Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 292 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Jerome Kaplan, Inc. Nuestra Casa, Sonia Lewin-Poole, Rodolfo Jacobson, Barbara R. Markman, Kathleen Fernandes, Richard I. Brod, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation. Austin Independent School District, Peter Chin-tang Wang, and 1977.

Brod, Richard I. (1973). A National Foreign Language Program for the 1970's. Responding to a need expressed by a number of active foreign language teaching professionals, the Modern Language Association of America (MLA) began in 1972 to explore the possibility of a new national foreign language program. A steering committee was appointed by the MLA Executive Council to draft an outline of such a program. The present work is the final report of that committee. The report begins with a description of the steering committee and its goals and a brief history of foreign language teaching in America. The necessity of viewing language study as a humanistic endeavor with a vital humanizing power is discussed in Section 3. In Section 4, called "An Outline for Action," specific suggestions are made concerning: (1) public awarness of the importance of language study, (2) professional awareness and coordination, (3) classroom organization and techniques, (4) extracurricular programs, (5) bilingual education, (6) the uncommonly taught languages, and (7) quality control and national standards for language teaching and teacher training.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Standards, Bilingual Education, Extracurricular Activities, Humanistic Education

Bobson, Sarah, Comp. (1975). The Education of Puerto Ricans on the Mainland: An Annotated Bibliography. Responding to the special educational needs presented by an increasing number of Puerto Ricans residing in the U.S. mainland, this ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education annotated bibliography covers a span of 442 documents directed to educators concerned with meeting the critical pedagogical needs of children and youth from this ethnic minority. Seven sections, whose assigned titles adequately convey their individual contents, comprise the body of the bibliography. The sections are as follows: General Information, Historical Perspective/Background Information on Puerto Rico, Inservice Education/Inservice Workshops, Puerto Ricans and the Schools, Sociological Analysis, Spanish Language Texts, and Bibliographies. The sections on (1) Puerto Ricans and the Schools, and (II) Sociological Analysis are further divided into subsections; the former delimits the topic into General Information, Bilingualism/Bilingual Education Programs/TESL, Reading Instructions, Compensatory Education, Ethnic Studies, Curriculum Guides/Resource Units, and Counseling and Personnel Services, while the latter subdivides its area into General Information, Socioeconomic Status, Census Reports, Racism/Race Relations, Rural Populations Migrants, and Politics/Political Activism.   [More]  Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies, Bilingual Education, Compensatory Education, Educationally Disadvantaged

Nuestra Casa, Inc., New London, CT. (1979). Hispanic Vocational Exploration Project. Final Report. A project was designed to expose and orient Hispanic high school students in New London, Connecticut, to vocational education generally not available to them and to provide them with effective bilingual vocational education. Twenty Hispanic youths aged 13 to 21 were enrolled in an after-school exploratory vocational program. Students were exposed to four-week shops involving a hands-on project and exposure to career possibilities within each trade (including worksite and industry visits). Participants were assigned bilingual counselors/supervisors and participated in a series of career education workshops covering decision-making skills and values clarification. Staff activities included weekly meetings, home visits, and parent conferences. The project succeeded in exposing youths to vocational education and hands-on experience, in providing bilingual/bicultural education and supportive services, and in exploring the special needs of Hispanic students and specific strategies for their recruitment and orientation. However, the vocational possibilities and special placement needs of participants were not adequately assessed. Recommendations include gearing the project to eighth grade students, providing orientation activities, encouraging parent involvement, and increasing counseling and supportive services. Appendixes (half the document) contain budget and enrollment figures, an organizational chart, and a sample career workshop format. Descriptors: After School Programs, Bilingual Education, Career Exploration, Change Strategies

