Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 210 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Carlos Alberto Torres, Floyd Hammack, G. G. Patthey-Chavez, Bernadette Tarallo, Blair A. Rudes, Lilliam Malave, Barbara R. Sjostrom, Frank Gonzales, Michael Peter Smith, and Marc Bendick.

Malave, Lilliam (1993). Effective Instruction: A Comparison of the Behavior and Language Distribution of LEP Students in Regular and Effective Early Childhood Classrooms. A study consisting of two parts is reported. The first investigated the extent to which effective-teacher characteristics discussed in the literature were considered by parents and administrators to be salient in bilingual education. The second examined the extent to which students exhibited behavior suggesting they had received effective practices identified in the research literature. Fifteen parents and seven administrators of elementary school bilingual education programs completed questionnaires to identify characteristics of effective teachers. Following classification of teachers as effective, six limited-English-proficient (LEP) students from classrooms of two effective teachers and eight LEP students from four regular, non-bilingual classes were observed. All classes were in grades 1-3. Results indicate that parents and administrators recognize the need for teachers to be aware of children's cultural differences, but none mentioned the unique, effective instructional features cited in the research literature or the recommended early childhood practices. The study findings illustrate student behaviors and language patterns present in both classroom types and behaviors predominant in the effective bilingual classrooms (more involvement behavior, social interaction, native language use). However, these behaviors and patterns did not correspond entirely to recommendations in the literature.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Attitudes, Behavior Patterns, Bilingual Education, Elementary School Students

Berney, Tomi D.; Hammack, Floyd (1989). Project MASTER, 1987-88. OREA Report. Project MASTER completed its 3-year funding cycle in 1987-88. The project aimed at providing enhanced science instruction to 575 Spanish-speaking limited-English-proficient students in 5 elementary schools. Project MASTER offered classes in English as a Second Language (ESL), mathematics, science, and computer skills with a hands-on, integrated instructional approach. The project also developed curriculum materials stressing skills, attitudes, and knowledge about science topics within the context of bilingual education, provided activities to integrate program and mainstream students, offered staff development workshops and conferences in science and bilingual education, and made efforts to involve parents in project activities. The program achieved its proposed objectives in ESL and staff development. It was not possible to assess whether Project MASTER achieved its objectives in science, mathematics, or parent involvement due to lack of data. Program strengths include the interdisciplinary and hands-on approach to science education, emphasis on early intervention for young students, and coordination of the activities of project and school personnel. Recommendations for improvement include provision of an educational assistant and facilities such as a resource room at each school site.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Computer Literacy, Curriculum Development, Elementary Education

Manzer, Kathryn (1989). French at the Post-Secondary Level: The CPF Perspective, Canadian Journal of Higher Education. The developing concern of Canadian Parents for French about the lack of opportunities for anglophone students fluent in French to pursue bilingual higher education, the organization's role in focusing attention on the issue, and the evolution of organizational policy through conferences, surveys, and reports are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Agency Role, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Foreign Countries

Fortune, David; Fortune, Gretchen (1987). Karaja Literary Acquisition and Sociocultural Effects on a Rapidly Changing Culture, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. Describes a model of bilingual-bicultural education developed for the Karaja, an indigenous group in Brazil whose language had previously been unwritten. Factors of the literacy-based model's success include indigenous teachers; teacher-developed innovations and didactic materials for the bilingual classroom; and a team-teaching approach. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Cultural Awareness, Foreign Countries, Instructional Development

Wallace, Joan D., Ed. (1978). Cultural Pluralism and Citizen Education. Conference proceedings are presented which explored the relationship of cultural pluralism to citizen education. Discussants included members of federal offices, national organizations, state departments of education, and private foundations from the U.S. Office of Education, the Office of Bilingual Education, the Council of Chief State School Officers, the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, and the Council for Educational Development and Research. Three major topics were examined: (1) the implications of ethnic pluralism for citizen education, (2) the school's responsibility for teaching the implications of ethnic pluralism in citizen education programs, and (3) immediate action which schools might take regarding instruction in the implications of ethnic pluralism as an element of citizen education. Discussion of the first topic covered definitions of citizen education, the benefits of bilingual education, and racism as an impediment to social change. Discussion of the second topic cited the need for access to equal educational opportunity, reduction of discrimination, awareness of cultural alternatives, and clarification of students' attitudes and self-concepts. The traditionally Anglocentric emphasis of school curriculum was identified as a barrier to recognizing true cultural pluralism. Discussion of the third topic emphasized the need for changes in social values, curriculum, and teacher education to promote acceptance of all cultural groups.   [More]  Descriptors: Attitude Change, Bilingual Education, Citizenship, Conference Reports

