well on tests. Examples are given of what schools have learned from experience about providing a calm, structured environment that decreases student stress. Other issues discussed are children with special needs, integrating assessment and instruction in ways that support student learning, and effectively communicating test results to parents and enlisting assistance from parents. (Contains 87 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Guides, Administrator Responsibility, Administrators, Educational Environment

Stone, Susan; Jacob, Robin Tepper (2005). Teachers and Students Speak, Education Next. Despite mixed reviews from many educators–and some researchers–Chicago's retention policy to end social promotion has turned out to be a popular program. Surprisingly, perhaps, its most avid fans are the people most affected by it: teachers and students. Chicago's ending of social promotion was intended to make educators pay more attention to the lowest-performing students, encourage parents to become more involved in their children's education, and send strong messages to students that achievement mattered. Fortunately, the Chicago experiment–now in its eighth year–became part of an ongoing study of the city's public school system begun by the Consortium on Chicago School Research (CCSR) in 1994. Since 1999 the CCSR has published several studies of Chicago's attempt to end social promotion that helps to provide an extensive, empirical, and longitudinal look at the impact of the high-stakes testing policies on the Chicago school system. This article is adapted from one of those reports, "Ending Social Promotion: Response of Students and Teachers." The study drew on four basic sources of data: teacher surveys, principal surveys, student surveys, and personal interviews with a sample of teachers from five low-performing schools. Overall, though the study confirms some of the fears expressed by opponents of the program, the student and teacher survey responses and personal interviews also suggest that Chicago's bold experiment had a positive impact. Although time spent on test preparation increased substantially after the institution of high-stakes accountability, it declined in subsequent years. Teachers shifted instructional emphases in reading and math, increasing student exposure to grade-level material, and devoted more time to reading skills relevant to the test. Low-achieving 6th- and 8th-grade students received greater academic support and reported greater academic engagement.   [More]  Descriptors: Program Effectiveness, Teacher Surveys, Student Surveys, Reading Skills

Kane, Michael (2002). Validating High-Stakes Testing Programs, Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice. Makes the point that the interpretations and use of high-stakes test scores rely on policy assumptions about what should be taught and the content standards and performance standards that should be applied. The assumptions built into an assessment need to be subjected to scrutiny and criticism if a strong case is to be made for the validity of the proposed interpretation and use. Descriptors: Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education, High Stakes Tests, Scores

Madaus, George F.; O'Dwyer, Laura M. (1999). A Short History of Performance Assessment: Lessons Learned, Phi Delta Kappan. Places performance assessment in the context of high-stakes uses, describes underlying technologies, and outlines the history of performance testing from 210 B.C.E. to the present. Historical issues of fairness, efficiency, cost, and infrastructure influence contemporary efforts to use performance assessments in large-scale, high-stakes testing programs. (59 references) Descriptors: Educational History, Efficiency, Elementary Secondary Education, High Stakes Tests

Bassett, Patrick F. (2005). Reengineering Schools for the 21st Century: There Is Already General Agreement among Various Sectors of Our Society Regarding the Skills that Today's Students Will Need as They Move on to Higher Education and Careers, Phi Delta Kappan. There is a growing consensus among members of the corporate community, university professors, and informed educators regarding the skills needed for success in college and in the marketplace. According to the Business-Higher Education Forum, "today's high-performance job market requires graduates to be proficient in such cross-functional skills and attributes as leadership, teamwork, problem solving, and communication," as well as time management, self-management, adaptability, analytical thinking, and global consciousness. A study by 20 of America's most prestigious research universities identified these same proficiencies and skills as the ones students need not only to gain admission to college but to succeed there. While the study proposes standards for the various academic disciplines, its introduction indicates the "proficiencies" these standards are meant to develop. Likewise, at the precollege level, educators have articulated locally and nationally a core body of knowledge–what they know students should know. Regardless of the angle of vision, there are remarkable similarities in what experts see. In short, educators do not lack clarity about what to teach; rather, they are mired in antiquated thinking about how to teach. More specifically, they need to understand what exercises and experiences best produce proficiency in the skills and attributes that all sides agree are critical. Moreover, legislative mandates (e.g., high-stakes testing) and a slavish allegiance to traditional teaching practices and to specific disciplines of study are diversions that prevent educators from devoting serious attention to developing a more global mindset and helping children acquire the knowledge and skill sets they will need to succeed. Descriptors: Educational Change, Educational Quality, Skills, Success

Johnson, Dale D.; Johnson, Bonnie; Farenga, Stephen J.; Ness, Daniel (2005). Trivializing Teacher Education: The Accreditation Squeeze, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.. This book presents a critical analysis of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE). This accreditation organization has been in existence for 50 years and claims to accredit approximately 700 teacher education programs that prepare two-thirds of the nation's teachers. There is no convincing research, however, that NCATE's "stamp of approval" makes a difference in teacher preparation programs or in beginning teachers' competencies. There is evidence that NCATE is masterful at self-promotion, marketing, and aligning itself with policymakers and politicians. This book illustrates the questionable NCATE processes and requirements and exposes the exorbitant costs accrued by universities seeking NCATE accreditation. It points out that the NCATE standards do not address the major issues that impact teaching and learning. The book highlights NCATE's support of teacher testing in the face of evidence that such tests lack predictive validity. It shows how NCATE is reaching out to accredit for-profit organizations and how it sends its evaluators to review international programs in the Middle East. The book calls on NCATE to make the professional backgrounds of its examiners, reviewers, board members, and staff transparent. It addresses the attention teacher educators must devote to mindless, trivial NCATE demands that usurp time that should be spent on their students and their research. This book urges teacher educators, college faculties and administrators, state education officials and legislators, parents of school-age children, and concerned citizens to open their eyes to this powerful organization, NCATE, and to examine what it has done to teacher education in the last half century. The contents of this book include: (1) The NCATE Brand; (2) Interviews with "Stakeholders"; (3) NCATE's Origin, Governance, and Processes; (4) The Standards; (5) NCATE's Positions, Policies, and Projects; (5) NCATE and High-Stakes Testing; (6) NCATE's Lack of Research; (7) NCATE Economics; and (8) Recommendations; and (9) Conclusions.   [More]  Descriptors: Accreditation (Institutions), National Organizations, Teacher Education, Criticism

