Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 298 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Gary Burnett, Wayne Holm, B. E. Askins, Bruce Christenson, Timothy Silvester, Maria Lombardo, L. J. Laney, D. W. Yarbrough, Christine Miles, and Inc. Heuristics.

Miles, Christine (1993). Ethnic & Linguistic Minority Children with Special Needs. A Critical Review of Educational Language & Culture. This paper describes experiences in teaching ethnic and linguistic minority children with learning difficulties and counseling their families, from 1976 to 1992 in Pakistan and England. The paper begins with a vignette describing an ethnic minority child with learning difficulties. A global approach to the issues is then presented, examining the various forms of educational provision for bilingual children, including mother tongue education, bilingual education, immersion, and submersion; the problems of children disadvantaged by the dominant culture and who further have a physical or mental disability; and the ways in which these children acquire and use language. Theoretical matters are illustrated with experiences from Pakistan and England, and recommendations are made.  Recommendations address the need to provide mother tongue education for the early years of education, to consider cultural needs and differences in child rearing patterns among ethnic groups, to encourage teachers to develop their cross-cultural and linguistic competence, and to consider cultural and language factors in ability assessments. (Contains 22 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Comparative Education, Cultural Influences, Disabilities

Heuristics, Inc., Dedham, MA. (1973). Evaluation of the Fall River Middle School Research and Development Center Title VII Program, 1972-1973. This report presents the evaluation of the Fall River Middle School Research and Development Center, a project funded under Title VII of the 1965 Elementary Secondary Act as a model demonstration bilingual program, beginning in 1972-1973. The Title VII bilingual program operated at the fifth grade level in three schools with two bilingual program classes in each school. The program had an enrollment of 111 students–34 English dominant and 77 Portuguese dominant students. The product objectives of the Instructional Component focused on student achievement in the academic areas of mathematics and science; the production of Portuguese and English speech sounds and grammatical structures (oral and written); and the social interaction between Portuguese and English dominant students.  The objectives of the Staff Development Component required the staff to increase their academic knowledge of such aspects of bilingual education as use of materials, evaluation, and instructional methodology. Staff training also included efforts to improve the staff's teaching methods in the classroom. Objectives of the Parent-Community component focused on the involvement of parents of participating students and of the community at large in activities related to the bilingual program, and on the dissemination of program information to the parents and the community.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education, Community Involvement, Compensatory Education

Orvik, James M. (1973). Final Evaluation Report: Primary Eskimo Project of the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Bethel Agency, Bethel Alaska, July 1973. The Bethel Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs, has now completed its 3rd year of experimental bilingual education. Beginning in 1970 with 3 pilot schools and adding 4 schools the following year, 3 grade levels in 17 Kuskokwim River village classrooms have been reached by the Primary Eskimo Program. To determine the validity of this approach, an evaluation design was conducted over a 3 year implementation period. The 2 categories of instruments used for the present evaluation were: (1) academic–Yupik literacy and numerical skills; (2) linguistic–acquisition of grammar and meaning in Yupik and English. The analysis procedure used was the method of t-test for differences between independent group means. The results of the statistical analysis are presented in 3 main sections: (1) literacy skills, (2) numerical skills, and (3) linguistic skills. In each section, the results are generally described, followed by a brief discussion of the overall patterns as a whole. Program recommendations in the final section of the report cover: (1) instructional objectives, (2) math, (3) alphabet, (4) creative writing, and (5) English as a second language.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indian Languages, Basic Skills, Bilingual Education, Early Childhood Education

Christenson, Bruce; And Others (1996). What Academic Programs Are Offered Most Frequently in Schools Serving American Indian and Alaska Native Students? Issue Brief. This brief summarizes data on the types of academic programs offered in schools serving American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) students. The 1990-91 American Indian and Alaska Native supplement to the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics provides detailed information on schools serving AIAN students. Three distinctive schooling environments for AIAN students were examined: the 149 schools operated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA schools) or by Indian tribes under contract to the BIA (tribal schools), the 1,260 public schools with 25 percent or greater AIAN enrollment (high-AIAN), and the 78,625 public schools with less than 25 percent AIAN enrollment (low-AIAN). BIA/tribal schools serve AIAN students almost exclusively; most are small elementary schools. SASS data indicate that BIA/tribal schools were more likely than public schools to offer Chapter 1, remedial math, and bilingual education programs, and were less likely than public schools to offer academic enrichment programs for gifted and talented students. Bilingual programs, which use the native language to varying degrees in instructing students, were offered in 64 percent of BIA/tribal schools, while 45 percent of BIA/tribal schools reported having English as a second language programs. Among schools serving 12th-graders, BIA/tribal schools and high-AIAN public schools offered college preparatory programs less frequently than did low-AIAN schools.   [More]  Descriptors: Alaska Natives, American Indian Education, American Indians, Bilingual Education