Wang, Peter Chin-tang (1974). Some Extra Problems That the Bilingual Teachers of Chinese Children Should Consider. This article discusses some special problems related to bilingual education for Chinese-speaking children. Three major questions are raised. The first results from confusion over the meaning of the term "Chinese"; one must decide whether Mandarin, Canton, or Taishan should be used as the language of instruction. It is suggested that Mandarin be used because it is the accepted official language in the People's Republic of China, Taiwan, and the United Nations and because it is necessary for reading and writing. The second question is whether to teach Mandarin or another dialect to the English-speaking students in a bilingual program. Mandarin is again suggested because it has a simpler sound system and because it can be studied further at many U.S. universities. Finally, there is the question of whether characters or alphabetical writing should be used and whether traditional or simplified characters should be used. The use of characters is advocated because it is the form used by Chinese speakers. The simplified system is also advocated because it offers many advantages, including the fact that it is used at the United Nations.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Cantonese, Chinese, Chinese Americans

Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation. (1981). State Compensatory Education: Final Technical Report. Publication Number 80.72. In evaluating the Austin Independent School District's State Compensatory Education (SCE) program, the Office of Research and Evaluation looked at nine program areas. The service report examined the services teachers gave and the achievement gains made by their students. The counselor service report examined how many eligible students were served by SCE counselors and the achievement gains they made. The SCE questionnaire sought the opinions of school personnel on services provided in the program. The writing composition laboratory records examined who was served by the laboratories and how well they achieved. The planner logs examined the role of the SCE planning component and the language assessment battery determined the percentage of eligible students served by the transitional bilingual education component and, by ethnicity, the achievement increases of those served. The section on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, the Sequential Tests of Educational Progress, and the Boehm Tests of Basic Concepts all measured the achievement of subsets of students in the SCE program. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education, Compensatory Education, Educational Planning

Reeves, Carolyn; And Others (1978). Bilingual Bicultural Teacher Training Program. The Bilingual/Bicultural Teacher Training Program at Mississippi State University was developed specifically to train Choctaw preservice teachers, or teacher aides, and other personnel working in Choctaw schools to work effectively in a bilingual/bicultural program. The program is flexible enough, however, so that other language groups can enter the program and receive training that would meet their needs. The major categories of academic preparation included in the curriculum are native language proficiency, linguistics, English as a Second Language (ESL), cultural awareness, bilingual/bicultural education methodology and theory, and assessment and luevaluation procedures in bilingual/bicultural education. The program provides both university and on-site training, and practice teaching experience occurs in the senior year. Further information is presented on specific goals and objectives of the program, personnel involved, the budget, and evaluation methods and results. The entire curriculum is provided in appendices, as well as a list of staff members on the project, and samples of student assignments for various courses. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Choctaw, Elementary Education, Field Experience Programs

Mackey, William F. (1979). Multinational Schools as Language Learning Media. Publication B-86. Several aspects of international education are discussed under the following headings: (1) the development of multinational schooling, (2) types of multinational schools, (3) aims and structure of multinational schools, (4) language learning, (5) language problems, and (6) improving the language learning potential. Historically, multinational schools were occasioned by the migration of peoples or the specific need for language instruction and bilingual education. Consequently, these schools differ among themselves in structure, content and goals. Their language learning advantage depends on the bilinguality of the curriculum and on the bilingual make-up of the school population. Generally speaking, multinational schools deal with second language learning in three ways. Some treat language as school subjects; some use them as the language of instruction for other subjects; and some depend on pupil interaction to achieve their bilingualism. The language problems of the schools are connected with interference, language attitudes, and the method and structure of the school. This study concludes that interethnic and interlinguistic interaction are more likely to bilingualize the student population than the lack of these features. An address list of international schools and institutions giving the International Baccalaureate is appended. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Schools, Bilingual Students, Bilingualism

