Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 214 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include John Santiago, Washington National Commission on Excellence in Education (ED), Dorothy M. Knoell, Mary V. Montavon, Rita R. Martinez, Susan Jenkins, Felicia Lincoln-Porter, Angelo Falcon, William M. Clarkson, and David H. Getches.

Montavon, Mary V.; Kinser, Jeri (1996). Programming for Success among Hispanic Migrant Students. Since 1990, growing numbers of migrant students have prompted Cobden School District (Illinois) to develop a bilingual education program incorporating native-language instruction for students who speak Spanish, content courses in Spanish, and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classes. The Woodcock Language Proficiency Battery is used to determine student placement in the bilingual program. Elementary school students receive language arts and social studies instruction in Spanish, but ESL classes are available only to students with very limited English proficiency. In junior high school, bilingual students receive social studies instruction in Spanish, tutoring, and an ESL class. High school students may take PASS (Portable Assisted Study Sequence) courses–individualized transferable courses that earn credit toward graduation. Begun in 1994, a summer Migrant Education Program provides increased Spanish instructional time and opportunities for students to experience Mexican culture. Mexican exchange teachers have participated in the summer program. Parental concern for education is evident in the many families who have "settled out" from the migrant life. Parent activities are well attended, and migrant parents are becoming more assertive with their questions and concerns. Program problems include a shortage of bilingual staff, the controversial nature of bilingual education, and the widely varying educational and literacy levels of migrant students. Initial benefits are apparent in lowered absenteeism and increased student enthusiasm, participation, and aspirations for the future.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Cultural Activities, Elementary Secondary Education, Limited English Speaking

Clarkson, William M. (1979). Spanish in the Bilingual Classroom: Beyond the Standard/Vernacular Dilemma. If Chicano children do not learn an alternative to their home dialect, the local Spanish with its heavy overlay of English will become the standard for bilingual Chicano youngsters. The Spanish language itself may soon be another cultural relic for many Spanish surnamed people in the United States. Bilingual education represents the obvious antidote to prevent this language loss, but its present state does not warrant optimism. Many bilingual teachers speak only the vernacular and have little training in Spanish grammar and orthography; the teaching materials they use may ignore universally accepted standards of the Spanish language. Some linguists and educators advocate accepting the dialect the child brings to school without disturbing, correcting, or tampering with it in any way. Such attitudes guarantee a second class education for those students falling under this "anything goes" philosophy. The Spanish needs of Chicano youngsters tend to be the fundamentals: orthography, basic grammar, improved reading skills, vocabulary building, recognition of anglicisms, etc. Many bilingual programs are ill-prepared to provide these basic language learning skills; poorly trained teachers who labor with inferior educational materials cannot impart satisfactory competence in Spanish language skills. These trends and attitudes must be reversed if bilingual education is to succeed and if Spanish is to remain a viable language in the Southwest. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teachers, Bilingualism, Child Language

Office of Policy and Planning (ED), Washington, DC. (1992). Annual Evaluation Report: Fiscal Year 1991. This report describes the purpose, funding, services, administration, and effectiveness of 145 programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education during fiscal year 1991; and briefly covers planned studies. It outlines 35 Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, 4 Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs, 36 Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, 14 Office of Vocational and Adult Education, 37 Office of Postsecondary Education, and 19 Office of Educational Research and Improvement programs. "National Goals Addressed" subsections are included, where appropriate, concerning how the Department's programs help to implement the six National Education Goals. A few chapters contain "Performance Indicators" subsections. One major Department of Education initiative has been to seek ways to enhance accountability in U.S. education at all levels. This report summarizes evaluation results concerning what helps program participants increase their achievement or improve their performance. It also describes management improvement initiatives and reforms, and changes in priorities under the Department's accountability initiative. Data concerning the Chapter 1 Local Education Agency Program, the Chapter 1 Migrant Education Program, Impact Aid: Maintenance and Operations; mathematics and science education; bilingual education programs; national educational improvement partnerships; Allen J. Ellender fellowships; and student financial aid programs are highlighted. Numerous tables and references are included throughout the document.   [More]  Descriptors: Accountability, Adult Education, Bilingual Education Programs, Compensatory Education

