Bibliography: High Stakes Testing (page 68 of 95)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include G. Thomas Bellamy, Rebecca Robichaux, Margaret Ross, Vicki Welch Alvis, Martha L. Thurlow, David R. Johnson, Harriet A. Stranahan, Gary N. Siperstein, Robert T. Brennan, and Mary O'Malley Borg.

Alvis, Vicki Welch (2007). High Stakes Testing + Middle School Collaboration = Reading and Writing in 6th Grade Spanish, Learning Languages. In this article, the author shares her experience in teaching sixth grade Spanish at Autrey Mill Middle School in Alpharetta, Georgia. Through the school's implementation of the middle school teaming concept, the author and her colleague on the sixth grade team have teamed up with other teachers in order to provide reading and writing opportunities that built on students' prior knowledge and experiences, supplied new learning experiences aligned with the school system's sixth grade foreign language curriculum, and reinforced Georgia performance standards in reading and language arts. The author describes her experience working with Spanish teachers and reading/language arts teachers which led her to incorporate learning experiences for literacy development into daily instruction. Teaming across subjects empowered her to use Spanish instruction as "a vehicle for reinforcing the academic skills required by the regular curriculum" while empowering students to use their new language as a tool for thinking and learning.   [More]  Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Language Arts, Prior Learning, Grade 6

Callet, Valerie J. (2005). High-Stakes Testing: Does the California High School Exit Exam Measure up?, Language Assessment Quarterly. In 2002, President George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act. In addition to providing additional funding for schools and encouraging local autonomy, the new law focuses on accountability in an attempt to close the achievement gap for all students, leaving no child behind. Perhaps the most striking manifestation of Bush's new law is the amplified attention on high-stakes testing as a means to demonstrate accountability. The California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) is California's effort to ensure accountability by proving that students are proficient in English language arts and mathematics on graduation. Hailed as near flawless by an independent evaluating agency, the test is nonetheless the subject of much debate. Because testing as a means of demonstrating accountability is surely becoming a reality, the CAHSEE must be examined to ensure its fairness. Kunnan's (2004) test fairness framework makes it possible to examine the test within the context of fairness using 5 main qualities: validity, absence of bias, access, administration, and social consequences. The framework is particularly relevant to the CAHSEE because the test's potential for impact is so great. In the end, some questions regarding the test's fairness remain. Although full implementation of the test as a requirement for high school graduation is scheduled for the class of 2006, it is not yet certain whether next year's graduates will have to pass the CAHSEE.   [More]  Descriptors: Federal Legislation, Testing, High Stakes Tests, Exit Examinations

O'Connell, P. J.; McGuire, C. Kent; Middleton, Richard; Thomas, Alicia; Ruiz, Richard; Bellamy, G. Thomas; Bornfield, Gail; Ohanian, Susan (2000). Agora: The Impact of High-Stakes Testing, Journal of Teacher Education. Eight members of the education community (e.g., students, teachers, college faculty, and administrators) respond to a question about the impact of high-stakes testing of teachers and students on teaching and teacher education. Their responses focus on such issues as test bias, at-risk students, specific state responses, and testing of students with learning disabilities. Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Evaluation Methods, High Stakes Tests, Higher Education

Reed, Cynthia J.; McDonough, Sharon; Ross, Margaret; Robichaux, Rebecca (2001). Principals' Perceptions of the Impact of High Stakes Testing on Empowerment. This paper reports on a qualitative study of principals' perceptions of the impact of high-stakes testing on empowerment. The data were obtained from interviews with 26 "empowered" principals in select schools participating in the South Florida Annenberg Challenge. Three questions were addressed: (1) To what degree does a school's standardized test "grade" influence a principal's sense of empowerment? (2) To what degree and in what ways is morale affected by high stakes testing? and (3) What lessons do empowered principals have to share with others about the impact that empowerment has on the quality of teaching and learning in schools? Results show that testing commonly has a negative effect on principals' sense of empowerment. Testing appears to generate a pervasive fear of failure in lower grade schools. Grade "A" schools appear to use high-stakes testing in positive ways, such as incentives to create student-enrichment programs, whereas lower grade schools focus more on meeting students' basic needs. Lessons learned from the study are that schools are complex, requiring many heads to make good decisions; trust needs to be promoted and maintained among school personnel, district office personnel, and community; and barriers are overcome when problems are viewed as challenges. (Contains 29 references and 1 table.)   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Attitudes, Administrator Effectiveness, Educational Quality, Elementary Secondary Education

