Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 314 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Theresa Herrera Escobedo, Stina Santiestevan, Fatima Zahra Belyazid, CT. Hartford Public Schools, Los Angeles. Center for the Study of Evaluation. California Univ., Eulalia Cabrera, Washington Congress of the U.S., Paula H. Martin, Donald J. Treiman, and Veronica Gutierrez.

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. (1974). An Act to Extend and Amend the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, and the Other Purposes. Public Law 93-380, 93rd Congress, H.R. 69, August 21, 1974: "Education Amendments of 1974.". Public Law 93-380, H.R. 69 of the 93rd Congress, enacted August 21, 1974, is an act to extend and amend the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, and for other purposes. The act is divided into eight Titles, as follows: (1) Amendments to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, (2) Equal Education Opportunities and the Transportation of Students, (3) Federal Impact Aid Programs, (4) Consolidation of Certain Educational Program, (5) Educational Administration, (6) Extension and Revision of Related Elementary and Secondary Education Programs, (7) National Reading Improvement Program, and, (8) Miscellaneous Provisions. The eighth Title is divided into four parts: (A) Policy Statements and White House Conference on Education, (B) Educational Studies and Surveys, (C) Amendments to the Higher Education Act of 1965, and (D) Other Miscellaneous Provision. This last part includes sections pertaining to the following: amendments to the Library Services and Construction Act and the Vocational Education Act of 1963 relating to bilingual education and vocational training; assistance to states for state equalization plans, treatment of Puerto Rico as a state, provision relating to sex discrimination, extension of advisory councils, and separability.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bus Transportation, Desegregation Methods, Educational Legislation

Villegas, Jose J.; Cabrera, Eulalia (1988). Project Caribe, 1986-1987. OEA Evaluation Report. Project CARIBE (Career Awareness in Bilingual Education) was a Title VII-funded project in its third year at two New York high schools, one in Brooklyn and one in Queens. The project supplemented municipally funded bilingual programs for limited-English-speaking Hispanic students by establishing a resource/computer center and conducting academic counseling, career education and career-related enrichment experiences, curriculum development activities, and parental involvement activities. During its third year, the program served 314 students of widely varying preparedness in the content areas and in native and English language proficiency. Project funds supported a central project director and a resource teacher and paraprofessional at each site. Staff development activities included conference and workshop attendance, on-site training sessions, and some university course attendance. Parent involvement consisted of parent advisory councils, trips and cultural festivals, and conferences on school-related topics. Quantitative analysis of student achievement data indicates that program objectives were not met in English language skills and content area achievement, and could not be measured in native language development. However, the program's attendance rate was significantly higher than the school-wide attendance rate. Recommendations for program improvement include reestablishment of parent English and Americanization classes, class organization, staff development, and modification of objectives.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Career Awareness, Career Education, Curriculum Development

Santiestevan, Stina (1991). Use of the Spanish Language in the United States: Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities. ERIC Digest. This ERIC digest examines the Spanish-speaking group in the United States, its growth through net immigration and natural increase, and its eventual decline as speakers shift to English. The Hispanic population is growing rapidly, but data suggest that U.S. Hispanics do learn and speak English. Research predicts that by the year 2001 the Spanish-speaking group will total 16.6 million and some 95% of the immigrant population will have Spanish for their mother tongues. However, only a bare majority of the U.S. native born will be given Spanish as their first language. Although most Hispanic immigrants remain lifetime bilinguals, the language shift begins immediately upon an immigrant's arrival in the United States, and ends within approximately 15 years. The language shift spans three generations, beginning with the immigrants who continue to speak Spanish, and ending with their grandchildren who virtually all have English as their mother tongue. Policy implications are: (1) the English language is not endangered by the use of Spanish; (2) simple courtesy suggests that essential public announcements and services should be provided in Spanish; (3) more English classes for adults are needed; (4) Spanish-speaking children need bilingual education; and (5) bilingual capabilities should be encouraged among all.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Elementary Secondary Education

