Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 183 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include CA. San Diego City Schools, Washington National Education Association, Harishini M. Ernest, Merrill M. Hawkins, Durant Southeastern State Coll., J. Christian Romero, David Stephen Siegrist, Laurent Metzger, Vicente Z. Serrano, and Rosa M. Gonzalez.

National Education Association, Washington, DC. (1991). The Cost of Excellence: Federal Education Funding. A decade-long federal disinvestment in public education has hurt the quality of education and the quality of life for millions of American youth. The nation's economic and social conditions reflect the damage wreaked by this neglect. Recent years have seen increasingly troubled schoolchildren, crumbling school infrastructure, teacher attrition, and inadequate textbook and equipment budgets. The United States' commitment to provide educational opportunity must be adequate and consistent if the nation is to thrive. The limited federal resources available for developmental preschool education, bilingual education, programs for learning or physically disabled students, and postsecondary student aid force local school officials to make difficult decisions regarding who is served. This report argues for a reversal of federal financial neglect of education, highlighting states' growing inability to foot the education bill, and presenting charts that estimate the cost of providing adequate resources to serve all eligible students in needs-based programs. Funding charts showing state apportionments are included for Chapter 1 compensatory education programs, education block grants, impact aid, bilingual education, disabilities education, vocational education, adult education, mathematics and science teacher education, Pell grants for postsecondary student aid, school lunch child nutrition programs, and the supplemental feeding program for women, infants, and children.   [More]  Descriptors: Costs, Economic Change, Education Work Relationship, Educational Equity (Finance)

Condon, E. C.; And Others (1973). Selected Bibliography on Culture and Cultural Materials, Preliminary Edition. Series A: Reference Materials, Human Relations in Cultural Context. Included in this bibliography are references to resources and materials available to the teacher and educator on human relations and cultural education. The bibliography is divided into three sections on culture, specific culture, and adult bilingual-bicultural education. The section on culture presents background information on the relation of language to communication, culture, and society and materials on teaching culture and cross-cultural testing. The second section includes materials that relate directly to specific cultures, including American culture and subcultures, Asian, Germanic, Romance (French, Hispanic, and Italian), Slavic, and Greek and Roman language cultures. The last section of the bibliography is a compendium of background and reference materials in adult bilingual education, including teaching methods and teacher training and curricula and programs available. Within each major section the resources are further categorized by articles, books, references, and ERIC documents. Author entries are alphabetical under each publication type. Bibliographic information is provided on the publisher, city, and date. Descriptors: Adult Education, American Culture, Bibliographies, Bilingual Education

Walsh, Marie Andre (1976). The Development of a Rationale for a Program to Prepare Teachers for Spanish-Speaking Children in the Bilingual-Bicultural Elementary School. This book sketches the educational history of Mexican Americans and describes bilingual education as one way they can draw on their heritage and teach in bilingual elementary schools. Chapters are devoted to: (1) the profile of depressed educational achievement of the Mexican American and its attendant circumstances; (2) the bilingual school as a possible solution to the problem; (3) identification of the special competencies needed by the teacher in the bilingual-bicultural elementary school; (4) statement of a rationale; (5) the nature of performance-based education and its implications for program design; (6) a response to the basic issues–the St. Edward's Program for the preparation of teachers for Spanish-speaking children in the bilingual-bicultural elementary school in Texas; and (7) conclusions and suggestions for further research. Tabular information, graphs, and a bibliography are included as is an appendix describing a bilingual teacher education conference at St. Edward's University. Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teachers, Bilingualism

