Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 256 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Emilia Di Martino, Tina M. Hickey, Ewa Haman, Adam Winsler, Dae-Min Kang, Odelya Ohana, Rafael Lara-Alecio, Christophe dos Santos, Fuhui Tong, and Hector Rivera.

Tong, Fuhui; Luo, Wen; Irby, Beverly J.; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Rivera, Hector (2017). Investigating the Impact of Professional Development on Teachers' Instructional Time and English Learners' Language Development: A Multilevel Cross-Classified Approach, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. We examined the direct impact of an ongoing, intensive, and structured professional development (PD) within an English-as-second-language (ESL) instructional intervention on (a) teachers' time allocation in cognitive–academic language proficiency (CALP) and (b) Spanish-speaking English language learners' (ELLs) CALP development from the second to third grade within a multilevel cross-classified framework. Second, we explored the mediation effect of teachers' time allocation. We observed that treatment teachers spent more time in CALP than control teachers as a result of the instructional intervention with PD. In addition, the treatment effect was evident in ELLs' outcomes, including expressive vocabulary, oral reading fluency, and retell fluency. Finally, the treatment effect was completely mediated through teachers' time allocation in CALP in the second grade on retell fluency.   [More]  Descriptors: Faculty Development, English Language Learners, Expressive Language, Vocabulary Development

Ardasheva, Yuliya; Tretter, Thomas R. (2017). Developing Science-Specific, Technical Vocabulary of High School Newcomer English Learners, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. This paper reports on the curriculum development stage for a larger science-literacy intervention for secondary school newcomers enrolled in an urban US school. After providing background to the study, we review literature on effective vocabulary instruction and report on the "Science Vocabulary Support" program development, refinement, and preliminary effectiveness evaluation in a sample of 92 emergent bilinguals. Results indicated that pre-to-post gains in student vocabulary retention were statistically (p < 0.005) and practically (d = 0.59) significant. These results, corroborated by weekly quizzes and interview and observational data, highlight the merit of specifically targeting science-specific, technical vocabulary for instructional interventions.   [More]  Descriptors: Vocabulary Development, Intervention, Teaching Methods, Observation

O'Toole, Ciara; Gatt, Daniela; Hickey, Tina M.; Miekisz, Aneta; Haman, Ewa; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Rinker, Tanja; Ohana, Odelya; dos Santos, Christophe; Kern, Sophie (2017). Parent Report of Early Lexical Production in Bilingual Children: A Cross-Linguistic CDI Comparison, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. This paper compared the vocabulary size of a group of 250 bilinguals aged 24-36 months acquiring six different language pairs using an analogous tool, and attempted to identify factors that influence vocabulary sizes and ultimately place children at risk for language delay. Each research group used adaptations of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories: Words and Sentences and a specially designed developmental and language background questionnaire to gather information on risk factors for language impairment, demographic and language exposure variables. The results showed a wide range in vocabulary development which could be somewhat attributed to mothers' education status, parental concerns about language development and amount of exposure to the second language. We looked at those children performing below the 10th and above the 90th percentile to determine what factors were related to their vocabulary size. Features of the entire group of lower performing children were fewer than 50 words and the absence of two-word combinations by 24 months, lower levels of parental education and parental concerns about language development. The implications for identifying bilingual children at risk for language impairment as well as the language enrichment that might be needed for young bilinguals are outlined.   [More]  Descriptors: Vocabulary Development, Mothers, Educational Attainment, Questionnaires

Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Ohana, Odelya (2017). A CDI Study of Bilingual English-Hebrew Children–Frequency of Exposure as a Major Source of Variation, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. The present study explores the vocabulary development of bilingual children when neither of their languages has a minority language status. With both languages having high relative prestige, it is possible to address the impact of exposure variables: age of onset, length of exposure, and frequency of exposure (FoE) to both languages. Parents of 40 English-Hebrew bilingual children, from mid-high socio-economic status, completed the vocabulary checklist of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) [Fenson et al. 1991. "MacArthur-Bates CDI Words and Sentences." Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing], its Hebrew adaptation [Maital et al. 2000. "The Hebrew CDI: Language Specific Properties and Cross-Linguistic Generalizations." "Journal of Child Language" 27: 43-67], and a background questionnaire. Two-thirds of the children showed balanced bilingualism, reflecting the relatively higher prestige of the two languages. FoE emerged as the major exposure variable, other than chronological age that contributes to the maintenance of L1 and acquisition of L2 by bilinguals who are dominant in one of their languages. Analysis of individual data shows how using a bilingual CDI can help identify children who are at risk for Specific Language Impairment, testing both languages and generating provisional bilingual norms, or using conceptual vocabulary with monolingual norms.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingualism, French, Child Language, Semitic Languages