DBS Corp., Arlington, VA. (1982). 1980 Elementary and Secondary Schools Civil Rights Survey, National Summaries. This national summary of data on the characteristics of students in United States public schools is based on results of Fall 1980 Elementary and Secondary Schools Civil Rights Survey. Table 1 presents national projections of survey data on rates of enrollment, disciplinary measures imposed, participation in special and bilingual education programs, and high school graduation by students' sex, ethnic group, and disabilities; information on facilities for the handicapped; and data on student participation in mixed and single-sex school programs. Table 2 includes the survey data on which the table 1 projections were based, additional information programs for pregnant students and classroom data by subject code. Table 3 shows school and school district minority compositions. Tables 4, 5, and 6 indicate minority/non-minority participation in various programs and activities. Table 7 shows classroom enrollments in selected subjects by the percent minority composition of the class. Table 8 indicates the provision of bilingual services by race/ethnic group. Table 9 shows the distribution of special education programs by specific types of disabled students. Finally, the tables 11 and 12 present the distribution of students in single sex classes and single sex athletic teams.   [More]  Descriptors: Accessibility (for Disabled), American Indians, Asian Americans, Bilingual Education

California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for the Study of Evaluation. (1980). Bilingual Evaluation Technical Assistance: Workshop Text II. Planning for Evaluation Design. This text is designed to accompany workshop instruction in developing an evaluation design for evaluating bilingual programs. It is addressed to those involved with bilingual programs generally, educators directly involved in planning and implementation, and research and evaluation specialists. It is organized into two separate workshop sessions: A: Basic Concepts in Design, and B: Selecting Evaluation Designs. Workshop A: Basic Concepts in Design, is an introduction to the concepts of threats to validity, controlled assignment and comparison, and the elements of design. It is designed for audiences with little experience in evaluation. Workshop B: Selecting Evaluation Designs assumes audiences are comfortable with the concepts and terminology in Workshop I and are now ready to consider the more technical and specific features of representative designs. This second workshop considers four planning questions: (1) What do I need to consider in selecting an evaluation design? (2) Which designs best fit the particular demands of bilingual education? (3) How can I adapt these designs to my particular setting? and (4) What other designs might be useful for special evaluation purposes? Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Planning, Elementary Secondary Education, Evaluation Methods

Gutierrez, Veronica (1980). Language Attitudes of and Toward Spanish/English Bilinguals. The causes and effects of resistance to the acknowledgement and appreciation of the language skills and characteristics of United States Southwest bilinguals can be seen in both the Hispanic and Anglo communities. The cultural inferiority ideology of Americans to Mexicans is a historical cause of this resistance, and it is reflected in the bilingual's attitude towards his own speech. Many studies have indicated an inverse relationship between the bilingual's use of the ethnic language and his attitude towards it. The Chicano movement has deepened the anti-Spanish-language attitude observed especially within the less assimilated portion of the bilingual community. The attitudes of public school teachers also play an important role in students' acceptance or rejection of their mother tongue and heritage. Teacher attitudes, often less than objective, can result in low academic achievement for bilingual students. Teacher attitudes are but a small part of the greater Anglo ethnocentrism which has characterized United States opinion, policy, and practice. Bilingual education, in the sense of bilingual maintenance programs, is seen by many as a solution to the problem of accepting linguistic diversity. Another is recognition by both Anglo and bilingual communities of the value of linguistic diversity. Descriptors: Anglo Americans, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, English

Martin, Paula H. (1982). Meta-Analysis, Meta-Evaluation and Secondary Analysis. Meta-analysis, meta-evaluation and secondary analysis are methods of summarizing, examining, evaluating or re-analyzing data in research and evaluation efforts. Meta-analysis involves the summarization of research findings to come to some general conclusions regarding effects or outcomes of a given treatment/project/program. Glass's approach standardizes various effect measures and controls for these in analyzing data. Meta-evaluation is a method of evaluation research examining evaluation methodologies, procedures, data analysis techniques, interpretation of results, and the validity and reliability of conclusions. Secondary analysis, as defined by Glass, is, "the re-analysis of data for the purpose of answering the original research question with better statistical techniques or answering new questions with old data." A review of the literature related to these methodologies gives examples of actual studies using these techniques. Specifics on meta-evaluation in federally funded bilingual education programs illustrate the methodology. As current budgetary cutbacks affect state and federal programs, meta-analysis and meta-evaluation are assuming important roles. Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Educational Research, Elementary Secondary Education, Federal Programs