Braden, Jeffery P. (2007). Using Data from High-Stakes Testing in Program Planning and Evaluation, Journal of Applied School Psychology. This article intends to help school psychologists understand the nature of high stakes tests, methods for analyzing and reporting high stakes test data, standards for tests and program evaluation, and application of appropriate practices to program planning and evaluation. Although it is readily acknowledged that high stakes test data are not sufficient for effective program planning and evaluation, the availability of test results, and their salience for federally mandated accountability programs, argues in favor of using such data for program planning and evaluation. A decision-making model, which begins with high stakes test data, but also requires additional data from teachers and classrooms, is proposed to help practitioners evaluate program effectiveness, and make plans to improve student outcomes.   [More]  Descriptors: Test Results, Program Evaluation, Psychologists, School Psychologists

Afflerbach, Peter (2005). High Stakes Testing and Reading Assessment. National Reading Conference Policy Brief, Journal of Literacy Research. This National Reading Conference Policy Brief provides information related to high stakes reading tests and reading assessment. High stakes reading tests are those with highly consequential outcomes for students, teachers, and schools. These outcomes may include student promotion or retention, student placement in reading groups, school funding decisions, labeling of schools as successful or failing, and the degree of community support for a school. The Policy Brief focuses on the popularity of high stakes tests, the uses and misuses of high stakes tests, and the consequences of high stakes testing. Although many believe high stakes tests to be central to efforts to raise school accountability and student achievement, these tests are accompanied by numerous liabilities. These include the following: (1) High stakes tests are used with increasing frequency in spite of the fact that there is no research that links increased testing with increased reading achievement; 2) High stakes tests are limited in their ability to describe students' reading achievement; (3) High stakes tests may be harmful to students' self-esteem and motivation; (4) High stakes tests confine and constrict reading curriculum; (5) High stakes tests alienate teachers; (6) High stakes tests disrupt high quality teaching and learning; and (7) High stakes tests demand significant allocation of time and money that could be otherwise used to increase reading achievement.   [More]  Descriptors: High Stakes Tests, Reading Achievement, Reading Tests, Accountability

Roderick, Melissa; Nagaoka, Jenny (2005). Retention Under Chicago's High-Stakes Testing Program: Helpful, Harmful, or Harmless?, Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. In the mid-1990s, the Chicago Public Schools declared an end to social promotion and instituted promotional requirements based on standardized test scores in the third, sixth, and eighth grades. This article examines the experience of third and sixth graders who were retained under Chicago's policy from 1997 to 2000. The authors examine the progress of these students for 2 years after they were retained and estimate the short-term effects of retention on reading achievement. Students who were retained under Chicago's high-stakes testing policy continued to struggle during their retained year and faced significantly increased rates of special education placement. Among third graders, there is no evidence that retention led to greater achievement growth 2 years after the promotional gate. Among sixth graders, there is evidence that retention was associated with lower achievement growth. The effects of retention were estimated by using a growth curve analysis. Comparison groups were constructed by using variation across time in the administration of the policy, and by comparing the achievement growth of a group of low-achieving students who just missed passing the promotional cutoff to a comparison group of students who narrowly met the promotional cutoff at the end of the summer. The robustness of the findings was tested using an instrumental variable approach to address selection effects in estimates.   [More]  Descriptors: Grade 3, Grade 6, Standardized Tests, Social Promotion