Aiello, Jacqueline; Di Martino, Emilia; Di Sabato, Bruna (2017). Preparing Teachers in Italy for CLIL: Reflections on Assessment, Language Proficiency and Willingness to Communicate, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. The purpose of this study is to open a window onto Italian Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) teachers' language competence and the ways it is currently being assessed by presenting a specific case: one testing session of the first batch of future CLIL teachers aimed at assessing their level of competence in a foreign language, in which the authors were personally involved as decision makers, organisers and observers. To provide an insight into the issue, this paper first contextualises Italian CLIL teacher training within policy recommendations provided by the European Union and the Italian Ministry of Education. Secondly, it describes in detail the specific decision-making process related to the evaluation of aspiring CLIL teachers in Southern Italy in the vehicular language, to explore suggestions for and issues related to such evaluation. Finally, it presents the outcomes of this evaluation, drawing on survey and observational data, to uncover the descriptive characteristics of the individuals involved in the analysis (teachers in Southern Italy who volunteered to be future CLIL teachers), the extent to which they displayed willingness to communicate in the vehicular language of instruction and differences that emerged in perceived and actual proficiency, and across subgroups. The different perspectives of policy, test development and test outcomes inform suggestions for training of CLIL teachers in the Italian context and beyond.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Second Language Learning, Second Language Instruction, Course Content

O'Toole, Ciara; Hickey, Tina M. (2017). Bilingual Language Acquisition in a Minority Context: Using the Irish-English Communicative Development Inventory to Track Acquisition of an Endangered Language, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. This study investigated the role of language exposure in vocabulary acquisition in Irish, a threatened minority language in Ireland which is usually acquired with English in a bilingual context. Using a bilingual Irish-English adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories) [Fenson, L., V. A. Marchman, D. J. Thal, P. S. Dale, J. S. Reznick, and E. Bates. 2007. "The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories." 2nd ed. Baltimore: Brookes], longitudinal parent report data were collected from 34 children (19 girls and 15 boys) at 4-monthly intervals, resulting in 61 data points between the ages of 17-36 months. Language exposure estimates indicated that while the caregivers "always" spoke Irish to the children, both languages were used in most households, with/among siblings and extended family. The children's vocabulary indicated that they were Irish-dominant in this age range, with more Irish words than English for all vocabulary categories. The analysis also showed no difference in Irish vocabulary scores between children who were "usually" exposed to Irish compared to those with lower exposure rates to Irish. However, there was a significant effect for caregivers' reported use of English on children's English scores. The results are discussed in terms of the language input needed to maintain an endangered language and factors to take into account for establishing good estimates of language exposure in a minority language context.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingualism, Language Minorities, Irish, Scores

Miekisz, Aneta; Haman, Ewa; Luniewska, Magdalena; Kus, Katarzyna; O'Toole, Ciara; Katsos, Napoleon (2017). The Impact of a First-Generation Immigrant Environment on the Heritage Language: Productive Vocabularies of Polish Toddlers Living in the UK and Ireland, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. The expressive lexical skills of 53 Polish bilinguals aged 24-36 months living in the UK and Ireland were assessed using Polish and British English adaptations of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories. Polish vocabulary scores were compared to those of 53 Polish monolinguals matched for age, gender and parental education. The bilinguals were born to two Polish parents and mostly lived outside Poland since birth. Results showed substantial differences in Total Conceptual Vocabulary and single-language vocabulary scores between the groups. However, the groups did not differ on Total Vocabulary measures. In the bilingual sample, there were significant correlations between children's frequency of language use and their vocabulary scores in the same language. A negative correlation between children's frequency of English use and their Polish vocabulary scores was found. A complex pattern of factors relating to children's low performance in Polish emerged. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that low birth weight, parental concern about language, maternal educational level as well as maternal frequency of Polish and English use contributed to explaining children's Polish vocabulary scores. Overall, results indicated the need for early additional support of the first language (L1) if long-term balanced bilingualism is to be attained.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Polish, Bilingualism, English

