Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 280 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Robert Rebert, Eugene E. Garcia, Robert Tobias, Robert L. Politzer, Hugo Baetens Beardsmore, Jyoti Ranadive, Manuel Reyes Mazon, Lubbock Askins (B.E.) and Associates, WI. Dept. of Educational Research and Program Assessment. Milwaukee Public Schools, and Ingvar Johannesson.

Mazon, Manuel Reyes (1972). A Design for Bilingual/Bicultural Education: A Process for Cultural Pluralism. A design for bilingual/bicultural education should begin with the assumption that cultural, racial, and linguistic differences are an integral and positive part of American society. School districts that want federal assistance in bilingual/bicultural programs should be able to demonstrate a commitment to this philosophy. Program planners should anticipate variation not only among different ethnic groups, but also within any one group, such as differences in performance levels. Particular programs of bilingual/bicultural education, since they are targeted to a given group, should not be assumed to have generality across other ethnic groups. The training of bilingual/bicultural personnel involves capabilities not only for dealing with the primary languages of the children, evaluating their performance in both languages, and adapting teaching methods according to the children's background, but also for developing a range of insights regarding the children's cultural background. A vital component of any bilingual/bicultural program is the capability for self-evaluation. This design proposes that the logic of discrepancy analysis be applied so that programs can constantly be held accountable not only for the attainment of their stated objectives but also for their schedule for achieving them. No such evaluation can be carried out adequately without the participation of trained evaluators who by membership in the subcultural group will be its most accurate observers.   [More]  Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Cultural Background, Cultural Pluralism

American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA. (1977). Evaluation of the Impact of ESEA Title VII Spanish/English Bilingual Education Program. Vol. 1: Study Design and Interim Findings. The study design and interim findings of the study conducted to determine the impact of bilingual education on students in the cognitive and affective domains in a nationally representative sample of Spanish/English bilingual projects are presented. The results summarized reflect the pre-post test period of data collection of the academic year 1975-76. Elementary students enrolled in bilingual projects were contrasted with students not enrolled in such projects. Standardized achievement tests were used to measure performance in language arts and mathematics computation in both languages. Information was collected on student and teacher characteristics and attitudes. Results from teacher questionnaires indicate that less than a third of all students in Title VII classrooms were there because of limited-English speaking ability. Title VII teachers and aides were more proficient in Spanish and English than non-Title VII staff. In terms of students of limited English-speaking ability achieving competency in English, projects which have been operating four to five years are said to not be generally effective. Encouraging results are said to be encountered in mathematics. It is claimed that no clear trend was found to indicate that participation in Title VII brought about an increase in positive attitude toward school.   [More]  Descriptors: Achievement, Achievement Tests, Affective Behavior, Bilingual Education

Rebert, Robert (1973). Proceedings: National Indian Bilingual Education Conference (1st, Albuquerque, N.M., April 17-19, 1973). Curriculum Bulletin No. 15. This conference report was a finale to the first National Indian Bilingual Education Conference (NIBEC) and a prelude to the second. The first conference was inspired in part by a 1972 meeting called by the U.S. Office of Education in Denver for participants in the Indian Title VII programs. The report covers the first NIBEC held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, in 1973, and presents a prologue to the second NIBEC to be held in Billings, Montana, May 6-9, 1974. The 5 conference topics included in the proceedings are: bilingual classroom strategies, bilingual staff development, community participation, bilingual program administration, and bilingual materials development. Though the styles of these 5 articles differ greatly, they all emanate from the same resources, the recorded tapes of all the 1973 NIBEC sessions. It is hoped that the recording of the 1973 ideas will help NIBEC 1974 in maintaining this valuable dialogue among Indian educators. The NIBEC Declaration, a list of current Indian bilingual projects, and registered NIBEC members were also given.   [More]  Descriptors: Administration, American Indian Reservations, American Indians, Bilingual Education

