Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 170 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Roger W. Shuy, Robert L. Goodrich, Alexandra Allred, Doni Kwolek Kobus, Patricia Louque, Rodolfo L. Chavez, James Burry, Cecilio Orozco, Karen Powe, and Jim Cummins.

Castro, Raymond E. (1981). The Influence of Educational Policy on Language Issues. This paper examines three policy areas — foreign language and international studies, bilingual education, and Indian education. The intention is to clarify and critically analyze the influence of educational policy on language issues. If both foreign language/international studies and bilingual education were incorporated into a larger language planning effort based on a realistic assessment of the future, both could be evaluated against one criterion — the ability of Americans to survive amidst rapidly changing world affairs. Recommendations include: (1) Congress and the Department of Education should identify those aspects of current educational policy relating to national language issues; (2) the Department of Education should incorporate bilingual education project aimed at preparing Americans for survival in international affairs; (3) a Congressional language planning body should be developed to promote a national language planning project; (4) the Department of Education should establish the mechanism to develop regional variations based on local needs and the distribution of specific linguistic communities; and (5) the body should recognize the contractual relationship existing between the federal government and Indian tribes, Alaskan natives, and the people of Puerto Rico and Guam, and provide assistance when appropriate.   [More]  Descriptors: Alaska Natives, American Indian Education, Bilingual Education, Educational Policy

Goodrich, Robert L.; And Others (1980). Planning Factors for Studies of Bilingual Instructional Features. Planning Paper 3. Bilingual Instructional Features Planning Study. This report is one of five submitted as products of a "Study Designed to Assist Planning of Research on Significant Instructional Features in Bilingual Education Programs." The reports are intended to assist the National Institute of Education (NIE) in its plans for a major new research study in bilingual education. The present report is based on a review of studies of educational instructional features in both monolingual and bilingual contexts, and on conversations with a large number of researchers and critics. The intent of the report is to summarize the state of the art of bilingual educational features research as a base for designs to be developed by NIE. The design according to which sample programs were chosen for the study is set forth. Issues in the analytic study of population groups targeted for bilingual education are discussed. A chapter is devoted to measurement issues. The volume concludes with a discussion of the management, organization, and phasing of the study. A bibliography is appended. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Planning, Educational Research, Elementary Secondary Education

Kanowith, V. (1980). Teacher Attitudes and the Spanish Bilingual Program. This study sought to reveal teachers' and administrators' attitudes and opinions toward bilingual education. A questionnaire was administered to staff members both in and outside the bilingual program at Roberto Clemente school (a predominantly Hispanic school in Newark, New Jersey) in order to determine attitudinal commonalities and/or differences among those in and outside the program. It was hypothesized that teachers not involved in the bilingual program would tend to reject the program's operational procedures, though not necessarily its philosophy. It was also hypothesized that teachers involved in the program would tend to accept both the procedures and the philosophy, though their acceptance may be based on factors related to personal security. Analysis of collected data indicated that regardless of the individual teaching position at the school, teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward bilingual education, its implications, and its implementation were at variance and often contradictory. This paper includes a copy of the questionnaire used in the study, as well as a review of related research on teacher attitudes toward bilingual education. Descriptors: Administrator Attitudes, Bilingual Education, Educational Philosophy, Elementary Education

Cummins, Jim (1983). Language and Literacy Learning in Bilingual Instruction: Policy Report. The findings are presented of a study undertaken by the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) to assess the bilingual education services offered to limited English speaking students in three diverse communities and to study the extent to which the development of cognitive and academic skills in the native language and English are interrelated. The findings are integrated with current research and theory related to academic development in bilingual contexts, focusing on the policy implications of the SEDL findings. First, the general question of how research findings relate to educational policy is briefly considered. It is suggested that much of the confusion about the research basis for bilingual education derives from educators' and policy-makers' failure to appreciate the role of theory in the formulation of policy. The alternative policy-related theoretical arguments for and against bilingual education are outlined and the major SEDL study findings are examined in relation to these theoretical positions. The results of other related studies are reviewed and the extent to which policy-relevant theoretical principles emerge from the data is considered.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Policy, English (Second Language), Immigrants