Ianos, Maria-Adelina; Huguet, Ángel; Janés, Judit; Lapresta, Cecilio (2017). Can Language Attitudes Be Improved? A Longitudinal Study of Immigrant Students in Catalonia (Spain), International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. This study explores changes in attitudes towards Catalan, Spanish, and English over a 2-year period, on the part of secondary education students of immigrant origin residing in Catalonia. It aims to provide new data by adopting a longitudinal design and by focusing on the immigrant population, which has raised new challenges for the Catalan society and education system. Data were collected from 72 secondary education students who answered a language attitudes questionnaire twice, at a 2-year interval. The instrument chosen has been successfully used in the area previously [Huguet, Janés, and Chireac. 2008. "Mother Tongue as a Determining Variable in Language Attitudes. The Case of Immigrant Latin American Students in Spain." "Language and Intercultural Communication" 8 (4): 246-260; Madariaga, Huguet, and Lapresta. 2013. "Attitudes, Social Pressure and Inclusive Education in Classrooms with Cultural and Linguistic Diversity." "Educación XXI" 16 (1): 305-328]. The findings showed that attitudes towards Catalan improved, while attitudes towards Spanish and English remained stable, based on which we discuss the strength of language attitudes in this particular context. Furthermore, the socio-demographic and affective variables traditionally investigated as determinants of language attitudes were not found to influence the processes of attitude change.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Language Attitudes, Longitudinal Studies, Immigrants

Laihonen, Petteri; Tódor, Erika-Mária (2017). The Changing Schoolscape in a Szekler Village in Romania: Signs of Diversity in Rehungarization, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. In this paper, we explore the connections between a linguistic landscape and language ideologies in an elementary school in a village within the Hungarian region of Szeklerland in Romania. This "schoolscape" is analysed as a display or materialization of the "hidden curriculum" regarding the construction of linguistic and cultural identities. We draw on fieldwork carried out in 2012 and 2013 and examine two dimensions of change in progress: (1) changes in the use of Hungarian and Romanian as languages of teaching and learning and as languages of written administration; and (2) changes in the display of these languages in the schoolscape. Since 1990, there has been a tendency towards rehungarization of the schoolscape and a conscious replacing of Romanian signs from the dictatorship period with Hungarian signs. Cultural symbols have a local Szekler connotation. New traditions and emblems on display show how the rehungarization process has had new momentum recently. With regard to language, the schoolscape is characterized by clear dominance of standard Hungarian over Romanian, while the local Hungarian vernacular is hidden from the schoolscape. The scope of rehungarization in the schoolscape can be explained by the fact that the hegemony of the Hungarian language use was never challenged locally.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Change, Hungarian, Romance Languages, Standard Spoken Usage

Gatt, Daniela (2017). Bilingual Vocabulary Production in Young Children Receiving Maltese-Dominant Exposure: Individual Differences and the Influence of Demographic and Language Exposure Factors, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. This study explored individual variability in the bilingual vocabularies of 65 Maltese children aged 23-27 months (N = 33) and 30-34 months (N = 32). Most of the participants' direct input consisted of Maltese sentences embedding English words. Bilingualism was present at the societal level. Word production was measured through parental report, using a bilingual adaptation of the vocabulary checklist in the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories. The participants' composite and single-language vocabulary measures were examined for central tendencies and age effects, together with individual usage of Maltese and English words. The study also investigated how demographic and language exposure factors, documented through parental questionnaire responses, accounted for individual differences in participants' vocabularies. Proportionally adjusted single-language scores showed 61.54% of children to use fewer Maltese words than expected. Maternal education level emerged as a significant predictor of Total Vocabulary and Maltese word scores, but explained very little of the variance for each. Frequency of English language exposure in main caregiver input and age group emerged as factors explaining 30.5% of the variance in English vocabulary scores. Maternal education level and frequency of English exposure may therefore act as protective factors in the vocabulary development of children receiving Maltese-dominant exposure.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Afro Asiatic Languages, Vocabulary, Language Skills

Rinker, Tanja; Budde-Spengler, Nora; Sachse, Steffi (2017). The Relationship between First Language (L1) and Second Language (L2) Lexical Development in Young Turkish-German Children, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Lexical development in first language (L1) Turkish and second language (L2) German in two- to three-year-old children was examined, using parental vocabulary checklists in Turkish and in German. Children showed strong Turkish dominance in the number of lexical items they produced, which was due to the more frequent exposure to Turkish and higher quality of the input. Their vocabulary in Turkish and German comprised a largely different conceptual make-up, as evidenced by a high conceptual count of items across languages. Translation equivalents made up around 10% of the Total Vocabulary. An exemplary analysis of six noun categories showed that the more domestically oriented categories (Furniture, People) were represented more strongly in Turkish vocabularies, while the Food and Drink category contributed equally to both languages. In Turkish, 18% of words were verbs, whereas in German, verbs constituted only 7% of the children's vocabularies. A comparison between the parent checklists TIGE (developed for Turkish monolingual children in Turkey) and TILDA (developed for Turkish children growing up in Germany) revealed conceptual differences, which can be attributed to culture-specific developments and use of specific lexical items in the two countries. Therefore, language- and culture-specific instruments should be used to assess early vocabulary skills.   [More]  Descriptors: Correlation, Native Language, Second Language Learning, Vocabulary Skills