Metzger, Laurent (1992). Bilingualism or Monolingualism Plus One or More Foreign Languages. Questions about the appropriate approach to bilingual or multilingual education are discussed. It is noted that bilingualism was formerly reserved for the elite but that bilingual education should be available to all since it promotes a better understanding of world differences. A few examples (Hong Kong, Singapore, Canada, Belgium, and Switzerland) are cited to illustrate various approaches to bilingual education, including issues of language of instruction and the language proficiency of citizens. In Brunei Darussalam, as in India and Tunisia, languages are offered according to subjects taught. Implications of such language policy are considered. It is suggested that policymakers must remember that two languages are involved (not just the second language) and that strict bilingualism, in which students do not have a first language, may produce students without a soul or a country. It is concluded that education should start with the first language, preferably the home language, and introduce second or third languages after a few years of formal education in the first. Contains 6 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Definitions, Educational Policy

Southeastern State Coll., Durant, OK. (1973). Choctaw Bilingual Education Program. In many schools throughout the United States, teachers are baffled by the child who does not know enough English to participate in the classroom, who "just sits there." In some localities the language he hears and speaks at home is an American Indian tongue; in others it is Spanish or Italian or Polish. The Choctaw Bilingual Education Program has concentrated its attention on four Oklahoma schools, in the old Choctaw Nation, where this problem is acute. With the cooperation of administrators and teachers in these schools, of Southeastern State College, and of leaders of the Choctaw community, a system of teacher education has been worked out that brings the Indian child into the mainstream of school life without sacrificing his identity as a Choctaw. The program emphasizes three educational imperatives for Choctaw-speaking children: a) they must have experiences both in and out of school that help them to develop positive self-concepts; b) they must be able to use the Choctaw language as the basic instrument of learning and acquire facility in English as a means of supplementing and extending their learning of Choctaw; c) they must have teachers and classroom aides who understand Choctaw and patterns of Choctaw thought and behavior and who accept these as fully equal to the English language and Anglo-American patterns. (The document contains a program description and teacher handbook.)   [More]  Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indian Languages, American Indians, Biculturalism

Siegrist, David Stephen (1977). Language and Bilingual Education. This manual attempts to provide practical and useful linguistic information for classroom teachers and classroom aides in bilingual programs, K to 12. It stresses the importance of teamwork in any bilingual program, a team consisting of teachers, aides, volunteers and student tutors. The goal of the manual is to help teachers and aides become more effective in bilingual programs by means of the following objectives: (1) recognition of the positive advantages to the learner and society resulting from bilingual education; (2) awareness that to teach bilingually, one must first know: (a) what language is, (b) that language has rules, and (c) that language and culture are inseparable; (3) awareness of the various approaches to teaching/learning language in bilingual programs; (4) respect for the child's language(s); (5) recognition of available resources; (6) recognition that language is learned through experiencing, listening and speaking, prior to reading and writing; (7) recognition that initial instruction must occur in the learner's dominant language; and (8) recognition that language is in a constant state of change. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Educational Resources, Elementary Secondary Education

Bishop, Arthur, Ed. (1976). Focus 2 Bilingual Education. With the passing of Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 1968, a number of school districts turned to the Educational Testing Service (ETS) for help in the area of bilingual education. ETS bilingual specialists began to offer advice and assistance in planning new programs, inservice training, evaluating curricula, and measuring different aspects of bilingual programs. Explained in this document are some of the problems ETS had to consider in providing this assistance: the type of bilingual program best suited to a particular school; the need to establish a program that would receive the necessary local support; and the shortage of qualified teachers. Specific strategies and programs developed, implemented and/or conducted by ETS are detailed. These include language tests, surveys of inservice training programs, minimum proficiency tests for teachers, screening and achievement tests for children, instructional program evaluation, and the development of process and outcome objectives for students in different grades. Some of the established bilingual programs referred to are "Mano a Mano," the Targeted Achievement Reading Program (TARP), Better Understanding of Educational Needs of Others (BUENO), and CIRCUS (EL CIRCO).   [More]  Descriptors: Achievement Tests, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teachers, Community Support