Belyazid, Fatima Zahra, Ed.; And Others (1994). Actes des Journees de linguistique (Proceedings of the Linguistics Conference) (8th, March 24-25, 1994). Thirty-five papers, all but one in French, presented at the conference on research in linguistics are presented here. Topics include: verb tenses in English; computerized text analysis program; study of specialized terminology; court translation in Canada; subject-verb agreement in English; bilingual editing; swearing with religious words; language of news reporting; French-Brazilian Portuguese word borrowing; bilingual education; use of the term "OK" in Montreal French; attributive function of transitive verbs; language planning in Africa; terminology in translation; descriptive vs. prescriptive linguistics (in English); recording laughter and closure in a sociolinguistic interview; clitics; vowels in Quebec French; analyzing oral spontaneous discourse; French verb value; code-switching in Ontario; Acadian child and adolescent language; the cluster condition in Spanish; nasal vowels in Kinyarwanda; variability as a functional element in communication; the vocabulary of computer-assisted instruction; language rhythm in Quebec French; practical problems in linguistic research methodology; North American English borrowing from Canadian French. Most papers contain references.   [More]  Descriptors: Adolescents, African Languages, Bilingual Education, Child Language

Treiman, Donald J.; And Others (1974). Preliminary Report on a Survey of Educational Services for Hispanic Pupils with English Language Difficulty, Conducted in New York City Schools, May 1974. Second Report on the Survey. One of the issues in bilingual education is whether programs designed to provide immigrant children with special aid in learning English are adequate. To provide factual data this study reports on a survey conducted on all classroom and home teachers in the public schools of New York City. Each teacher is asked to list all pupils in the class who have moderate or severe difficulty speaking English and then to indicate the extent of each pupil's participation in specialized programs designed either to improve English language skills or to provide instruction in the pupil's native language. Although the survey inquires about all pupils in the schools who have difficulty with English, the present report is restricted to those of Spanish heritage. Three issues are considered: (1) How many Hispanic pupils have difficulty with English? (2) How many of these are receiving specialized remedial services or instruction in Spanish? (3) How many of these are in contact with school personnel fluent in Spanish? The data presented in this report shows both a substantial need for special services for Hispanic pupils with English language difficulty and a substantial effort on the part of the schools to meet that need. Whether these efforts are sufficient remains a central pending issues.   [More]  Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Bilingualism

Scorza, Margaret H.; And Others (1988). Project BEAMS, 1986-1987. OEA Evaluation Report. Under Title VII funding, Project BEAMS (Bilingual Education for Achievement in Mathematics and Science) provided educational and support activities to 214 gifted students of limited English proficiency (LEP) in three Brooklyn high schools. The program gave students of Spanish, Haitian, Chinese, Korean, Middle Eastern, and various European backgrounds in grades 9-12 the opportunity to enroll in college courses while simultaneously developing English language proficiency. Students received instruction in English as a second language (ESL), native language arts (where available), mathematics, science, and social studies taught in a bilingual or ESL format. Students also enrolled in mainstream courses. To prepare for enrollment in Brooklyn College during their senior year, students participated in computer literacy and advanced placement courses, special classes in scientific research and problem solving, and an extracurricular program of field trips and guest speaker presentations. Extensive support services were also provided. Program objectives were met or surpassed in ESL, in native language arts courses, in math scores, in content-area course passing rates, in college course passing rates, and in attendance. The dropout rate objective was not met. Recommendations for program improvement are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Academically Gifted, Advanced Placement, Bilingual Education Programs, Chinese

Shore, Rima, Ed.; And Others (1981). Theodore Roosevelt High School. Project SUCCESS: Striving Upward through College and Career Education for Spanish Speakers. E.S.E.A. Title VII Final Evaluation Report, 1980-1981. Project SUCCESS, a combined bilingual education and college/career orientation program for Spanish speaking and Asian high school students of limited English proficiency, is described in this report. Located at Theodore Roosevelt High School in New York City, the program, in 1980-81, provided courses in English as a second language, English reading, native language arts, and bilingual mathematics, social studies and science; maintained a Dropout Prevention Clinic (DPC) which offered instruction and guidance to Spanish speaking ninth graders identified as potential dropouts; operated a High School Equivalency Program (HSE) to prepare Spanish speaking and Asian students who were average or had dropped out to take the General Equivalency Diploma examination; and provided college/career orientation services for program participants. The report describes the project background and organization; participant characteristics; instructional services; non-instructional activities; program implementation; and program evaluation. Evaluation results indicate (1) generally favorable student performance on tests of English syntax, with HSE and DPC students performing extremely well; (2) significant improvements in native language reading achievement among Spanish speaking students; (3) generally high success rates in different subject areas; (4) a program attendance rate that was better than the school-wide attendance rate; and (5) positive student attitudes toward the program. The report recommends program expansion to serve more students and provide more services.    [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Asian Americans, Bilingual Education Programs, Career Planning