Wallen, Matthew; Kelly-Holmes, Helen (2017). Developing Language Awareness for Teachers of Emergent Bilingual Learners Using Dialogic Inquiry, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. This study endeavoured to awaken mainstream teachers' awareness of language, specifically related to teaching emergent bilingual children who are learning English as an additional language (EAL) in the Republic of Ireland. Because EAL learners spend the majority of the day in the mainstream classroom, mainstream teachers' language awareness may have a significant effect on EAL learners' long-term language development, social inclusion and ability to access the curriculum. This study used dialogic inquiry intended to awaken teachers' language awareness through the use of guiding questions intended to explore personal theories, generate collective theories and ultimately compare these to established theories, following a grounded theory approach to professional development. Teachers' beliefs, as expressed in such a dialogue process, and changes in awareness over the course of the inquiry are discussed in the context of four themes: first and second language acquisition, stages of language learning, use of the first language in the classroom and motivation in language learning. Findings suggest that a dialogic inquiry in the form of a teacher network has the capacity to lead to greater awareness among mainstream primary teachers related to the language acquisition process and linguistic context of their emergent bilingual students.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingualism, English (Second Language), Second Language Learning, Metalinguistics

Vangsnes, Ãòystein A.; Söderlund, Göran B. W.; Blekesaune, Morten (2017). The Effect of Bidialectal Literacy on School Achievement, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. The Norwegian language has two written standards, BokmÃ¥l (majority variety) and Nynorsk (minority variety), and children receive their schooling in one or other of them. Pupils schooled in Nynorsk acquire the BokmÃ¥l variety simultaneously through extracurricular exposure and thus develop what may be termed "bidialectal literacy". In this study, we correlate, at municipal level, the results from Norwegian standardized national tests in reading, arithmetic, and English from four cohorts of eighth graders (2009-2012), with available statistics on language of instruction and socio-economic status. The finding is that municipalities with Nynorsk pupils have better than average results in national tests once socio-economic factors are taken into consideration. We suggest that this may be seen as an effect of the "bilingual advantage" in cognitive development and that such advantage may arise even in the case of closely related linguistic varieties.   [More]  Descriptors: Norwegian, Literacy, Language Variation, Dialects

Kang, Dae-Min (2017). The Multifaceted Ecology of Language Play in an Elementary School EFL Classroom, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Language play (LP) in second language (L2) classrooms has attracted increasing attention in recent years, but descriptions and explanations of LP construction in English as a foreign language (EFL) settings remain insufficient. This paper reports the discursive processes of LP construction in an elementary school EFL classroom in Korea. I found that teacher/learner agency and the LP production influenced each other bi-directionally in complex ways. Additionally, the LP production was found to relate to teacher authority and inter-student power relations. Interestingly, the moment-to-moment shifts in attitudes on the teacher's and students' parts resulted in the (re)emergence of agency which decided the direction of the practice of LP production, i.e., motivating or demotivating interactants to produce LP. Concerning the students' contextually situated EFL learning outcomes, the ludic function of the LP contributed to an improvement in the outcomes.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Language Usage, Second Language Learning, English (Second Language)

Qiu, Chen; Winsler, Adam (2017). Language Use in a "One Parent-One Language" Mandarin-English Bilingual Family: Noun versus Verb Use and Language Mixing Compared to Maternal Perception, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Via naturalistic observations, parent interview, and direct assessments, we examined language proficiency, language use, and differentiation of a 3-year, 4-month-old bilingual child exposed to Mandarin and English via the "one parent-one language" principle. Although noun versus verb dominance has been explored across verb-based (Mandarin) and noun-based (English) languages in a between-subjects manner with monolinguals, it has not been explored within bilingual children learning both languages from birth. Three 15-minute sessions were recorded in the home: child-mother Mandarin interaction, child-father English interaction, and two parent-child bilingual interactions. The child was dominant in Mandarin according to number of words used, mean length of utterance, and receptive vocabulary. The child used the two languages discriminately depending on the interactive contexts. However, the languages used by all three members of the family contained more language mixing than was perceived by the mother during the interview. About 5% of the mother and child speech involved language mixing (use of the nontarget language), and the rate of nontarget language use in child-father interaction was 9%. Although maternal and paternal language input to the child were similar in terms of noun/verb usage, the child used proportionately more verbs than nouns during child-mother Mandarin interaction and used more nouns than verbs in child-father English interaction.   [More]  Descriptors: Language Usage, Child Rearing, Bilingualism, Parent Child Relationship

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