Fink, Rosalee, Ed.; Samuels, S. Jay, Ed. (2007). Inspiring Reading Success: Interest and Motivation in an Age of High-Stakes Testing, International Reading Association (NJ3). Although recent U.S. legislation has had a profound impact on reading instruction and student achievement, some students continue to fall behind. This provocative text addresses this gap with a new perspective on reading instruction that goes beyond the realms of teacher content knowledge and methodology. The book shows how motivation and interest can enhance reading instruction for all students, and it presents strategies to increase reading success. Following a foreword by Catherine E. Snow and a preface by Rosalie Fink and S. Jay Samuels, this book divides into seven chapters: (1) Beating the Odds: Giving Kids a Chance to Win the Game of Life (S. Jay Samuels); (2) High-Interest Reading Leaves No Child Behind (Rosalie Fink); (3) Using Student Interests to Motivate Learning (Kurt W. Fischer and Maria Fusaro); (4) Reading Success: A Motivational Perspective (Janine Bempechat); (5) Ten Tenets of Motivation for Teaching Struggling Readers and the Rest of the Class (Irene W. Gaskins); (6) Teaching Fluency Artfully (Timothy Rasinski); and (7) Building Engaging Classrooms (Ana Taboada, John T. Guthrie, and Angela McRae). The book also contains an author index; and a subject index.   [More]  Descriptors: Student Interests, Reading Motivation, High Stakes Tests, Reading Instruction

Perry, Tonya, Ed. (2007). Rethinking the Core: Teaching Theater and English in the High-Stakes Testing Climate, English Journal. In this article, the author discusses how to consolidate schools where enrollment have dropped significantly. In addition to financial concerns, effective and developmentally appropriate curriculum choices are important. The author states that the "core" academic courses must be offered no matter the configuration of the schools, but other classes that enhance the education program for students must also be considered. One other curriculum consideration is how to offer extracurricular classes, especially if the schools are unable financially to dedicate one teacher to the different arts in the school. The author suggests that teaching a core class and an elective may become "one" answer to offering extra classes to students whose population cannot sustain financially a theater arts teaching unit. Since she has never been a teacher of theater, the author talked to three teachers who teach both English and theater arts in their schools: Allison Vacca, Pinson Valley High School, Pinson, Alabama; Meg Silver, Columbiana High School, Columbiana, Ohio; and Valerie Stewart-Jones, Thornwell High School, Clinton, South Carolina. Although their locations differ, they offer similar themes related to teaching an extracurricular theater course. The author's conversation with the three English and theater arts teachers is presented.   [More]  Descriptors: High Stakes Tests, Theater Arts, English Instruction, Teaching Methods

Syverson, Margaret A. (2009). Social Justice and Evidence-Based Assessment with the Learning Record, Forum on Public Policy Online. The educational system perpetuates social injustice through structural inequities of assessment and evaluation. High-stakes standardized testing has a destructive effect on teaching and learning that affects all students, teachers, and schools; it is particularly damaging for disadvantaged students–minorities, students with disabilities, students from violent or impoverished circumstances, non-native speakers, migrant students, and many others who do not meet cultural "norms." Yet policy-makers, parents, and administrators fear that without the tests, schools cannot be held accountable for meeting educational standards. Alternative assessments such as portfolios have been tried with little success. This paper presents the Learning Record, a successful alternative for documenting, analyzing, and evaluating student achievement and performance based on evidence drawn from actual learning environments, and analysis based on research in learning theory. Yet this model answers the need for rigor, validity, and reliability as well. The Learning Record provides an organized, coherent account of student learning through observations and samples of naturally-occurring student work, analysis based on Lev Vygotsky's dimensions of learning, and evaluation according to criteria established by the teacher, by state frameworks, or other performance criteria. Large-scale assessment with the Learning Record is collaborative, open, public assessment through moderation readings. It is an inherently equitable and positive form of assessment with one fundamental rule: we must document what students demonstrate they know and can do, not their deficits or errors.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Learning Theories, Student Evaluation, Alternative Assessment