Smith, Michael Peter; Tarallo, Bernadette (1993). California's Changing Faces: New Immigrant Survival Strategies and State Policy. A Policy Research Program Report. The social practices described and analyzed in this report are based on a 2-year ethnographic study conducted in San Francisco and Sacramento (California) in neighborhoods that are home to five new immigrant groups: (1) Mexicans, (2) Chinese, (3) Vietnamese, (4) Mien (Lao), and (5) undocumented refugees from El Salvador. Interviews with more than two dozen state and local officials and 170 ethnographic interviews identified state and local policies and the realities of immigrants' lives. The stories told by the diverse new immigrants reveal subtle differences in each group's adaptation to the new economic realities that make low-paying jobs harder to find and require that increasing numbers of women work. Among the many policy recommendations is a proposal for the reform of bilingual education programs. Universal access to bilingual education and monitoring and evaluation of existing programs are necessary to ensure that both children and adults have opportunities to learn English without wasting public resources. Other recommendations concern health care, workplace reforms, and flexible social support programs. (Contains 37 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Adjustment (to Environment), Asian Americans, Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingual Teachers

Patthey-Chavez, G. G. (1994). Language Policy and Planning in Mexico: Indigenous Language Policy, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. A discussion of language policy formation and planning in Mexico focuses on its multilingual/multicultural character and covers the following: turn from national integration to ethnic revival; indigenous successes following the Declaration of Patzcuaro; some problems and solutions regarding the current bilingual/bicultural education policy. (Contains 57 references.) Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies, Applied Linguistics, Bilingual Education, Cultural Pluralism

Guerrero, Michael D. (1994). A Critical Analysis of the Validity of the Four Skills Exam. A study evaluated the overall evaluative validity of the Four Skills Exam, a Spanish language proficiency test designed to ensure that bilingual education teachers in New Mexico can meet Spanish language demands in the bilingual education classroom. The test's construct validity was limited for several reasons. In designing a test capturing real-life language demands, developers did not operationalize the targeted demands effectively. The two objectively scored parts of the test yielded unacceptable reliability coefficients. Internal consistency of the subjectively scored parts was spuriously high due to a halo effect and absence of explicit scoring benchmarks. A moderately high correlation between aural and reading parts was found. One analysis found that examinees who grew up speaking Spanish and spoke it currently in the home performed no better than those lacking these experiences. Content identified for the test was not fully embedded, what was incorporated was being used for the wrong grade levels, and it was skewed toward vocabulary, spelling, and grammar. It is concluded that making valid inferences concerning the language abilities of the examinees based on test scores is difficult, the social consequences of using pass-fail scores are undesirable, and the test is not adequately filling its intended purpose.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Comparative Analysis, Construct Validity, Elementary Secondary Education

Cangiano, Vincent J. (1992). Bilingual and ESL Approaches to Deaf Education: Perspectives on the Reading Process. A review of literature addresses two main issues: (1) how the acquisition of English by deaf signing children has been understood as an instance of second language learning; and (2) how deaf children learn to read English, given this understanding. The first chapter chronicles the history of language use in deaf education and reviews research on sign language and current second language instruction theory. This is intended to lay a foundation for discussion of the use of bilingual education and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) approaches to English instruction for deaf students. Chapter 2 examines theories of first and second language reading as a framework for understanding acquisition of reading by deaf children. This chapter also looks at theory and research on specific aspects of the reading process and relates these findings to use of the bilingual approach to deaf education. It is concluded that several bilingual education models, especially the maintenance model, have potential applications in deaf education and that current second language reading theory can contribute to understanding of the nature of reading acquisition among deaf children. Specific implications are outlined. A 146-item bibliography is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Deafness, Educational History, Educational Strategies

Berney, Tomi D.; Lista, Carlos (1989). Nuevos Horizontes, James Monroe High School, 1987-1988. Evaluation Section Report. OREA Report. Proyecto Nuevos Horizontes (Project New Horizons) at James Monroe High School (New York City) served 328 students of limited English proficiency (LEP) in grades 9-12 during the final year of a 3-year funding cycle. The project's purpose was to build on the strengths of the school's extensive computer-assisted instructional program in order to develop instructional software and provide individualized computer-assisted instruction to supplement the bilingual education program. The bilingual education program consisted of English as a Second Language (ESL), native language arts (NLA), and bilingually taught content area and business courses. Students were recent arrivals from Spanish-speaking countries. Half the students left the program within a year, and one-third stayed for 2 years. The project met its objectives in ESL, NLA, content area subjects, computer-assisted instruction, and attendance. The program did not provide data for assessing cultural heritage appreciation, staff development, or parental involvement objectives. The program's chief accomplishment was acquisition of appropriate instructional software in NLA and the content areas. Recommendations for improvement include: (1) increased contacts between bilingual and mainstream students through sponsored extracurricular activities; (2) development of ways to motivate students to rapidly enter the mainstream; and (3) gathering of data needed to evaluate all non-instructional objectives.   [More]  Descriptors: Attendance, Bilingual Education Programs, Business Education, Computer Assisted Instruction

Torres, Carlos Alberto (1996). "Education as Contested Terrain: Nicaragua, 1979-1993" (Robert F. Arnove). Book Review, Bilingual Research Journal. Reviews a book on the politics of educational change in Nicaragua, 1979-93. Following the revolution, the Sandinistas drastically revised curriculum and methods of instruction. However, when they lost political power, education in Nicaragua became contested terrain marked by fierce ideological debates, eventually rendering educational reform a failure. The book also addresses biases in Nicaraguan bilingual indigenous education. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Book Reviews, Censorship, Educational Change