Miller, Robert (2003). Literacy Instruction in Mexico. International Studies in Education. Beginning in 1978, a 20-year study charted the evolution of the public education system in Mexico, focusing on literacy instruction for various age groups and special populations. Drawing on descriptions of schools visited during the author's 13 visits to Mexico, this book describes Mexican educational practices, with the aim of helping U.S. teachers understand the Mexican students in their classrooms. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the school system, describes the organization of the Secretaria de Educacion Publica, and profiles four educators involved in school administration in Mexico City primary schools. Chapter 2 describes literacy instruction in the early grades, reviews the history of the literacy curriculum for primary grades, profiles the daily activities of a first-grade teacher, and outlines changes in basic literacy instruction during the study period. Chapter 3 describes rural education, bilingual literacy instruction for indigenous communities, and adult literacy instruction. Chapter 4 discusses changes in special education since the 1970s. Chapter 5 examines teacher training, including normal schools, the Universidad Pedagogica Nacional, teacher resource centers, teacher salaries and benefits, and teacher attitudes toward public education and teacher education. Chapter 6 describes Mexican and binational efforts to support Spanish literacy for Mexicans in the United States. Chapter 7 considers likely ongoing trends in Mexican education. (Contains 76 references) Descriptors: Adult Education, American Indian Education, Bilingual Education, Educational Development

Knoell, Dorothy M.; And Others (1979). Conference on Functional Literacy in the Community College Setting (Los Alamitos, California, July 1978). The conference papers included in this collection address issues of concern to literacy development in the community college. "Functional Literacy and Persistence in the Community College," by Dorothy M. Knoell, raises questions about student persistence in the absence of requisite skills. "Training Perspective on Functional Literacy–Vocational-Occupational," by Sister Anne Joachim Moore, considers several topics pertaining to competency-based approaches to job training. Arthur M. Cohen's article, "Functional Literacy in Transfer Programs," gives particular emphasis to minority students. Next, Janice R. Kennedy examines "Technical/Occupational Training in the Community College" in terms of students' and the public's demands. "Functional Literacy as Related to Licensure of Health Professionals," by Betty Fowler Thompson, discusses the problems associated with the deficient reading skills of many associate degree nursing students. Pepe Barron's article, "Bilingual Education at the Community College and Functional Literacy," presents research needs and questions to be considered in several areas related to bilingual education. Next, M. J. Fujimoto provides "A Look at Counseling and Guidance in Promoting Basic Skills Instruction in the Community Colleges," and Richard E. Schutz proposes a plan for community college research and development investments in functional literacy. Finally, "Mathematics" by A. R. Trujillo defines minimum mathematical competency and assesses the community college role with regard to mathematical literacy. Descriptors: Academic Persistence, Allied Health Occupations Education, Basic Skills, Bilingual Education

Duran, Elva (1980). Teaching Reading to Disadvantaged Hispanic Children Based on Direct Instruction. A controlled experiment was conducted in 1980 with 117 first graders in two Southwestern schools near the Mexican border to determine the effects of direct instruction in teaching bilingual Hispanic children to read. Direct instruction has been defined as using modeling, reinforcement, prompting, discrimination learning, and correction/feedback for positive self concept development. Two rural schools with high percentages of Chicano students and with established bilingual education programs were selected for the study; however, School A served a poor neighborhood and was judged to be disadvantaged while School B served a more affluent area. In each school 58 first grade Hispanic bilingual children were randomly selected and randomly assigned to two experimental groups, conditions for which were identical except that one group used direct instruction and the other group used the regular bilingual method. Significant effects resulted between schools, between groups, and within a group/school interaction. Tentatively, direct instruction can significantly improve beginning bilingual children's achievement more than regular bilingual instruction; bilingual education may be enhanced by incorporating direct instruction into its teaching method. "School characteristics" may interact with the effects of any specific teaching method. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Comparative Analysis, Concept Teaching

Jenkins, Susan (1990). Second Language Literacy: Functional Competence for the Future. The United States is experiencing a change in the school population at all levels of the education system. There is a compelling need to develop an integrated perspective on the literacy needs of the newly diverse population of speakers of English as a Second Language (ESL), so that all language minorities may develop literacy skills for both immediate circumstances and future needs. Research on the optimal age for cognitive development in second language learning suggests that limited-English-proficient students (LEPs) should be enrolled in bilingual education programs whenever possible. The exclusionary English-only movement and competency-based ESL literacy programs endanger the real literacy education of LEPs and socialize students for a limited range of working-class roles.  Neglect of certain skill areas also creates problems at higher instructional levels. Changes are needed in education at all levels to ensure that literacy education is appropriate and thorough. These changes include resisting the English-only movement, designing bilingual and ESL programs to fit the specific population, integrating ESL and content instruction, increasing parent and community involvement in the child's second language learning, training ESL and bilingual education teachers professionally, supporting writing across the curriculum, and doing a better job of integrating and training international students. Contains 44 references. Descriptors: Adult Education, Bilingual Education, Cultural Pluralism, Demography