Collins, Sue; Reiss, Michael; Stobart, Gordon (2010). What Happens when High-Stakes Testing Stops? Teachers' Perceptions of the Impact of Compulsory National Testing in Science of 11-Year-Olds in England and Its Abolition in Wales, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice. The research aims to articulate the experiences and opinions of Year 6 (Y6) teachers, primary headteachers and primary science coordinators as a contribution to the debate about the effect of statutory national testing in England and its abolition in Wales. A multi-faceted approach of quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis was used in England and Wales including a telephone survey of 600 respondents and eight focus group interviews involving a total of 74 participants. The findings of this research provide insights into the strategies adopted by Y6 teachers in England in ensuring pupils gain the highest possible scores in high-stakes national tests, used as the basis of published "Schools and Colleges Assessment and Attainment Tables" at Key Stage 2 (KS2). Test preparation is perceived by teachers to narrow the curriculum, and for science in particular, as the inclusion of only those aspects of science likely to be included in paper and pencil tests is said to have reduced many aspects of investigatory science in Y6. Year 6 teachers in Wales reported working to develop effective teacher assessment strategies, supported by the continued use of optional test materials, to inform summative judgements about pupils' levels of attainment in science at KS2. Practical science activities, including investigations, were reported as becoming an important feature of science lessons in Y6 in Wales. Although it is too soon to make predictions about the longer-term effects of the abolition of national testing on Y6 teachers and the teaching of science in Wales, early indications suggest increased opportunities for investigative science in Y6.   [More]  Descriptors: Science Activities, Investigations, Student Attitudes, Focus Groups

Clark, Richard W.; Wasley, Patricia A. (1999). Renewing Schools and Smart Kids: Promises for Democracy, Phi Delta Kappan. Neither standards/high-stakes testing nor privatization/charter-school improvement approaches will live up to proponents' ambitious claims. Standardized tests cannot uphold new performance goals. Charter schools serve limited numbers of students, siphoning off pedagogical reform energies that would benefit kids left behind. Rigor and innovation must be connected. Descriptors: Academic Standards, Accountability, Charter Schools, Democratic Values

Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Mazzeo, Christopher (2005). What No Child Left Behind Means for College Access, Review of Research in Education. The consequences of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) are most often thought of in terms of achievement and attainment in elementary and secondary education. In this chapter, however, the authors assess what NCLB might mean for college access by examining existing evidence of the effects of school-based accountability on college participation. While NCLB explicitly aims to effect change in K-12 education, it may have longer-term outcomes, particularly for postsecondary education and labor force participation (Educational Policy Institute, 2005). For example, organizational and instructional reforms in schools–crucial to the success of accountability–are also likely to have an effect on how well students are prepared to access and succeed in college. Thus, while the success of the legislation is currently measured in terms of elementary and secondary student test scores, the authors posit that NCLB might also be assessed in a way that accounts for its impact on later student outcomes, particularly in higher education. They begin with a summary of research on the important factors contributing to student participation and success in college. Next, they discuss the rubric of accountability under NCLB and compare it with the way in which accountability was previously implemented at the state and federal levels. They then consider studies on the longer-term outcomes of school-level accountability, focusing on examinations of the effects of academic pressure and high-stakes testing. The authors conclude by assessing what is known–and what remains ripe for future study–about the implications of NCLB for college access. [This article represents Chapter 5 of "The Elementary and Secondary Education Act at 40: Reviews of Research, Policy Implementation, Critical Perspectives, and Reflections," "Review of Research in Education," v29, 2005 (EJ748131).]   [More]  Descriptors: Federal Legislation, Educational Policy, Accountability, Educational Change

Bracey, Gerald W. (2002). Put to the Test: An Educator's and Consumer's Guide to Standardized Testing. The Omnipresence of Tests and What You Need To Know about Them. Revised edition. This book takes readers through the often confusing landscape of standardized testing and explains what tests are and what they are not. The book discusses how to interpret test scores, different types of standardized tests, and specific standardized tests. This revised edition also contains discussions of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study and the Leave No Child Behind Act. The chapters are: (1) Why You Should Read This Book; (2) Testing, Testing, Testing; (3) Standardized Tests, Social Policy, and the Purpose of Education; (4) Standardized Tests; (5) Specific Tests; (6) Interpreting Test Scores; (7) Some Terms and Technicalities; and (8) Conclusion. Four appendixes contain comments on the report, a discussion of some other indicators of achievement, the American Educational Research Association position statement on high-stakes testing, and a review of a book on standardized testing. Contains an annotated list of 13 resources for further reading. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Achievement Tests, Elementary Secondary Education, Scores

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