Gonzales, Frank; Sosa, Alicia Salinas (1993). How Do We Keep Teachers in Our Classrooms? The TNT Response, IDRA Newsletter. This report outlines and evaluates a project, Teachers Need Teachers (TNT), developed by the Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA). TNT is a teacher induction program for first-year teachers who are certified in bilingual education and teach limited-English-proficient students. Beginning teachers are assigned to experienced bilingual education teachers who serve as mentors during the first year of teaching. Novices are required to observe their mentors promptly after the project begins; mentors are encouraged to meet with their beginning teacher at least twice weekly, record each meeting in a log, lend resources, share information, and hold planning and feedback sessions. Analysis of mentors' logs revealed distinct patterns of assistance with varying emphasis at different times during the semester and indicated that teacher feedback and behavior validate the need for support activities and benefits derived from them. The paper concludes with suggestions for induction programs at the district level: provide compensation and perks to the participants; waive appraisals and evaluations during the first year; provide instructional resources for the beginning teacher; and provide released time for observing peer teachers.   [More]  Descriptors: Beginning Teacher Induction, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teachers, Elementary School Teachers

Rudes, Blair A.; And Others (1980). Planning Paper 6: Issues in Applying Ethnography to Bilingual Classroom Settings. This report presents a comprehensive discussion of issues affecting the use of ethnographic research methods in bilingual education classroom research. Quantitative methods alone have not provided an adequate understanding of how the bilingual classroom operates, the meaningful features of the classroom, how children learn, and what cultural/community contexts affect that learning. Issues covered include (1) the scope of an ethnographic approach, (2) methodological issues in dealing with ethnographic information, and (3) implications and suggestions for applying ethnographic methods in future bilingual education research. Appendices present the goals, attendees, and agenda of the Conference on "Current Issues in Applying Ethnographic Methods to Bilingual Classroom Research"  (1980) and an inventory of variables relating to bilingual classrooms. Charts discuss (1) the methodological characteristics of ethnographic and quantitative approaches, (2) technical equipment in ethnographic field work, (3) the contributions of videotape, (4) selected applications of videotape recording in classroom settings, (5) a summary of considerations for determining observer agreement and reliabilities, (6) a sample prose protocol of a classroom microethnographic study, and (7) a framework for symbolic interaction research. Descriptors: Audio Equipment, Audiovisual Aids, Bilingual Education, Classroom Observation Techniques

de la Puente, Manuel; Bendick, Marc, Jr. (1983). Employment and Training Programs for Migrant and Refugee Youth: Lessons from the United States Experience. Project Report. This report reviews government programs in the United States that serve the educational, training, and employment needs of immigrant and refugee youth. An overview of European immigration to the United States during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is followed by a presentation of the characteristics of post-1960 U.S. immigrants. Empirically based generalizations related to the adjustment and acculturation of immigrants and refugees are examined. Discussion next focuses on the most serious single problem encountered: language limitation. An analysis of bilingual educational programs includes a summary of legislation, a discussion of competing ideologies that have guided U.S. thinking on cultural diversity and bilingual education, a review of bilingual education models, and synthesis of research findings pertaining to bilingual program effectiveness. Selected government manpower programs that serve the training and employment needs of minority and immigrant youths are then reviewed. Three major strategies are covered: work experience programs in the public sector, employability development programs, and initiatives that seek to involve the private sector. Within each broad strategy, specific exemplary programs are discussed and major evaluation research is reviewed. Finally, some general lessons from the U.S. experience are delineated. Eleven statistical tables and references are appended. Descriptors: Adolescents, Bilingual Education, Career Education, Demonstration Programs

Berney, Tomi D.; Sjostrom, Barbara R. (1989). New York City Bilingual Technical Assistance Center (BETAC), 1987-88. OREA Report. The New York City Bilingual Education Technical Assistance Center provided technical assistance and training to members of the instructional and administrative staffs working with limited-English-proficient (LEP) students throughout the city's 32 community school districts and the division of high schools. Specifically, in 1987-88 the program successfully: (1) provided technical assistance to schools with large numbers of LEP students; (2) planned and implemented citywide conferences for LEP students' parents speaking Chinese, Greek, Spanish, and Russian; (3) provided technical assistance to improve identification and placement of LEP students in bilingual education and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs; (4) provided technical assistance to bilingual/ESL programs to improve delivery of instructional services; (5) provided assistance to improve program evaluation; (6) planned and implemented the citywide Spanish spelling bee; (7) sponsored a statewide institute for supervisors and administrators on LEP student needs; and (8) conducted a citywide needs assessment and staff development project in mathematics and science for district personnel working with LEP students. Recommendations include exploring ways of addressing participants' requests for future workshops and developing a separate evaluation form for the parent conferences.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Education, Bilingual Education Programs, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language)

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