Jacobson, Rodolfo (1976). Teaching Strategies for the Education of Bilinguals. Bilingual education, the objective of which is to render bilingual a group of monolingual or quasi-monolingual speakers, is distinguished from the "education of bilinguals," whose goal it is to teach the content of school subjects through the medium of two rather than one language. The present paper establishes this distinction and justifies the differential status of the two types of bilingual instruction on the basis of sociolinguistic, socio-cultural and psychological considerations. To establish the independent status of the "education of bilinguals," an innovative design for a bicultural and bilingual program is proposed that will lend itself to implementation in any area of the U.S. where stable bilingualism is operative, particularly South Texas. A set of token materials appropriate for such a program are provided, materials that will make ample use of "code-shifting" techniques that are sociolinguistically and psychologically significant and would better help the students relate to the classroom, since such strategies are part of their everyday verbal behavior. It is concluded that bilinguals will perform better if they are allowed to carry their usual bilingual strategies in to the classroom and are allowed to retain as well as distribute their two languages in a functionally significant way.   [More]  Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Bilingualism

Fernandes, Kathleen (1979). Survey of Needs for Bilingual Evaluation Technical Assistance. This report describes a needs survey administered at the first National Bilingual Education Management Institute. The purpose of the survey was to discover the major needs for evaluation training in bilingual programs. The survey dealt with the following areas of concern: identification of evaluation topics that would be useful and of interest to workshops; and the manner in which project evaluations are carried out and how the results are used. Some of the most frequently mentioned topics in the first part of the survey were program planning and development of an evaluation design, utilization of evaluation results, and evaluation of project management. In the second part of the survey the following topics were considered: (1) evaluation features that were required under the terms of project contracts and how effectively the projects had satisified each requirement; (2) evaluation tasks that caused difficulties for projects and the reasons for the difficulties; (3) the usefulness of the most recent project evaluation for making changes in the project; (4) recommendations for improving the evaluation of bilingual projects; and (5) evaluation topics where there is a need for technical assistance or training. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Assessment, Educational Needs, Evaluation Methods

Appleton, Nicholas (1978). Multiculturalism and the Courts. Precedent setting court cases are examined to determine the direction the United States is moving in its pursuits of multiculturalism. The support for multiculturalism is discussed in light of: the right of an individual to choose a life style he/she deems desirable; equal educational opportunity and integration; bilingualism; and pluralism for Native Americans. This review illustrates some general principles which courts use in defining American pluralism. It is concluded that the Constitution generally protects citizens from arbitrary or unreasonable control by the government and protects the right of parents to raise and educate their children as they see fit even if this life style is inconsistent with existing social patterns. Courts are found to be reluctant to rule in a broad manner and much more likely to apply certain principles to a specific case in a specific context. Because of this individual treatment, it is expected that multicultural and bilingual education will vary from group to group and situation to situation. Descriptors: American Indians, Bilingual Education, Court Litigation, Court Role

Eisenstein, Miriam (1977). Childhood Bilingualism and Adult Language Learning Aptitude, CUNY Forum, No. 3. This paper investigates the influence childhood bilingualism has on adult foreign language learning ability. Early research exploring the influence of bilingualism on general intelligence is mentioned as well as recent studies that present more favorable results. It is hypothesized that childhood bilingualism will have a positive effect on adult foreign language learning aptitude. Bilingualism is defined, and the bilinguals in this study are limited to those who acquired a second language before puberty. The subjects for this experiment were 93 college students, all either native Americans or those who had arrived in the U.S. before age 5 and had native proficiency in English. They were given the Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT) and were asked to rate the importance of foreign language learning as an asset. For comparison purposes, the subjects were divided into the following groups: monolinguals, bilinguals, bilinguals with formal education, bilinguals without formal education, polylinguals, and simple bilinguals. The findings point towards the conclusion that bilingualism in childhood is a positive factor in adult second language learning aptitude. Formal education may be a positive factor for formal learning situations although it may have a negative effect on the self confidence of the learner. Learning several languages in childhood appears to have a cumulative positive effect. Descriptors: Adult Learning, Aptitude, Aptitude Tests, Bilingual Education