Silvester, Timothy (1995). Managing a Bilingual Programme (BSL and English) in a School for Deaf Children. This paper describes the implementation of a bilingual education program teaching both British Sign Language (BSL) and English at a school serving 100 profoundly deaf elementary and secondary students and an additional 100 deaf students in the post-16 provision. The decision to adopt a bilingual approach is discussed, and while the approach was widely accepted by staff, in retrospect it was found that further staff consultation would have been appreciated. Early stages of implementation saw the bilingual program's introduction with the youngest group of children, with each new class included in the program until a full bilingual program had arisen, giving the secondary school added time to prepare for the change. Although intensive training was made available to all elementary level teachers, secondary training was limited to core subject teachers, and numerous problems arose in the pursuit of a faculty and staff with high levels of BSL fluency and competence. Difficulties in balancing the roles of English and BSL in the classroom and in the larger educational environment are discussed, and plans to improve upon the current state of the program are described.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingual Schools, Deafness, Elementary Secondary Education

Holm, Wayne (1971). Bilagaana Bizaad (The English Language): ESL/EFL in a Navajo Bilingual Setting. To cope with the bilingual education problems in a community such as Rock Point on the Navajo Reservation in New Mexico, a program has been developed to teach English as a foreign language within a bilingual setting. The goal is coordinate bilingualism in which each language has a separate but equal status, and the program is a "transitional" one in which Navajo is used as a means to enable children to go to school in English. The program involves team-teaching in two languages with the English-language teacher and the Navajo-language teacher conducting activities at opposite ends of the classroom simultaneously, each working with a relatively small group at a time. In the structure recommended for this program, the Navajo-language teachers are in charge and, in the lower grades especially, they teach content. The English-language teacher is teaching a foreign language, and teaching content is second to teaching English. The English teacher's goal is to make it possible for Navajo children to cope successfully with education in English.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indians, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Bilingual Teachers

Schaad, Olivia; Breckenfeld, Cristina (1983). Outcome Evaluation of Selected Bilingual Classrooms. The academic achievement of 144 second, third, and fourth graders in two Tucson elementary school bilingual education programs was measured by pre- and post-test scores on the California Achievement Test (CAT) and California Test of Basic Skills-Spanish (CTBS) in the fall and spring of the 1982-83 school year. The study was undertaken to examine whether or not the students gained in achievement during the school year, how students changing from Spanish to English reading and math instruction compared with those initially placed in English instruction, and how gains compared on the two tests. Significant differences were found between fall and spring scores on the CAT reading and math tests in each grade, and in the CTBS in second and third grades. Fourth-grade students receiving instruction in Spanish reading and math showed no gains on the CTBS. However, students changing from Spanish to English instruction in the third grade performed significantly better on the CAT math test. No significant differences were found for fourth grade students changing from Spanish to English. Further research with greater controls was recommended. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education Programs, Elementary Education, English (Second Language)

Crymes, Ruth, Ed.; Norris, William, Ed. (1975). On TESOL 74. The 23 papers in this volume are classified into the following seven areas: (1) the profession, (2) the teacher, (3) the learner, (4) programs, (5) the organization of materials, (6) testing, and (7) the classroom. The papers appear here just as they were prepared for presentation at the 1974 TESOL Convention. The three papers in part 1 look at changes in English language teaching practices, the differences between British and American approaches to teaching English, and the social, cultural, and political dimensions of English language instruction. In part 2 emphasis is placed on training programs for ESL teachers. The four papers in the "focus on the learner" section stress the need for a deeper understanding of the cultural and social, as well as linguistic, background of the language learner. In "focus on programs," two papers deal with bilingual education in the U.S. and one with a short-term program for Japanese teachers visiting the U.S. The papers in part 5 deal with selecting and sequencing materials for instruction. Part 6 provides information for the test writer, the teacher, and the test-writing teacher. The final section presents three papers detailing specific classroom activities and teaching techniques. The papers by M. Finocchiaro and B. K. Taska have already been entered into the ERIC system as ED 091 948 and ED 096 812, respectively.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Class Activities, Conference Reports, Cultural Background