Getches, David H. (1976). A Primer on Laws Important to Alaska Native Education. Due to Alaska's unique culture, geography and history there are various State and Federal laws affecting the education of Alaskan children, especially Native children. Under these laws, several kinds of school systems operate for rural Alaska communities–Bureau of Indian Affairs, Regional Education Attendance Areas, city and borough districts, denominational schools, community (tribally) controlled private, and boarding programs. There are laws for funding special programs (i.e., bilingual education, reading improvement, free lunches) and laws which specifically aid Indian and Native education (i.e., the Indian Education Act, Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, Johnson-O'Malley Act). Because many of the laws are new and many people who will be on boards and committees are new to their jobs, some basic information on legal matters is needed. Prepared with advice and suggestions from parents and community leaders in rural areas and from professional educators, this booklet is designed to help supply a background and understanding of the laws which are important to education in rural Alaska. The two sections provide basic information about the kinds of school systems operating in rural Alaska; give answers to questions about funding programs, student and teacher rights, community control, bilingual education, administration, and legal liability; and provide definitions for often-used terms which appear in italics whenever they are used in the booklet. Descriptors: Alaska Natives, American Indians, Bilingual Education, Community Control

Rangel, Elizabeth S. (1986). Handicapped Language Minority Students: Past, Present and Future. The paper provides a current and historical overview of the educational inequities suffered by handicapped language minority students and explores the future of bilingual special education. The review covers such areas as a pending court case, the lack of laws dealing specifically with bilingual special education, overrepresentation of language minority students in special education classes, the inappropriate use and interpretation of standardized tests with this population, litigation concerning discriminatory procedures for intelligence quotient testing, and increasing underrepresentation in some areas of language minority children in programs for the mildly handicapped. A proposal is offered which advocates the use of bilingual special education to serve handicapped language minority students. Considered are myths (e.g., the bilingual child will suffer mental fatigue) and counter arguments (e.g., bilingualism may result in increased mental flexibility) concerning educational effects of bilingualism. Research is reviewed supporting the value of a bilingual approach with handicapped students, including the mentally retarded, and recent trends in government support for bilingual special education are noted. Appendixes provide supporting detail concerning student placement in special education, court cases, and research on the positive effects of bilingualism. Contains 50 references. Descriptors: Bilingual Special Education, Court Litigation, Disabilities, Educational Legislation

Sutman, Francis X.; And Others (1979). Educating Personnel for Bilingual Settings: Present and Future. The monograph is intended to help the education community understand and implement the concept of bilingual education. Part I notes recent forward moves in teacher education for multicultural programs and bilingual classes. In Part II descriptions of model programs in the Philadelphia School District are used to provide perspective on the problem of providing instruction in all academic subjects in the mother-tongue of "national origin-minority group children". Part III discusses the competencies upon which bilingual teacher education curriculum content and design should be based, the teaching strategies appropriate for the bilingual bicultural classroom, and the preparation of teachers for testing student progress. The serious issue of the interpretation given to the "cultural" component in any program or class is dealt with in Part IV. Two evaluation instruments, aimed at the teacher in a preservice role, are included: Evaluation Profile for Areas of Performance for Teachers in Bilingual Settings and Self-Evaluation Profile for Teachers in Multicultural and Bicultural Situations. Appended are operational definitions for the Teaching Performance Profile for Bilingual Settings; the major program components, competencies, and experiences for bilingual teacher education programs; and lists of selected information sources and the ESEA Title VII Bilingual Training and Resource Centers. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teachers, Cross Cultural Training, Cultural Awareness

Martinez, Rita R. (1998). Classroom Teachers' View of a Bilingual Program. A study sought: to identify regular classroom teachers' philosophies of bilingual education and the relationship of this philosophy to instructional decisions; to have teachers describe the operational details of the bilingual program in their school, and their perceptions of program effectiveness; and to have teachers describe the institutional context of their bilingual program. Subjects were 33 teachers in a single school who completed a survey. In addition, 12 of these teachers (two from each grade level) were selected for classroom observation and in-depth interviews based on a range of stated beliefs and philosophies about assimilation and cultural pluralism. Nine of the twelve teachers were Anglos; three were Hispanic. Analysis of results revealed three important levels in implementation of a bilingual program (school site, district, and state) and ways in which they affect teachers' experiences and views about bilingual programming. These findings are discussed. Questionnaire and interview questions are appended. Contains 59 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Acculturation, Bilingual Education Programs, Cultural Pluralism, Educational Attitudes

ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL. (1979). Bilingual, Bicultural, and Bidialectal Studies Related to Reading and Communication Skills: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1979 (Vol. 40 Nos. 1 through 6). This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. Among the topics covered in the 31 titles are the following: the oral English syntax of bilingual Indian children in Manitoba, Canada; linguistic style shifting in black English; oral language assessment by sentence repetition; environmental influences on patterns of communication in a black community; second language acquisition among Hispanic children in a bilingual program; language dominance and bilingual education; reading and dialect; dialect speaking children's use of contextual and graphic information in learning to read; oral English proficiency of Mexican-American migrant students; the acquisition of four black English morphological rules by black preschool children; Afro-American culture/cognition relations; techniques for teaching English to non-English speaking elementary school children; black American children's signing games; expressed reading preferences of Mexican-American children; the interpretation of verb tense in written passages by black English-speaking and standard-English-speaking children; black students' and white faculty members' perceptions of black students' classroom communication; oral language gains in a French-English bilingual education program; reading interests expressed by black adolescents in response to a biracial annotated fictitious titles survey; and reading miscues of Spanish-surnamed readers.   [More]  Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies, Bilingual Education, Blacks, Communication Research

Falcon, Angelo, Ed.; Santiago, John, Ed. (1992). The "Puerto Rican Exception": Persistent Poverty and the Conservative Social Policy of Linda Chavez. IPR Policy Forums Proceedings (New York, New York, November 6, 1991). A policy forum featured a presentation by Linda Chavez on the public policy needs of the Puerto Rican community. The forum also included a panel of experts from the Puerto Rican community to provide critical feedback on Chavez's presentation. Chavez argued that Hispanic Americans can move into the mainstream of United States society, and that public policies ought to encourage assimilation, rather than encouraging Hispanic Americans to remain in ethnic enclaves divided from the rest of the nation. Puerto Ricans have been regarded as an exception to other Hispanic American groups because they have citizenship and do not face the problems of undocumented immigration experienced by other Hispanic American communities. A significant issue in the discussion of public policy concerns of Hispanic Americans has been the proper role of bilingual education. Panel members responded to the presentation and to Chavez's book "Out of the Barrio: Toward a New Politics of Hispanic Assimilation," expressing differing views about the appropriate public policies to address issues of family stability and poverty, ethnic separatism, and bilingual education. Panelists were Aida Rodriguez, Edwin Melendez, and Cesar Perales. A rejoinder by L. Chavez and a discussion by panel participants and audience members concluded the forum. Descriptors: Acculturation, Bilingual Education, Conservatism, Elementary Secondary Education

National Commission on Excellence in Education (ED), Washington, DC. (1982). Public Hearing on Language and Literacy: Skills for Academic Learning (Houston, Texas, April 16, 1982). At a public hearing on language and literacy, held in Houston, Texas, April 16, 1982, testimony was presented on: (1) need for emphasis on language arts in elementary secondary schools and for students with bilingual capabilities; (2) benefits accruing to students and educational institutions through developmental education programs; (3) guiding principles, problems, solutions, essential program elements, and future needs related to instruction in foreign languages, English as a second language, and reading; (4) significance of language, particularly speech, as means for self-expression, thinking, and social interaction–with special emphasis on the communication demands of the next century; (5) concerns regarding general language skills, foreign language and bilingual education, and teacher preparation for these instructional areas; (6) recommendations on foreign language public policy, continuing education for second language teachers, and revisions in language curricula; (7) development of reading skills, particularly in terms of characteristics of effective reading instruction and exemplary reading; (8) present and past views on studies of English as a second language, bilingual education, and cultural pluralism; and (9) principles for achieving excellence in language learning, with emphasis on the development of effective oral communication skills.   [More]  Descriptors: Basic Skills, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Cultural Pluralism

Lincoln-Porter, Felicia (1993). Planning Language-in-Education in Arkansas: A Case Study, Working Papers in Educational Linguistics. Aspects of state planning for language in education in Arkansas are examined and of several models of language planning that illuminate this case are analyzed. Information was gathered on language minority populations in Arkansas from census data, reports, and public and private sources. From this, an overall picture of language planning in the state was constructed. Three case studies of areas with language minority populations are used to illustrate the findings: the Hmong in Fort Smith; the Springdale School District; and Paragould Junior High School. As background, the evolution of state policy on English as the official language and on intervention with limited-English-proficient students is chronicled. The case studies are then outlined. In Fort Smith, federally-funded bilingual education was not able to serve the Hmong population, which later relocated to Georgia. The Springdale School District obtained federal funds to train teachers for rapid transitional bilingual education, to mainstream students as quickly as possible. In Paragould, the arrival of two Hispanic junior high school students, an unusual occurrence, caused school personnel to improvise, successfully, by treating the students' native language as a resource, not a barrier. It is concluded that Arkansas' decentralization of policy concerning language in education and the state's limited financial resources suggest that policy supporting native language maintenance may not be feasible.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Case Studies, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language)

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