Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 275 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Clara Velazquez, Rosalind Alexander-Kasparik, Lawrence G. Felice, Mary Cazabon, John Soulas, Charlotte Cerf, Norman. Bilingual Education Multifunctional Resource Center. Oklahoma Univ., Ruddie A. Irazarry, Beverly B. McConnell, and Colin Baker.

Cazabon, Mary; And Others (1993). Two-Way Bilingual Education: A Progress Report on the Amigos Program. Research Report: 7. The progress report on the Amigos two-way bilingual education program in the Cambridge (Massachusetts) public schools describes: research on the achievement in mathematics, Spanish, and English of Amigos students and students in control/comparison groups; data gathered on students' and parents' attitudes toward bilingualism and biculturalism; student's self-assessments of academic competence and self-esteem; teachers' judgments of students' academic competence and self-esteem; and social-interactional patterns among Amigos students from different ethnic backgrounds. Features and policies of the program are described in a discussion of the results. It was concluded that Spanish and English language skills had improved steadily in participants of the Amigos, transitional bilingual, and standard English-only programs, but that Amigos students had not suffered any academic loss in mathematics or English despite having only half their instruction in English. By grade 3, Amigos students developed classroom friendships independent of race or ethnicity. While English-Amigos and English controls had favorable views of bilingualism, the Spanish-Amigos were most favorable. Spanish-Amigos also rated themselves highest in personal satisfaction. A tabulation of survey responses and a brief bibliography are appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Cultural Pluralism, Elementary Education, Elementary School Students

Carrasquillo, Angela L.; Rodriguez, Vivian (1996). Language Minority Students in the Mainstream Classroom. Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 7. The book is an introduction to the teaching of students whose first language is not English, especially limited-English-proficient (LEP) students, in the regular classroom. An introductory chapter defines terms, offers guiding principles, and outlines issues in the education of this population. The second chapter looks at the characteristics of LEP students, including issues in their linguistic, cognitive, and academic development and in their assessment. The third chapter examines more closely several issues in cultural and linguistic diversity in the classroom, and the organization of classroom activity to be culturally sensitive. Chapter 4 examines alternatives to mainstreaming LEP students, particularly bilingual education, English-as-a-second-language programs, and sheltered subject area instruction. Strategies for integrating oral and written language learning is the focus of Chapters 5 and 6. Three subsequent chapters address integration of language learning with specific subject areas: social studies; science; and mathematics. Finally, the role of teachers in the development of linguistic, cognitive, and academic skills of LEP students is explored; characteristics, competencies, and techniques of effective mainstream teachers are reviewed here. A substantial bibliography is included. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Classroom Environment, Cultural Pluralism, Educational Needs

Orvik, James M. (1975). Four Years of Bilingual Education: The Yupik Language Program in Southwestern Alaska. In Fall 1971, the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs' (BIA) Bethel Agency implemented an experimental Yupik bilingual program into the primary grades of 3 lower Kuskokwim village day schools. Simultaneously the Alaska State-Operated School System (ASOSS) introduced Yupik bilingual programming in a kindergarten classroom at Bethel Elementary School. Both agencies shared certain program components (mainly in the areas of staff and materials development), and many of the concepts generated by the BIA were subsequently incorporated by the ASOSS bilingual program. This report presents the evaluation and research findings of the first 3 years of both the BIA and ASOSS programs. In some cases, data are given for only one of the agency programs; however, where program similarity justifies, data are generalized to estimate conditions and outcomes for both agencies. Data range from formal language test data to impressionistic data where staff and community members were informally interviewed. An overview of bilingual education is given, defining its spectrum and listing the BIA and ASOSS programs and where on the spectrum they exist. The main program components (instruction, staff development, materials development, and community involvement) are analyzed by addressing prominent operational and theoretical questions which arose during the programs' first 3 years.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, American Indians, Bilingual Education, Cultural Awareness

Smith, Philip D. (1980). A Review of the Research on the Teaching of Reading in Bilingual Education. This paper reviews research literature in the following areas associated with second language reading: (1) the level of language development in the native and target languages, (2) the teaching method selected, (3) the teaching materials selected, (4) the time and place of initial literacy in the home-language (L1), (5) the transition from home-language literacy to English reading (L2), (6) the potential transfer of reading skills from one language to another, (7) the cultural compatibility of methods and materials, and (8) the teacher. Major topics addressed include research in reading in bilingual education, dimensions of reading, research on ex-post facto variables (SES, sex, culture, learning style), research on reading readiness, the language for initial literacy, methods for teaching reading to bilingual learners, and teaching reading to advanced students. Recommendations for approaches to teaching reading are explored based on whether the goal of the program is acculturation into the dominant linguistic culture, functional bilingualism and biliteracy, or the preservation of the first language and ethnic identification. Descriptors: Acculturation, Bilingual Education, Cognitive Style, Cultural Context