Askins, B. E.; Yarbrough, D. W. (1984). Increasing the Quality of Basic Bilingual Instructional Services to K-3 Hispanic Children in West Texas. Final Evaluation Report 1983-84. Initiated in the 1981-82 school year, this three-year project was designed to organize and operate a bilingual education cooperative to provide financial and technical assistance to three school districts in their efforts to provide higher quality bilingual instructional services to approximately 190 Mexican American students. The three project schools were located in the public school districts of Plainview, Olton, and Petersburg, Texas. The project's overall goal was to assist limited English proficiency (LEP) children to acquire and/or improve their English skills and, using bilingual methodology and materials, to facilitate and expedite writing and content area concepts to the extent necessary to insure academic success in the regular school program. Four specific objectives developed for the 1983-84 school year pertained to student achievement, teachers and aides, increased involvement by the Parent Advisory Committee, and development of a unique bilingual curriculum guide. The external evaluation design for 1983-84, the project's final year of operation, focused on the perceived effectiveness of the project personnel and the project's specific objectives, overall impact, and overall goal. All objectives were satisfactorily achieved, except for the effectiveness of the Parent Advisory Committee and degree of parental involvement. The project did have a positive impact on participating students. Five specific program recommendations conclude the report.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education, Demonstration Programs, English (Second Language)

Lombardo, Maria (1985). The Italian American Parent Training Institutes. To help parents of Italian descent take an active part in their children's education, a 2-year program was implemented in New York City and Boston. The project attempted to examine the impact of training upon (1) parents' active participation in the schools and the bilingual programs; (2) parents' home activities with their children; and (3) the reading achievement of bilingual children of elementary age. The program consisted of a series of workshops for 60 parents. Presentations introduced parents to the structure of the American school, bilingual education, and reading activities that they could perform with their children on a daily basis. The development of a formalized parent training program was motivated by experience in bilingual communities suggesting that parents do not participate in schools. However, research has found that the home environment influences IQ and that children's attitudes toward and achievement in school are factors of their home experience. Outcomes of the first year of the program included the development of parent advisory committees, the organization of parents to make their opinions known to school officials, the voting of parents at school board elections, and the training of parents to work as aides in the bilingual program. As a result of an intensive course during the second year, parents conducted reading activities at home. Results of pretesting and posttesting indicated an increase in the children's reading levels over a 3-year period. Workshop outlines are attached; appendices include demographic information about the parents and the results of parent attitude questionnaires.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Elementary Education, Home Study, Italian Americans

Crawford, James (1996). Seven Hypotheses on Language Loss Causes and Cures. Objective evidence indicates that despite public fears and the claims of those who would make English the official language of the United States, it is not English, but minority tongues that are threatened in this country today. In the last 5 years, educators have noticed a sharp decline in native language skills among Native American children. Despite the end of punitive English-only policies and the advent of bilingual education, the shift to English is accelerating in many Indian communities. Seven hypotheses related to this shift are presented, drawing on historical research into U.S. language policy and anecdotal observations in Native American communities. First, language shift is very difficult to impose from without. Second, language shift is determined primarily by internal changes from within language communities themselves. Language choices are influenced, consciously and unconsciously, by social changes that disrupt community. These dislocations include demographic factors, economic forces, mass media, and identifiers of social status. Third, language shift reflects changes in social and cultural values, including the encroachment of individualism, pragmatism, and materialism. Examples of factors in language shift are offered for Navajo, Hualapai, Pasqua Yaqui, and Mississippi Choctaw. Fourth, efforts to reverse language shift must also involve a change in values. Fifth, language shift cannot be reversed by outsiders but depends upon community action. Sixth, successful strategies for reversing language shift demand an understanding of the current stage of language loss. Finally, at this stage, the key task is to develop indigenous leadership.   [More]  Descriptors: Acculturation, American Indian Languages, Attitude Change, Bilingual Education

Laygo, Teresito M., Comp. (1978). The Well of Time. Eighteen Short Stories from Philippine Contemporary Literature. A collection of eighteen short stories by Filipino writers is presented. The selections represent a variety of images of Filipino culture, both urban and rural, and life styles in northern and southern Philippines. The aim of the anthology is that the student will learn to empathize with experience rendered in language, appreciate the Filipino writer's art and craft, and understand the short story as a literary form. These stories are intended to be taught in grades 9-12 in a bilingual education setting. The book is divided into four sections: (1) Home and Country, (2) Of Identity and Family, (3) A Sense of History, and (4) Of Change and Values. Stories by the following authors are included: Narciso G. Reyes, Carlos Bulosan, Bienvenido N. Santos, N.V.M. Gonzales, Manuel E.  Arguilla, Aida Rivera Ford, Roman A. de la Cruz, Rogelio R. Sikat, J. Eddie Infante, Nick Joaquin, J. C. Dionisio, Gilda Cordero-Fernando, E. P. Patanne, Andres Cristobal Cruz, Arturo B. Rotor, Amador T. Daguio, J. C. Tuvera, and Gregorio C. Brillantes.   [More]  Descriptors: Anthologies, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Contemporary Literature