Fishman, Joshua A.; Markman, Barbara R. (1979). The Ethnic Mother-Tongue-School in America: Assumptions, Findings, and Directory. Schools in the United States that have always conducted classes in an ethnic language were studied in an attempt to correct a long-standing oversight in the development of bilingual education theory. Chapters are devoted to the critical examination of five of the assumptions that have guided ethnic communities in institutionalizing ethnic-language education: (1) "Our language is responsible for our greatness and our authenticity," (2) "Since our language fosters our ethnicity it is morally and vitally necessary for us to maintain our language," (3) "Bilingualism and biculturalism are not only necessary but feasible societal arrangement for us in the USA," (4) "By means of planning and organization we can strengthen our language," and (5) "Our school can make a significant independent contribution to the maintenance of our language." A chapter is devoted to the tabulation and analysis of data on the distribution and dynamics of ethnic-language schools. Approximately half of the document is devoted to a state-by-state directory of ethnic community mother-tongue schools, arranged within each state by language and then by city. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Schools, Educational Research, Elementary Secondary Education

Lewin-Poole, Sonia; And Others (1977). So Who Wants Bilingual Teachers?, Australian Review of Applied Linguistics. Difficulties involved in staffing bilingual education programs in Australia are discussed. Bilingual teachers are defined as speakers of English and a community language that is the mother tongue of a sizeable non-English speaking group. Viewpoints are based on an attempt to implement a small-scale teacher training program at La Trobe University. The experience was limited to post-primary teacher trainees destined mostly to work in state schools in Victoria. It is suggested that teacher training institutions do not want to train bilingual teachers. There are few people in Australia who have a command of both English and another language, such that they feel competent to teach in either language. Teacher training institutions are not interested in making a commitment to undertake the teaching of community languages. At La Trobe University, an effort was made to teach people with tertiary qualifications from non-English speaking countries. The Victoria Education Department does not have a policy on bilingual teachers. The existing machinery, together with the present economic and political climate, leaves bilingual teachers with little or no means of being placed in schools. Possible roles of bilingual teachers and problems they would face are outlined, and needs of bilingual student teachers are discussed. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teachers, College Role, Educational Policy

1977 (1977). Toward a Language Policy for Puerto Ricans in the United States: An Agenda for a Community in Movement. This document asserts that historical, legal, demographic, and other forces indicate that language issues will be a primary focus of future policy contention. Economic formations, demographic movements, class assignments, and political organizations are described as they shape the relationship between language, education, and community identity. This relationship is used in examining the role bilingualism plays in education and in community identity. Also examined are legislative decisions affecting bilingualism and the potential of politics and society in securing the future of bilingual education. Federal, State and local level activities which could act to bring about educational approaches reflecting the Puerto Rican community's needs and values are suggested. Utilization of the potential strengths, present capacities, and untapped resources of the Puerto Rican community in achieving the desired language goals is called for. A Puerto Rican Education and Language Research Institute is proposed for furthering language planning and community development around language and education concerns. In addition, strategies for developing an adequate data base on the Puerto Rican school situation in the United States are suggested. Appendices include a brief history of and list of participants in the National Puerto Rican Task Force on Educational Policy, a description of Public Law 94-311, suggested for updating 1970 census figures for local Puerto Rican populations, and an educational profiles study questionnaire prepared by Aspira of America. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Community Influence, Community Role

Kaplan, Jerome (1973). The Triangle Program Planning Project. Final Report. A set of guidelines for implementing an individualized mathematics program to be utilized in a bicultural/bilingual setting were developed. At first, the design team sought to develop an all-purpose model complete with specifications of particular objectives, but the team soon recognized this goal to be unrealistic, since different school districts and schools within the districts provide different mixes of bicultural/bilingual needs. As a result, the team came up with a spectrum of bilingual education patterns leading to various possible approaches for the implementation of an individualized mathematics program. These various possible approaches are described in this final report. Discussed in detail are the 3 key phases needed in building a new bilingual/bicultural program, including (1) the planning phase, (2) the development phase, and (3) the implementation phase. This report also discusses the necessary elements needed to implement a mathematics program with a major emphasis on local needs and the major subsystems dealing with the learner, instructional, and support components of the program. The steps for utilizing the model are highlighted, and key recommendations are given for determining need and securing support, establishing curriculum development capability, implementing the program, and evaluating and revising the program design.   [More]  Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Children, Cultural Differences

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