Shuy, Roger W. (1976). Capitalizing on Language Diversity for Children's Learning. Language diversity should be viewed as an asset to schools rather than a liability. Educators should capitalize on the situation and adapt early by developing a bilingual education program. Three levels of decision-making are discussed, with alternatives and criteria described for each. (1) Program decision-making involves a range of choice from monolingual non-English schooling through bilingual education to English-only instruction at the opposite end of the scale. Factors to be considered are how well each program provides balanced instruction, language skills and cultural respect, and what materials and staff are available. A bilingual program best fulfills most requirements. (2) Curriculum decision-making involves choosing among transitional bilingualism, monoliterate bilingualism, partial bilingualism and bilingual maintenance. Similar questions about balanced instruction, language skill development and self-concept enhancement may be asked. The bilingual maintenance model appears superior. (3) Instructional decision-making involves choosing among a balanced bilingual instructional model, a preview-review model alternating languages during each lesson and a day-by-day alternation model. The balanced bilingual instructional model appears most effective. A listing of bilingual education resource centers is included. Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Curriculum Development

Cardenas, Jose A. (1978). Keynote Address: National Conference on the Education of Hispanics. Although in recent years federal, state and local initiatives have been directed toward improving the education of Hispanic children, no significant impacts have as yet been made. The major weakness may be that strategies are still being designed against the characteristics of the larger society and not against the particular minority group. Federal funding has been small, both in the number of federal dollars as well as in the percentage of target population served. The strongest federal effort has been funding for the bilingual education programs, and these have been enthusiastically received by the target population. However, hampering the success of bilingual education has been (1) the lack of a philosophical base, (2) inappropriate research and development efforts, (3) lack of leadership for proper program implementation, and (4) the "poorly conceived and even more poorly implemented" evaluation of bilingual education by the American Insitute for Research for the U.S. Office of Education. Problems in the education of Hispanic Americans are not limited to the elementary-secondary level, for lack of both federal and institutional responses have essentially excluded Hispanics from participation in Higher Education. Hispanic American leadership is sorely needed for the education of Hispanic American children; coalitions must be developed and directed to work toward meeting the educational needs of America's eight million Spanish-speaking children. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Improvement, Educational Needs, Educational Problems

Bransford, Jim; Chavez, Rodolfo L. (1988). Training Minority Language Parents: Are We Providing Them What They Want or Need?. This study attempted to identify the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that parents of children in bilingual education programs believe are important for them to play a meaningful role in their children's education. Parent training models, some created specifically for use with language minority parents, have not resulted in increased parent involvement or continuity of involvement. A review of literature revealed almost 100 training topics that field practitioners and other specialists have identified as areas of need. These topics were consolidated into 75 items divided almost evenly among the 3 categories of skills, knowledge, and attitudes. A pilot survey using these items was administered to chairpersons of parent advisory committees serving bilingual education programs in a five-state region. A second, more general study was developed using those results and administered to 300 parents representing 30 basic bilingual education programs. Parents responding to the pilot survey were more specific in their choice of skill areas than the general survey respondents, who thought all items were important and interrelated. Some differences among parent preferences were found to be related to sex, age, and state of residence, but little difference was found in relation to family size, educational attainment, language preference, or occupation.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Educational Needs, Mail Surveys, Parent Attitudes

Burry, James (1982). An Introduction to Assessment and Design in Bilingual Program Evaluation. The most difficult problems in bilingual education evaluation are disagreement over what evaluation is and how it is done; the debate over what bilingual education is and how a program is planned and operated locally; and the nature of bilingual education itself, which creates problems in assessment and design methodology. General information is provided on three basic considerations in bilingual program evaluation: assessment, evaluation design, and data analysis. Assessment is the full range of information that might be used to make decisions about a bilingual program, including what it accomplishes for its students as well as the procedures to achieve these goals. Measures of student performance and 100 program processes, such as interviews and observations, are examined. A brief examination of major designs used in bilingual program evaluation focuses on the designs that seem to be most useful and feasible in a bilingual program setting. The most general-purpose designs for investigating program outcomes are the time-series/longitudinal designs. The exposure-to-treatment design is widely applicable for formative evaluations. Accountability designs, report information about student achievement of local objectives or national norms. Basic issues raised concern the questions an evaluation might try to answer, collection of information, and the appropriate analytic techniques.   [More]  Descriptors: Achievement Gains, Bilingual Education Programs, Data Analysis, Decision Making