San Diego City Schools, CA. (1973). Materiales en Marcha para el Esfuerzo Bilingue-Bucultural (Materials on the March for the Promotion of Bilingualism/Biculturalism), December 73. This newsletter is designed to promote bilingual/bicultural education. Articles in this issue include: "Una Mejor Comprension de la Cultura Hispanoamericans" ("A Better Understanding of Hispanoamerican Culture"), "Portuguese Science Materials,""Comentario Sobre Materiais Portugueses" ("Commentary on Portuguese Materials"), "Will Foreign Languages Still Be Taught in the Year 2000,""Comprehensive Bilingual Education Amendments Act of 1973," and "Foreign Languages–A Strategic National Resource." A list is provided of United States distributors of foreign educational materials in Spanish and Portuguese. The text is in English, Spanish, and Portuguese.   [More]  Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Ethnic Groups

San Diego City Schools, CA. (1973). Materiales en Marcha para el Esfuerzo Bilingue-Bicultural (Materials on the March for the Promotion of Bilingualism/Biculturalism). This newsletter is designed for use by teachers, counselors, and administrators involved in bilingual-bicultural education. In the first article C. V. Perez describes bilingual education programs in New York State. J. N. Vieira writes in Portuguese about the Brown University bilingual program. In her article "Portuguese Happenings," J. Gonsalves describes events of interest to the Portuguese-speaking community. C. M. Menendez reviews specific audiovisual materials for Spanish classes, and A. F. Pirazzini discusses the Mexican history text "Sintesis de Historia de Mexico." Several other Spanish and Portuguese textbooks and readers are reviewed in articles by E. H. Samuel and H. E. Diaz. A list of U.S. distributors of educational materials in Spanish and Portuguese is also included.   [More]  Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, English

Serrano, Vicente Z. (1980). A Legacy of Four Cultures: Education and the Mexican Americans. Working Papers on Meeting the Education Needs of Cultural Minorities. Because Hispanics are the fastest growing minority in the United States and are projected to become the largest minority during the 1980's, the education system must be more responsive to their needs. Fewer Hispanic children enroll in school than do non-Hispanics, many of them fall behind in school, and they have higher attrition rates than non-Hispanic students. Mexican American students are more often retained in grade, placed in low ability groups, or placed in classes for the educationally or mentally retarded than are other students. Mobility and language factors create educational problems for the migrant student. After providing information on historical background and present status of Hispanic students, the report describes the contributions of the following school programs and approaches: Title I, Head Start, Migrant Education, Bilingual Education, Vocational Education, and Special Education. Also discussed is the need for bilingual teachers and texts. Recommendations for improved Hispanic education include: (1) better records on Hispanic groups in order to better address specific educational needs; (2) elimination of all discrimination and segregation of Mexican Americans; (3) facilitation and validation of academic credit accrual and exchange process; and (4) increased bilingual education and other programs for limited-English-proficient students.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Cultural Background, Educational Legislation, Educational Needs

Hawkins, Merrill M.; And Others (1977). Comprehensive Explanation and Analysis of the Bilingual/Bicultural Teacher Training Program at Mississippi State University. Under federal funding and with assistance from the Choctaw Indian Tribe, Mississippi State University has developed a teacher training program for Choctaw students who are majoring in elementary education. Students who take courses in the bilingual/bicultural education curriculum obtain knowledge and skills in the following areas: (1) development and construction of teaching materials in a language other than English; (2) knowledge of syntax and grammar of a second language (in this program, Choctaw is the target language); (3) teaching methodology for teaching English as a second language; (4) an appreciation of cultural and language differences of people and the contribution of these differences to our society; and (5) the law and bilingual education in this country.  Descriptors: American Indians, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teachers

Cardoza, Desdemona (1983). Guidelines for the Evaluation of Bilingual Education Programs. Principles of program evaluation research are outlined so that bilingual education program coordinators can conduct methodologically acceptable program evaluations. The three basic principles of evaluation research are: identification of the program participants, definition of the program intervention, and assessment of program effectiveness. Assessment of program effectiveness requires accurate measurements of how the students performed after program participation and how they would have performed without the program. Among the problems faced in evaluation design is the impossibility of a true experimental design in which limited English speaking students are randomly assigned to bilingual or nonbilingual education programs. In addition, subjects may be from a variety of cultural backgrounds and may enter the program at different ages. Finally, the concept of language proficiency is ambiguous, and a consistent concept and instrument must be used to assess language proficiency among all participants. Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Evaluation Methods, Program Effectiveness, Program Evaluation