Baetens Beardsmore, Hugo (1977). An Investigation into Bilingual Education for Children from Favored Socio-Economic Backgrounds. Problemes linguistiques des enfants de travailleurs migrants (Linguistic Problems of the Children of Migrant Workers). The investigation reported sought to discover: (1) whether the problems faced by children of favored socio-economic backgrounds residing in countries other than those of origin are the same as or different from those faced by less favored groups, and (2) whether the techniques and programs provided for these privileged children can give any insights for similar programs adapted for children from less favored groups. Three schools in Belgium were selected as investigation sites, and an open-ended questionnaire was used for the basis of the enquiry. All questions were asked orally during interviews with staff members, and, where possible, interviews were followed up by observation of the teaching program. All three schools were attended by children from upper-middle and middle classes. For purposes of the report, a bilingual program is defined as one that gives more attention to a second language than is normally the case in school curricula. The program and curricula of each school are described, and solutions to bilingual education are seen to range from transitional programs to balanced bilingual programs to the use of the second language for social studies. All schools claimed that a greater tolerance for diversity developed as a result of bilingual programs.   [More]  Descriptors: Affluent Youth, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism

Tobias, Robert; And Others (1982). Project TRABAJO and Individualized Bilingual Education for Children with Retarded Mental Development. E.S.E.A. Title VII Annual Evaluation Report, 1981-82. This report presents the findings of the 1981-82 evaluation of two projects that served 200 mildly mentally retarded students of limited English proficiency (L.E.P.) in New York City Public Schools during the 1981-82 school year. Project TRABAJO served six middle and secondary schools, while Individualized Bilingual Education for Children with Retarded Mental Development (Chapter 720) served the same schools as well as six other elementary schools. The programs were funded separately, but they functioned cooperatively and served many of the same students. Chapter 720 funds provided for five paraprofessionals who assisted the classroom teachers in the individualization of instruction and materials development. Project TRABAJO funds provided additional administrative support staff and resource services. Both programs supported staff development, curriculum and materials development, and parent involvement activities. An evaluation of student achievement indicates that: (1) the programs were generally effective in promoting student growth in language arts skills and mathematics; (2) program objectives for reading and oral proficiencies in Spanish and English were attained, while the objective in mathematics was surpassed; and (3) student achievement in career education skills was evident. Suggestions for further improvement are offered in the evaluation.   [More]  Descriptors: Achievement Gains, Bilingual Education Programs, Career Education, Curriculum Development

Askins (B.E.) and Associates, Lubbock, TX. (1979). A School and Home-Based Bilingual Education Model: End-of-Year Evaluation Report, 1978-79 (Fourth-Year Evaluation Study). Designed to develop over five years a model bilingual program for nursery school through grade 6, the demonstration program provided early bilingual education intervention to facilitate the simultaneous learning of two languages and thus develop the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills of children with limited English speaking ability from low income Mexican American families. External evaluation of the program's fourth year, 1978-79, measured the program's impact on the achievement of the 85 participants in grades 2-5 in the areas of language arts, reading, mathematics, and Spanish language development. Based on comparison of participants' scores on the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills with those of a control group (55 students), the program generally met its objectives of having participating students with low English proficiency skills (LEPS) and "other" bilingual students equal the control group's achievement in reading, math, and English language skills at grade levels 2-5. "Other" bilingual students had lower scores in all areas at the second grade level and in reading at the third grade level. Analysis of LEPS participants' scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test revealed a significant gain in Spanish language skills at all grade levels. Additional remedial aid was recommended for "other" bilingual students in all areas at the second grade level and in reading at the third grade level. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education, Demonstration Programs, Elementary Education

Chattergy, Virgie (1980). A Specialization Program in Bilingual/Multicultural Education at the Tertiary Level–University of Hawaii. The presence of limited English speaking students in the Hawaiian schools is a major challenge for classroom teachers and teacher education. At the beginning of the 1970s, there was a shortage of qualified bilingual and English as a Second Language teachers for students from very diverse language and cultural groups. A specialization program within the existing Master's Degree program in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction was developed at the University of Hawaii to meet these needs. The first phase of the program consists of teachers' gathering information and gaining competencies fundamental and significant to the attainment of goals and skills in bilingual education, English language development, and cross-cultural sensitivities. The second phase stresses the opportunity to learn and practice the competencies discussed and examined in phase one of the program, through participation in field-based activities at site schools. During the final phase, trainees produce a piece of work to be used in the schools, or a piece of research that will contribute to new perspectives in this area of study. A description is presented of the competencies to be mastered by the trainees. Specific activities and events evolving from the program are itemized with notes on their impact on the schools. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Cross Cultural Training, Curriculum Development, English (Second Language)