Burnett, Gary (1995). Urban Education Resources on the Internet. ERIC/CUE Digest Number 106. This digest provides a sample of the best current Gopher and World Wide Web (WWW) resources devoted to urban and minority education, and provides Gopher addresses whenever possible in addition to Uniform Resource Locator addresses. Sites that have been developed specifically to offer resources and support to urban educators include: (1) UEweb, a resource developed by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education; (2) the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory Gopher; (3) the Urban Education Project of Research for Better Schools, Inc.; (4) News from the Urban Education Front; (5) the Children and Youth at Risk Gopher of the Center for Research on Human Development and Education; and (6) the Pluribus Unum Gopher of the National Center for Restructuring Education, Schools, and Teaching. A number of Internet sites provide resources for educators serving bilingual and language minority children. These include: the National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education (NCBE) Gopher; the Linguistic Minority Research Institute (LMRI) Gopher; the National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning Gopher; and Chicano/LatinoNet. In addition, a growing number of urban schools and districts are showing up on the Internet. These include: The Rice School/La Escuela Rice; George Washington High School's GeorgeWeb; Ralph Bunche School; Bronx High School of Science; Jean Baptiste Pointe DuSable High School; the School District of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and San Francisco, California Unified School District.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Computer Uses in Education, Elementary Secondary Education, Higher Education

Laney, L. J. (1969). Twenty-Second Annual Report of Indian Education in Oklahoma Under State Contract. Prepared by the director of Indian Education in Oklahoma, this 1968-69 annual report presents information and statistical data pertaining to each district supported by Johnson O'Malley (JOM) funds. Discussed in the narrative portion are the visiting coordinator program and its accomplishments, the basis on which JOM funds are allocated, the bilingual education program at Northwestern State College, the workshops conducted with the aid of Oklahoma University, and the Foundation Aid Program for the State of Oklahoma. The statistical report includes exhibits such as the enrollment and attendance report for 1967-68, the enrollment-age-grade-dropout-graduate table and key for 1967-68, the expenditure of schools and administration contract funds, the estimated American Indian pupil enrollment for 1970, the financial statement, the total funds allocated to schools for enrichment, special services and special programs allocations, and lunch reimbursement to general support and special service schools. A summary of the aforementioned tables is presented. Included in the appendix are the Indian Public School Contract and 2 modifications, the Oklahoma State plan for administration of JOM funds, the enrollment and attendance table for 1968-69, the enrollment-age-grade-dropout-graduate table for 1968-69, a map of Indian tribes in Oklahoma, and a high school Indian senior questionnaire.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indians, Annual Reports, Attendance Records, Bilingual Education

Heubert, Jay P. (1994). "Brown" at 40: The Tasks That Remain for Educators and Lawyers. This paper describes some of the race discrimination issues in education that are most pressing 40 years after the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision and offers ways in which lawyers and educators can help address such discrimination. The following race discrimination issues in education are likely to produce conflict: (1) the use of ability groupings that tend to segregate students of color; (2) educational remedies in school desegregation cases ("Milliken II"); (3) educational services for limited-English-proficient students and the feasibility of bilingual education; (4) educational services for children of undocumented immigrants and the role of school officials in enforcing national immigration laws; and (5) harassment based on race and national origin. Lawyers and educators should approach discrimination not only as a legal problem but as a problem warranting immediate and aggressive educational interventions. Attorneys can encourage their education clients to take the following steps: (1) acknowledge the problem; (2) promote student and staff diversity; (3) teach students the history of the American civil rights movement; (4) eliminate ability groupings and set high expectations for all students; (5) ensure that curricula respects the contributions and concerns of persons of color; (6) modify pedagogies; (7) treasure native languages and ethnic identities; (8) create professional staffs to serve an increasingly diverse student population; (9) eliminate funding inequities; and (10) reduce concentrations of poor children in urban schools.  Descriptors: Ability Grouping, Bilingual Education, Court Litigation, Educational Discrimination

Leave a Reply