Garza, Sylvia Gil (1976). Language Assessment Identifying LESA's. Numerous instruments used by school districts to assess language dominance are not designed to determine either language dominance or proficiency. Nor do they yield sufficient data for appropriate program placement. One example of such an instrument is the Del Rio Language Screening Test (DRLST), designed to screen children of three to seven years of age who may require special education programs, and not bilingual education programs. It is recommended for use with students in the following language groups: (1) English-speaking Anglo-Americans; (2) predominantly English-speaking Mexican Americans; and (3) predominantly Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans. The test is not designed to test language dominance; it is designed to diagnose disorders in language performance. In conclusion, it is not recommended that school districts use this measure to identify students for placement in bilingual-bicultural programs. Rather, this test should be used in connection with bilingual special education programs. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Child Language, Diagnostic Tests, Educational Diagnosis

Romero, J. Christian (1977). Community Bilingual Education. Community bilingual education, which utilizes the community's language for educational instruction and values the community culture, narrows the communication gap between the community and the educational institutions. Thus, in the spring of 1976, "Aztlan en Kansas: Asistencia Tecnologica" was initiated to provide technical assistance to Kansas' Mexican Americans in the development of leadership skills which could then be applied for the improvement of the whole community. Primarily conducted through workshops, seminars, and information dissemination, the program aimed to help the participants gain leadership skills such as reinforcing ideas in a group, using proper methods for advocating ideas and actions, and evaluating goals and objectives. Program content included: climate setting, group processes, needs assessment, data gathering techniques, group planning and prioritizing, definition of goals and objectives, and evaluation of achievement. The program utilized a Laubach Model in that as a workshop was conducted by the project, community leaders were identified who then agreed to conduct a second leadership workshop with support from the project. Groups of community leaders (about 20 persons) were identified in about 15 communities. While the work that was done by the completion of the project was "highly" successful, the "time limitation and difficulty of scheduling workshops at a time that was convenient to participants put a rather constraining obstacle in administering the program". Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Community Action, Community Education, Community Involvement

Ernest, Harishini M.; Gonzalez, Rosa M. (1997). Dos Idiomas, Un Mundo. Dual Language Project. Title VII Biennial Evaluation Report, 1995-97. This is an evaluation of the first 2 years of a 5-year comprehensive Bilingual Education grant funded by Title VII Part A of the Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 in the Austin Independent School District (AISD) (Texas). The grant awarded to the AISD funds a program of Developmental Bilingual Education at two elementary schools where more than 25% of the students are of limited English proficiency (LEP). Developmental Bilingual Education requires dual language instruction throughout the duration of the program. This is in contrast to a transitional program in which instruction is gradually changed to English-only. At the same time, Developmental Bilingual students must master subject matter skills and meet grade promotion requirements. Baseline data were collected on the 600 students at the 2 schools who will receive 4 years of developmental bilingual teaching, but all 967 students at the 2 schools participate. Baseline scores for the two schools indicated that 56% of students were fluent English speakers, with 17% not speaking English, and 72% not speaking Spanish. Third graders in 1996-97, in comparison with 1995-96 third graders, showed a 10% gain in the numbers of students passing on all of the English Texas Assessment of Academic Skills tests. Prekindergarten and kindergarten students in the second year also showed considerable gains in Spanish vocabulary in 1996-97. Evaluation also revealed the extensive preparation of the teachers at both schools and the investment in curriculum and technology to improve education. Parent participation was shown to be an integral part of the program at both schools. Recommendations are made for continued program improvement with better communication between the two schools and better use of student testing in evaluation. (Contains 12 tables, 1 figure, and 12 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Achievement Gains, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Education Programs, Elementary Education

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