Kelly, David H. (1986). Bilingual/Multicultural Education in Canada: Interpretation and Bibliography. Special Studies in Comparative Education, Number Fifteen. The bibliography includes 615 citations of books, articles, general sources, and bibliographies on aspects of bilingual education, multicultural education, and the role of language in education in Canada. Citations in the first section, on society and language policy, are organized in the following categories: history; sociological aspects; psychological aspects; politics in education; policy analysis; finance and economics; general works; and general works specific to a province or region. The second sections' contents, on bilingual teaching and learning, are presented in the following categories: contributions to psycholinguistic ideas; teaching methods and curriculum; pre-school learning; primary school learning; secondary school learning; and bilingualism and higher education. The third section, "Beyond French-English Bilingualism," includes: immigrants and other ethnic groups; adaptation for Asian migrants; and programs for Ukrainians. The fourth section, "Reference Works", includes general and program guides and bibliographies. Background information on Canada's relevant educational and language history is provided in an introductory narrative. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Comparative Education, Cultural Context, Curriculum Design

Ranadive, Jyoti (1993). Career and Academic Resources in Bilingual Education Program for High School Students (Project CARIBE). Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OREA Report. Career and Academic Resources in Bilingual Education (Project CARIBE) was a federally funded program that served 70 limited-English-speaking, native Spanish-speaking students, largely immigrants, in two Brooklyn (New York) high schools. Participating students received instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), native language arts (NLA), mathematics, science, and social studies. Multicultural education, development opportunities for teaching staff, and parent involvement were also program components. The project met its objectives for increasing student familiarity with American culture and citizenship, career advisement, dropout prevention, staff development, and parent involvement. It failed to meet it objectives in ESL, NLA, and attendance. It partially met objectives in the content areas. Objectives for growth of cultural pride, attitudes toward school, and awareness of pupil needs and problems could not be assessed. Recommendations for program improvement include: assessment of reasons for lack of ESL skill growth; exploration of additional techniques for improving NLA achievement; administration of a standardized Spanish language exam to all NLA students; greater focus on teacher inservice preparation for mathematics instruction to this population; and better information gathering to assess attainment of objectives.   [More]  Descriptors: Attendance Patterns, Bilingual Education Programs, Career Counseling, Career Education

Garcia, Eugene E.; And Others (1981). A National Study of Spanish/English Bilingualism in Young Hispanic Children of the United States. Bilingual Education Paper Series, Vol. 4, No. 12. Six hundred, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old bilingual, rural, and urban children from southwestern, midwestern, eastern, and southern United States participated in a national study of Spanish/English bilingual development. Half of these children completed the English version of CIRCO (1980) sub-test 10-C, a productive language measure that requires children to relate a description of a two dimensional picture. Half of the children completed the Spanish version of this same instrument. Analyses were performed on these English and Spanish samples regarding Mean Length of Utterance and intrasentential language switching. Comparisons were possible across: age, rural/urban status, and region (and to some extent, Hispanic ethnicity). On measures of linguistic proficiency, consistent differences were observed in developmental trends for Spanish and English. For Spanish, linguistic proficiency measures increased from ages 4 to 5, then decreased at age 6. For English, these same measures showed a continuous increase across age groups. On language switching measures, regional differences were observed regardless of age. Almost no rural/urban differences were observed. These findings are discussed from both a language acquisition perspective and a bilingual education perspective.   [More]  Descriptors: Age Differences, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Code Switching (Language)

Milne, Rosemary; Clarke, Priscilla (1993). Bilingual Early Childhood Education in Child Care and Preschool Centres. An Australian study developed recommendations, policies, models, and strategies for the establishment, maintenance, and evaluation of bilingual education programs in preschool and child care centers, as either full bilingual programs or bilingual components of other programs. Results are presented here. The methodology used was to describe and evaluate aspects of existing bilingual programs in child care centers and preschools and follow the transition of some participating children to elementary schools. The report begins with recommendations in four groups: those concerning public policy, for policy-makers and government agencies; those concerning preservice and inservice education for early childhood teachers; recommendations regarding program construction, implementation, and evaluation; and suggestions for the professional association (Free Kindergarten Association Multicultural Resource Centre) sponsoring the study, to ensure that recommendations result in action and to guide some future activities. A brief rationale follows each group of recommendations. The second section of the report offers policy recommendations that might be used in the policy statements of child care centers and preschools. Section 3 describes considerations in developing a bilingual program, and offers several broad models. Section 4 describes the research project from which these recommendations emerged. The final section summarizes the study's findings. Contains 27 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Articulation (Education), Bilingual Education Programs, Day Care Centers, Early Childhood Education