Kobus, Doni Kwolek (1982). Stockton and the World–Developing a Community-Based Global Education Approach. The global education program of the Stockton (California) Unified School District has evolved from conferences, seminars, and workshops to the Stockton and the World project. The project began in 1971 with the district's participation in the Bay Area Global Education Program (BAGEP) intensive workshop training. Participants then sponsored global education curriculum development workshops and developed linkages between bilingual education and global education within the district. A conference on bilingual education and global education identified needs to develop school/community cooperation in solving educational problems, models within the school community that exemplify global concepts, and an awareness of the local international dimension of these concepts. Finally, a 1982 symposium on "Bilingual Education from an International Perspective" resulted in the development of the Stockton and the World project, which began with three components: a project which places international college students in public school classrooms, a calendar which provides examples of international linkages in the Stockton community, and a program to train high school students as global education instructional aids. Additional activities include a workshop series on Stockton and the World, international career week, and an intermediate grade unit which focuses on the Stockton community as a learning resource. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Community Involvement, Curriculum Development, Educational Needs

Allred, Alexandra; Powe, Karen (1994). If You Speak Two Languages, You Are Bilingual. If You Speak One Language, You Are American, Updating School Board Policies. The United States continues to neglect and fails to utilize its many cultures and languages. These languages and cultures are valuable resources that can be used to prepare students for the international competitive economy. School boards must decide what role bilingual and multicultural education will play. Critics charge that bilingual and multicultural education are unnecessary, expensive, and threaten American education. But an increasing percentage of students require bilingual education. The issue of languages and multiculturalism in American education has a long and varied history. Today, the number and variety of students requiring bilingual and multicultural education is increasing. All these students, as well as monolingual students, must be prepared to be successful in the next century. Many people, however, have conflicting views on bilingual education, supporting second-language instruction, but opposing ethnic language instruction for language minority students. School boards must decide what kind of education non- and limited-English-speaking students will receive. They must keep in mind the increasing numbers of these students and the cost to the United States in lost opportunities and productiveness if students are not educated well.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Board of Education Policy, Board of Education Role, Educational Policy

Nava, Hector; And Others (1984). Descriptive Analysis of Title VII-Funded State Education Agency Activities. Volume II: Nine Case Studies. Results of a national study of the use of funds provided by the 1974 amendments to Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act by the state education agencies (SEAs) are presented. The study was undertaken to (1) describe and analyze SEA policies and activities regarding bilingual education, (2) describe and analyze the SEA-level management structure for the coordination of technical assistance, and (3) provide information on technical management and assistance activities the Department of Education may use to help SEA grantees assist local schools in building their capacity to provide bilingual education services to language minority students. The study involved a literature review, analysis of Title VII grant applications submitted by SEAs, and case studies of the implementation of Title VII grants in nine states. This volume presents the nine state case studies for Arizona, Connecticut, Florida, Kansas, Louisiana, New York, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin. An introductory section also compares the nine states' funding and key legislative requirements with regard to bilingual education.   [More]  Descriptors: Agency Role, Bilingual Education, Budgeting, Case Studies

Orozco, Cecilio (1980). The Bilingual Classroom Environment and the Development of Oral Expression. Pilot Study #2. The second half of a pilot study on bilingual education (first half presented at the 1979 Rocky Mountain Educational Research Association conference) focused on whether bilingual education established classroom environments to promote a transition in language or the learning of and in two languages. Each of 43 observers trained in time estimation techniques spent one full day observing one randomly selected child (K-6) in different Fresno Unified School bilingual classrooms. As in the first half of the study, in which non-bilingual classrooms were observed, less than 1% of students' oral practice was controlled by the teachers, who seemed to praise and reward silence. Observers particularly noted how much the children talked when outside the teachers' control; children were learning to speak, despite teachers' efforts to minimize their talking. Observers noted no teaching methods unique to bilingual education. Findings supported the hypothesis that the same lack of directed encoding occurs in both bilingual and non-bilingual classrooms, and suggested that teachers do not control a significant portion of the oral language development of children. Parents and teachers of children (K-12) can intensify home and classroom language learning environments using eight suggested age-graded activities, including show and tell, newscasting, and book reports. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Classroom Environment, Classroom Observation Techniques, Elementary Secondary Education