Berney, Tomi D.; Velazquez, Clara (1989). Career Advancement through Bilingual Education Skills. Project CABES, 1987-1988. This report evaluates Project CABES (Career Advancement through Bilingual Education Skills) during its second year of extension of a federal funding cycle at New York's Seward Park High School. The major goal of Project CABES was to provide career advancement skills to 250 Hispanic 9th- through 12-grade students of limited English proficiency interested in a career-oriented rather than academic curriculum. Courses included typing, employability skills, word processing, and bilingual career workshops. The project also provided bilingual content area, English as a Second Language (ESL), and native language arts (NLA) courses. The program achieved its proposed objectives in ESL, typing, the first job skills course, and word processing. Objectives were not met in the second job skills course or the NLA course, and they were met in only one content area course. The attendance and some staff development objectives were met, but the parental involvement objective could not be assessed. Content area class performance dropped from the previous year. Program strengths include a successful career advancement program, high level of staff development activity, and efforts to improve parental and student attendance. Recommendations for program improvement include allocation of a larger office space, computer repairs and service contract, and publicity of the content of the computer mathematics course.   [More]  Descriptors: Attendance, Bilingual Education Programs, Career Awareness, Counseling Services

Keith, Timothy Z. (1984). Does Bilingual Education Improve Hispanics' Achievement? A Large-Sample Path Analysis. This study concerns the influence of native language instruction in grades one through six on bilingual Hispanics' high school achievement. A nationally representative sample of 58,000 high school sophomores and seniors (the High School and Beyond data set) was used as the data source. Path analytic techniques were used to determine the magnitude of the effect of early native language instruction, while controlling for other relevant influences which included ethnic origin, mother's years in the United States, family background, intellectual ability, Hispanicity, English proficiency, and extent of native language instruction. Results suggest that the extent of native language instruction a bilingual Hispanic student receives has a negative influence on his or her later achievement. Other direct influences were ability, English proficiency, family background, mother's years in the United States (negative) and Hispanicity (negative). Results were consistent across different measures of extent of native language instruction. These preliminary and tentative results suggest that a transitional approach to bilingual education may be more fruitful than a maintenance approach. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education Programs, Elementary Secondary Education, Followup Studies

Davila, Sonia I. (1983). The Wisconsin Design for Reading Skill Development and Transfer of Comprehansion Reading Skills in Bilingual Education. The Wisconsin Design for Reading Skill Development (WDRS) is primarily an instructional management model in reading, which can be used in both English and bilingual classrooms. The Design, which presents an objective-based, skill-centered approach to reading instruction, conforms to the concept of individually guided education. It is organized in six broad skill areas: word attack, study skills, comprehension, self-directed reading, interpretive reading, and creative reading. For each skill area, the following are provided: instructional and behavioral objectives; assessment procedures; teacher materials and activities identified and organized by objectives; guidelines for implementation of the Design; and teacher planning guides. Pupil profile cards are also provided. Following the general description of the WDRS, this paper presents a more detailed description of the Design's reading comprehension component. This is followed by a discussion of new trends and theoretical bases concerning reading comprehension and transfer of Spanish-English reading skills, and their implications for bilingual education. Arguing that the research shows that reading comprehension skills will be developed and transferred in and between a first and second language if the bilingual reading curriculum is truly skill-based, the paper ends by proposing that the WDRS is a useful tool for this purpose. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Elementary Education, English (Second Language), Individualized Instruction

Oklahoma Univ., Norman. Bilingual Education Multifunctional Resource Center. (1994). University of Oklahoma Bilingual Education Multifunctional Resource Center, Service Area 4. Final Performance Report, 1993-1994. This report describes and assesses the 1993-94 (October 1, 1993 through September 1994) activities of the federally-funded Bilingual Education Multifunctional Resource Center based at the University of Oklahoma and serving a nine-state area (Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee). The first section describes the center's service area, staff, and resources and facilities, and provides profiles of activities in each state. The second section summarizes major activities in the areas of program coordination, major training projects, training institutes, and programs providing college credits. Section 3 details the center's outcomes and accomplishments in program management, curriculum and instructional development, culture and counseling services, parent and community involvement, client response to services, and special accomplishments. It also summarizes activities by state. The final section offers background on changes in demography, teacher demand, state and local policies affecting services to limited-English-proficient (LEP) students, and recommendations for change. A resource book for educators serving LEP students in vocational and career education programs, developed as part of the center's program, is appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Change Strategies, Counseling Services, Counselor Client Relationship