Milwaukee Public Schools, WI. Dept. of Educational Research and Program Assessment. (1974). Bilingual/Bicultural Education Program Evaluation Report 1973-1974, with a Five-Year Summary. In order to meet the needs of an increasing population of Spanish-speaking pupils who, because of their language handicap, had a difficult time in school, the Milwaukee Bilingual Education Program was developed. It provided a systematic bilingual program for Spanish-background pupils who lacked experiential background and who needed special attention with basic content at the same time they were developing language skills in English and Spanish. In the program, all subjects were taught in both English and Spanish to enable the pupil to learn subject matter in the comfort of his dominant language. Teachers were bilingual and of Latin heritage. Pupils who started the program in kindergarten or first grade were expected to be at least average for their grade level. At the secondary level, bilingual reading and social studies courses were developed and bilingual students' advisors and counselors assisted with education and personal problems. Biculturalism was a twin goal with bilingualism. Spanish-American culture was emphasized to replace negative self-image with ethnic pride.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Schools

Politzer, Robert L. (1978). Some Reflections on the Role of Linguistics in the Preparation of Bilingual/ Cross-Cultural Teachers. Bilingual Education Paper Series, Vol. 1, No. 12. During the past twenty years, the field of linguistics has changed in ways that are significant for the preparation of bilingual/cross-cultural teachers. Most linguists today would agree that variability in language and the relation of language to societal phenomena are now major concerns of linguistic inquiry and that interdisciplinary branches of linguistics, especially sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics, are assuming increasing importance in linguistic inquiry. The importance of the contribution of sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics to the training of bilingual education specialists must be judged according to the utilization and role of these sciences in the total professional preparation. Knowledge of them must be matched with cultural understanding and a knowledge of teaching methodology and the language of the target group. Because teachers' attitudes seem to influence educational outcomes, the impact of a linguistics course on language attitudes suggests that the linguistics course must be taught not only from the cognitive but also from the affective point of view. A summary of the findings of a test battery being developed by the Program for Teaching and Linguistic Pluralism of the Center for Educational Research at Stanford concludes this paper. It reinforces the view that a knowledge of linguistics cannot be successfully applied without a knowledge of the pupils' dominant language or without cultural understanding and empathy. Descriptors: Affective Objectives, Applied Linguistics, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education

Lopez-Valadez, E. Jeanne, Ed. (1976). Curriculum Materials for Bilingual and Multicultural Education. An Annotated Bibliography. Volume I, Spanish Language Arts. This volume is the first of a series of annotated bibliographies describing the library holdings of the Bilingual Education Service Center in Arlington Heights, Illinois. In addition to providing a representative sampling of available materials, this bibliography could be useful in the preliminary selection of instructional and resource tools. This volume includes materials designed to teach Spanish language arts to both native speakers and students of Spanish as a second language. The majority of the materials are for students in grades K-12, and include both basal and supplementary texts and audio-visual resources. The material was assessed for interest level, reading level, and language difficulty level. The narrative summary includes a description of the purpose of the material, a summary of the contents, comments regarding methodology or teaching approach, physical description, and a statement regarding accuracy and fairness/bias. To supplement the bibliographic information given for each item, a list with the names and addresses of publishers and distributors is also included. Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies, Audiovisual Aids, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education

Johannesson, Ingvar (1975). Aim and Goals for Bilingual-Bicultural Education: Short-Term and Long-Term Aspects. Due to increasing numbers of immigrants since 1960, especially Finnish children, Sweden began to establish instructional objectives and policies for immigrant children. Stated aims clearly stress that the primary aim in the teaching of immigrant children in Swedish schools is to promote bilingualism. While the short-term aim is to produce functional bilingualism (equal ability to speak and read both languages), the long-term aim is to equalize the learning opportunities for these children in the regular school system. V. P. John and V. M. Herner (1971) propose four models of bilingual education: informal, supplementary, transition, and two-way. The Swedish model is a transition model which uses the native language as a bridge to the national language. The mother tongue (Finnish) is developed to a relatively high degree during pre-school years and the first two years in the compulsory school; Swedish is given subordinate importance until grade 3 when training in the national language is necessary. The objective is to reach functional bilingualism by the end of grade 3. Development in the native language after age 10 is highly dependent upon the individual child and parental support.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Educational Objectives, Elementary Education

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