Howard, Roy E. (1988). Teaching Native Language and Culture in the Indian Schools. This summary of a dissertation reports results of a study of teachers providing bilingual education at a Navajo border town school. History, demography and geography, socioeconomics, and politics all affect cultural knowledge to be taught and teachers must study these subjects. However, teaching Navajo language and culture in a bordertown school may require much more than this academic knowledge and knowledge of language and culture although these are prerequisites. Teachers must also be aware of family education histories, students' home situations, the importance of English for much economic success, and school politics and policies on bilingual education. Positive cross culture experiences and positive experiences with bilingual education were reported by a number of teachers who were willing to teach Navajo language and culture instruction. Teachers who believe in the value of bilingual methods are enthusiastic about using them. An appropriate training program for teachers of schools with bicultural policies might include learning both content and methods in the languages and cultures involved, training for attitude development, the development of a personal philosophy of bicultural education, and experiencing cross-cultural understanding of self and others. Teachers from both Navajo- and English-speaking cultures have a contribution to make to such programs. Reservation teachers must resolve for themselves the conflict between parents' tendency to want linguistic and cultural assimilation for their children and the school policy of bicultural integration.  Appendices include a partial Navajo materials source list and information on how teachers have implemented their own ideas for teaching language and culture. Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, American Indian Languages, Bilingual Education Programs

Crespo, Orestes I., Comp.; Louque, Patricia, Comp. (1984). Parent Involvement in the Education of Minority Language Children. A Resource Handbook. A resource handbook is presented that provides an overview of parent and community involvement to assist local and state education agencies, higher education institutions, and other nonprofit organizations in enhancing the partnership between school and home for the benefit of minority language group students. The guide covers the following topics: establishing and maintaining effective parent and community involvement, Title VII programs, the Federal bilingual education Part C research agenda, and related resources. The section on Title VII programs with an emphasis on parent training describes the related legislation and parameters for capacity-building (basic) grants, demonstration projects, and parent training programs, also listing them by state. The section on program implementation cites three examples of parent training programs. The section on the Part C research agenda outlines the perceived research needs and summarizes a study of parental involvement in four Federal education programs. The section on resources gives the addresses of Title VII resources (bilingual education multifunctional support centers; evaluation, dissemination and assessment centers; the National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, and state education agencies) and other associations, organizations, and institutes. A bibliography of relevant journal articles from 1979-83 is appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Bibliographies, Bilingual Education Programs, Community Involvement, Educational Policy

Boelens, Kr. (1976). Frisian-Dutch Bilingual Primary Schools. To establish a framework for surveying the bilingual situation in the Netherlands and especially in Friesland, bilingualism is viewed from four angles: linguistically, psycholinguistically, sociolinguistically in the micro-environment (the speaker's community), and sociolinguistically in the macro-environment (the state). The background of bilingual education is sketched, and five widely differing types of bilingual schools from around the world are described. An attempt is then made at a comprehensive survey of foreign languages encountered in the Netherlands primary schools. With a basis thus built for the recognition of bilingual education in Friesland, the language situation in that province is described. Language ideology is discussed with reference to the language attitudes of first-year college students. The history of Frisian education is juxtaposed with the teaching situation today. The Flexible Education system in use in Friesland is elucidated. A consideration of the future of Frisian education revolves around the role of government as determined by statutory measures and the report of a government commission. It is concluded that, ideologically, bilingual education has a firm hold in Friesland, though its practical implementation is a continuing concern. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Dutch, Educational Assessment, Government Role

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