Brooks, Lindsay (2009). Interacting in Pairs in a Test of Oral Proficiency: Co-Constructing a Better Performance, Language Testing. This study, framed within sociocultural theory, examines the interaction of adult ESL test-takers in two tests of oral proficiency: one in which they interacted with an examiner (the individual format) and one in which they interacted with another student (the paired format). The data for the eight pairs in this study were drawn from a larger study comparing the two test formats in the context of high-stakes exit testing from an Academic Preparation Program at a large Canadian university. All of the test-takers participated in both test formats involving a discussion with comparable speaking prompts. The findings from the quantitative analyses show that overall the test-takers performed better in the paired format in that their scores were on average higher than when they interacted with an examiner. Qualitative analysis of the test-takers' speaking indicates that the differences in performance in the two test formats were more marked than the scores suggest. When test-takers interacted with other students in the paired test, the interaction was much more complex and revealed the co-construction of a more linguistically demanding performance than did the interaction between examiners and students. The paired testing format resulted in more interaction, negotiation of meaning, consideration of the interlocutor and more complex output. Among the implications for test theory and practice is the need to account for the joint construction of performance in a speaking test in both construct definitions and rating scales.   [More]  Descriptors: Testing, Rating Scales, Program Effectiveness, Interaction

Johnson, David R.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Stout, Karen Evans; Mavis, Ann (2007). Cross-State Study of High-Stakes Testing Practices and Diploma Options, Journal of Special Education Leadership. In response to public demands for better-quality high school graduates and to requirements of No Child Left Behind legislation, states have developed a variety of policies such as high-stakes exit exams and diploma options. Additionally, under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997, students with disabilities must be included in state and district assessments, further challenging states to develop policy options that allow the participation of these students. In the study that follows, all 51 states were surveyed about their diploma options, use of high-stakes tests, and participation policies for students with disabilities. Findings were compared with a 2002 survey (Johnson & Thurlow, 2003) and include the following: (1) The use of exit exams seems to be leveling off, with about 25 states using them; (2) States are experimenting with alternative diploma options, with a trend toward decreasing options such as Individualized Education Program (IEP) diplomas while increasing options such as honors diplomas; (3) A range of options exist for students who do not pass high-stakes exit exams; (4) Three options exist for scoring exams: requiring the same score from all students, permitting different passing scores for students with disabilities, and giving different tests to different groups of students; (5) The array of alternative or differentiated diploma options may or may not benefit students in relation to future opportunities for postsecondary education access and employment; and (6) Staying abreast of state policy developments continues to be a challenge for special education leaders.   [More]  Descriptors: Federal Legislation, High Stakes Tests, High School Graduates, Exit Examinations

Borg, Mary O'Malley; Plumlee, J. Patrick; Stranahan, Harriet A. (2007). Plenty of Children Left Behind: High-Stakes Testing and Graduation Rates in Duval County, Florida, Educational Policy. The Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) is a high-stakes test that public school students must pass to be eligible for graduation from high school. Previous research suggests that high-stakes tests have a differential effect on students by race and ethnicity. This study finds that in one Florida school district African American and Hispanic students coming from poorer, less educated, or higher mobility households are less likely to meet graduation requirements than their higher socioeconomic, White, suburban counterparts. African American students and students from the lowest income households are also the most likely to encounter a negative graduation effect because the passing score on the FCAT rises each year. School characteristics also affect the probability of student success. High schools that hire more teachers with advanced degrees or offer a magnet program have better student FCAT scores. This results in higher probabilities that all categories of students will meet graduation requirements.   [More]  Descriptors: Probability, Magnet Schools, Graduation Requirements, Graduation Rate

Brennan, Robert T.; Kim, Jimmy; Wenz-Gross, Melodie; Siperstein, Gary N. (2001). The Relative Equitability of High-Stakes Testing versus Teacher-Assigned Grades: An Analysis of the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS), Harvard Educational Review. Comparison of teacher-assigned grades and Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) scores in English, math, and science for 736 eighth-graders reveals that MCAS hurts African-Americans and Latinos/as in math and girls in math and science. Equitability disparities indicate the need for caution in high-stakes testing; scores should be validated by other assessments. (Contains 135 references.) Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Females, Grade 8, Grades (Scholastic)

Harman, Susan (2000). Resist High-Stakes Testing!: High Stakes Are for Tomatoes, Language Arts. Presents a call to action (including an outline of specific ideas) to educators to resist high-stakes testing, and encourages them to stand up for what they know about how and why children learn (not by the threat of being retained or not graduating) and how and what to teach (not teaching to the tests). Descriptors: Educational Change, Elementary Secondary Education, High Stakes Tests, National Standards

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