Alexander-Kasparik, Rosalind, Ed.; Soulas, John, Comp. (1994). Border Issues in Education, Part 1 [and] Part 2, SEDLETTER. These newsletters examine issues in education along the United States and Mexico border. Topics in Part 1 include the ramifications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for education, the impact of immigration on schools, and the structure and history of the Mexican educational system and its reforms in theory and practice. Educators along the border have voiced concerns about the effects of NAFTA, most notably the impact of population growth on school facilities and budgets already stretched by illegal and legal immigration and the movement of populations from rural to urban areas on both sides of the border. Many in the United States are alarmed at the continuing waves of immigrants and discriminate against both legal and illegal immigrants. In any case the areas of concern that have been most frequently cited by border educators and experts have been growth and immigration. Some saw the burgeoning population as an opportunity; others saw it as a problem. Nevertheless, all agreed that action must be taken to develop curriculum alignment between the United States and Mexico, teacher training and exchange, and the use of telecommunications and teleconferencing in border states education. This report also looks at characteristics of immigrant students, profiles a Mexican college student who has attended school in both Mexico and the United States, and highlights research pertaining to Hispanic immigrant students. In Part II, sections draw upon interviews with teachers and administrators in Laredo (Texas) and Nuevo Laredo (Tamaulipas, Mexico) and cover the following topics: (1) an agreement between the U.S. and Mexican Education Secretaries to foster binational curriculum alignment, and the difficulty of lack of congruence between the two national education systems; (2) cross-national differences in teacher education and certification; (3) needs for more bilingual teachers and for cross-cultural staff development in the United States, and inadquacies of U.S. teacher training and binational teacher exchange programs; (4) bilingual education and second language learning; (5) advantages of two-way bilingual programs for all students; (6) politics and controversies surrounding bilingual education; (7) need for comprehensive social services for children and families along the border; (8) special education and mainstreaming in both countries; (9) plans by the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory to foster development of a binational vision of what border education should be; and (10) immigration phobia. This issue also contains an interview with Derrick Bell on race and racism in American education.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Change, Educational History, Educational Needs, Educational Trends

Felice, Lawrence G. (1981). Bilingual Education and Affective Outcomes: The Past Ten Years and the Mexican American Experience. A review of research literature on whether Spanish bilingual, bicultural programs enhance self-concept and whether any relationship exists between enhanced self-concept and improved academic achievement also describes research problems and potential solutions. Theories of importance of self-concept as a determinant of achievement, particularly with minority/bilingual students, are briefly covered. Research findings are presented on whether self-concept improvements lead to improved achievement (result: self-concept and achievement appear so interdependent that precise relationships are difficult to distinguish) and whether bilingual programs enhance self-concept of Mexican Americans, as well as whether Mexican American students need to have their self-concepts enhanced (results: effects of bilingual programs in improving self-concept have been mixed; Mexican Americans do not have poor self-concept). Problems contributing to the mixed results are listed: lack of agreement on appropriate measures of student affect; varying definitions and measures of self-concept; differing definitions of bilingual education and lack of equivalence between bilingual programs being compared; researchers' attempts to prove qualitative affective changes by using data from short-term quantitative studies; and schools' use of a meritocracy ideology to validate maintenance of social inequality. Potential solutions are given: rediscovery of the validity and importance of qualitative research, and redirection of evaluation by recognizing differing cognitive styles.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Affective Behavior, Attitude Change, Attitude Measures

Baker, Colin (1995). A Parents' and Teachers' Guide to Bilingualism. Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 5. In a question-and-answer format, the guide responds to common queries about bilingualism in children. The first section poses and answers questions about family issues and bilingualism, including family communication, support of language development, cultural and social context for language development, social integration, and parent language learning. The second section focuses on more specific language development issues such as language dominance and fluency, intelligence and achievement, multilingualism, variability related to age and gender, language attitudes, code-switching and translation, educational strategies, and employment prospects for bilinguals. Concerns about problems and disadvantages of bilingualism are addressed in the third section, including language mixing, behavioral and developmental problems, prejudice, and language choice. Section 4 is devoted to questions about reading and writing instruction and support for literacy development. A wide variety of education-related questions are answered in the fifth section. These concern basic education issues, bilingual education, academic achievement and underachievement, and language use in the classroom. The concluding section contains miscellaneous questions and answers. A glossary and index are included. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Classroom Communication