Hartford Public Schools, CT. (1986). Encendiendo una Llama. Bilingual Gifted and Talented Program: Overview, Identification of Students, and Instructional Approaches. Three pamphlets describe facets of "Encendiendo Una Llama," a Hartford (Connecticut) demonstration program for bilingual gifted and talented students. An overview pamphlet summarizes key aspects of the model program: identification procedures, instructional services, teacher training, parent involvement, evidence of effectiveness, implementation requirements, and materials available for dissemination. A second brochure focuses in greater depth on aspects of identification, including linguistic and cultural factors. The program's identification efforts are focused primarily, though not exclusively, on the limited English proficient school population. The 3-stage identification process consists of open recruitment, talent pool, and formal identification. Parallel identification procedures for academic and artistic ability are used. Standardized tests and locally developed information forms are noted. A third brochure describes instructional approaches, including components of the program model (resource room, after-school program, and regular class component), staff development, student needs assessment, and curriculum components based on Renzulli's Enrichment Triad and bilingual education. Finally, sample curriculum units, the use of computers, and materials available for dissemination are cited.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Curriculum, Demonstration Programs

Escobedo, Theresa Herrera (1978). Culturally Responsive Early Childhood Education Programs for Non-English Speaking Children. Culturally responsive programs incorporate the child's native language and cultural knowledge as part of the curriculum. In addition they consider the child's development in terms of relationships among self-concept, culture and achievement. While it has been established that self-concept and ability to achieve influence one another, the way in which bilingual/bicultural programs affect the cultural knowledge and self-concept of children is an area yet to be revealed. A review of some Head Start and Follow Through curriculum models and the degree to which they can be considered culturally responsive presents a general view of alternative approaches in early childhood education. This study led to the tentative conclusion that the cognitive developmentalist Responsive Environment Model and the eclectic Bilingual Early Childhood Program met the criteria set for culturally responsive programs. Although information on early childhood bilingual education programs is difficult to locate, available data on six such projects currently in operation revealed varying degrees of cultural responsiveness. Present research and comparision of programs relative to effectiveness with the general preschool population indicated that no single program is generally superior. It is concluded that further empirical research is required to determine the effectiveness of different approaches and the extent to which culturally bound cognitive styles exist in non-English speaking children. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students

Borgrink, Henry, Comp. (1987). New Mexico School District Profile: 1986-1987 School Year. This profile summarizes and analyzes data to provide a broad range of educational indicators of the operation and performance of New Mexico's 88 school districts. The profile looks at the dropout rate and student enrollment, including the number of students receiving public assistance, special education, and bilingual education. Also studied are: the pupil/teacher ratio and teacher loads in various grade levels; the number of certified staff, including degrees and years of experience; proficiency examinations and the number of graduates; and the results of standardized achievement tests (Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills). Vocational education information is also reported. Section 1 of the document is a summary overview of the statewide data, gathered over a 3-year period. The data indicate that the number of New Mexico students is increasing as is the diversity of their needs. Forty-seven percent of the students are Anglo, 40% are Hispanic, and 10% are Native American. Of the teachers, about 70% are Anglo, 24.2% are Hispanic, 1.6% are Native American, and 1.2% are Black. The document includes charts and graphs to show both statewide performance and performance for each school district.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indian Education, Bilingual Education, Dropouts, Educational Assessment

Detroit School District, United States District Court Monitoring Commission, Detroit, MI. (1984). Profiles of Detroit's High Schools: 1975 to 1984. A Monitoring Commission Report. The Monitoring Commisssion was created in 1976 by the U.S. District Court to: (1) audit the efforts of the Detroit, Michigan public school system as it implemented a court-ordered desegregation program, (2) inform the community; and (3) advise the court. This Commission Report on the assessment process and its findings has six major sections as follows: background information, summary of the status of implementation, profiles of individual high schools, minimal assessment criteria and indicators, statistical data, and individual high school scoring matrices. Each school pofile includes individual school characteristics, criteria-based assessment indices, and teacher and counselor ratings of the school. The data provided reflects the status of Detroit's high schools in terms of eight program areas affected by the court's orders: bilingual education; counseling and career guidance; in-service training; reading and communication skills; school-community relations; student code of conduct; testing; and vocational education. This longitudinal study gives historical perspective to the progress of Detroit's high schools and illuminates systematic problems in the areas of student attrition and preparation for high school. Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Court Role, Desegregation Effects, Desegregation Litigation

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