McConnell, Beverly B. (1982). Bilingual Education: Will the Benefits Last? Bilingual Education Paper Series, Vol. 5 No. 8. The effects of early education bilingual programs on subsequent educational achievement were studied with Spanish-speaking children of migrant farm workers in southern Texas. The children were enrolled in the Individualized Bilingual Instruction (IBI) program for at least one year from preschool through grade 3. About 30-50 children were tested at each grade level, and a like number were tested in a neighboring school for a comparison group. IBI children and the comparison group of Spanish-speaking, migrant farm worker children did not differ significantly on pretests. For the followup study, about 10 IBI children and about 15 comparison group children were tested at each grade level, grades 4-6. At this time, IBI children had been out of the IBI program from 1-5 years. IBI children had special instruction one hour a day. During the winter months, they were taught in the home base area, while special instruction was continued in temporary locations in the north during the migrant work season. The instructional materials were structured and sequenced, and the lessons were individualized. Frequent mastery checks were also provided. For the followup study, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and the math and reading subtests of the Wide Range Achievement Test were administered to students. FIndings include: (1) IBI children learned English much faster than children in the comparison group; (2) IBI children maintained and improved their Spanish; (3) IBI children achieved much higher scores in reading and arithmetic than comparison children; and (4) the IBI children's superiority was maintained at upper grade levels after they left the program.   [More]  Descriptors: Achievement Gains, Bilingual Education Programs, Early Childhood Education, Educational Testing

Berney, Tomi D.; Alvarez, Rosalyn (1989). Bilingual Education and Career Awareness Program. Project BECA, 1987-88. OREA Report. Project BECA (the Bilingual Education and Career Awareness program) served 346 students at Adlai E. Stevenson High School in New York City in its second year of extension funding. Participating students received instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), native language arts (NLA), content area subjects, bilingual industrial arts, and business education. The program also provided counseling, staff development, curriculum development, and extracurricular and parent involvement activities. Although students at all grade levels made significant gains in English language proficiency, only advanced students met the proposed ESL objective. The NLA objective was met. Science and business education objectives were met in both semesters, and the social studies objectives were met in the spring semester. Inadequate information was available on the industrial arts and suspension objectives. Attendance, staff development, and guidance and counseling objectives were met. Curriculum development and extracurricular activity objectives were only partially achieved, and mathematics and parental involvement objectives were not met. Recommendations for program improvement include assignment of a family assistant to the program, offering of the same vocational and career concentration courses offered to mainstream students, improved coordination of efforts, more comprehensive programming for overage students, and easier student access to nursery facilities.   [More]  Descriptors: Attendance, Bilingual Education Programs, Business Education, Career Awareness

Berney, Tomi D.; Cerf, Charlotte (1989). Career Awareness Program in Bilingual Education. Project CARIBE, 1987-88. OREA Report. In its first year of extension funding, Project CARIBE (Career Awareness in Bilingual Education) served 376 Spanish-speaking students of limited English proficiency at Eastern District High School (Brooklyn) and Far Rockaway High School (Queens). The program consisted of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction, native language arts (NLA), content area courses taught bilingually, and bilingual guidance counseling. A resource and computer center was established and activities were conducted in academic counseling, career education, career-related enrichment, and parental involvement through parent advisory councils, cultural festivals, and workshops on topics of parent interest. Curriculum development activities were scheduled. The project met its ESL objective. Assessment of the NLA objective was not possible, and content area course objectives were not met. Attendance and staff development objectives were met, but due to inadequate data, assessment of cultural awareness, attitudes toward school, career awareness, and parental involvement was not possible. The suitability of the objectives will be reviewed. Program strengths include the resource room's availability to students, computer use, development of computer software, and parent activities. Recommendations include use of a different evaluation method for career awareness, attitudes, and staff development; use of computer software developed in the program for other populations; and use of the resource room as a model for other programs.   [More]  Descriptors: Attendance, Bilingual Education Programs, Business Education, Career Awareness

Irazarry, Ruddie A. (1978). Bilingual Education: State and Federal Legislative Mandates. Implications for Program Design and Evaluation. This review of current federal and state legislation provides information on characteristics of bilingual education programs, mandated by law, that are of importance to evaluators. The legislative summaries are presented in two sections: across-states summary of legislative provisions and state-by-state summary of legislative provisions. Information is presented in the following categories: type of program, population to be served, participation of English-speaking students, census (determining numbers of students eligible for the program), census mandate (when a program must be provided), description of the program, grades to be covered, length of time for students in the program, student/teacher ratio, teacher/staff requirements and qualifications, staff training, materials requirements, community participation, and student assessment and evaluation reporting requirements. States differ in goals for native language outcomes, definitions of the populations to be served, types of programs to be provided, and length of time students remain in the programs. In the evaluation of a bilingual program, it is important to consider these differences whether the program operates under state or federal requirements. Even when it operates under federal policy or funding, it is likely that the local program will be affected by the provisions of the state. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Assessment, Educational Legislation, Educational Policy

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