Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 160 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include TX. Dept. of Research and Evaluation. Houston Independent School District, IL. Dept. of Government Funded Programs. Chicago Board of Education, Elizabeth R. Reisner, Kathleen Jacobson, Ramon L. Santiago, Edward J. Cervenka, Sacramento. California State Dept. of Education, Patricia L. de Cos, Dorothy Waggoner, and Liliana Minaya-Rowe.

Reisner, Elizabeth R. (1983). Building Capacity and Commitment in Bilingual Education: A Practical Guide for Educators. The purpose of this guide is to assist local school districts in designing and implementing bilingual education programs that meet Title VII requirements related to the development of local "capacity and commitment" for the delivery of bilingual education services. The guide is organized in seven sections. The first section summarizes steps identified as most relevant to success in building bilingual capacity and commitment. Section 2 explains the rationale for the Title VII interest in capacity and commitment as a key element in the operation of successful bilingual education projects. The next four sections address substantive areas in which bilingual capacity and commitment can be fostered in most school systems; these areas include the bilingual instructional approach, staff development, parent and community involvement, and administration and funding. Section 7 suggests ways to describe capacity and commitment building efforts in a Title VII grant application, and also explains how applications are reviewed when they reach Washington. An appendix contains a list of Title VII funded providers of special assistance to bilingual projects that were operating in 1981-82.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Elementary Secondary Education, Financial Support, Government School Relationship

Santiago, Ramon L. (1982). The Future of ESL and Bilingual Education in the Next Decade. Developments occurring at the national, state, and local levels that could affect the future of bilingual education and English as a second Language (ESL) instruction in the next decade are considered. Attention is also directed to (1) the philosophy of the Reagan administration regarding social and educational programs, (2) budgetary changes in the Title VII Act and proposed changes in the language and provisions of the act, (4) issues related to employment of ESL and bilingual educators, and (5) dictates for increased cooperation between organizations like Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages and the National Association for Bilingual Education. The "new federalism" concept, which attempts to shift more responsibility to the local level, and proposed changes in the language of the Title VII Act are cause for concern. There are proposed provisions to reduce the number of children eligible to receive Title VII services down to one million by serving those with the lowest level of English proficiency, and priority would be given to non-English proficiency (NEP) over limited-English proficiency (LEP) children. Another proposed change in the language of the act would allow other approaches besides bilingual education to be employed to meet the needs of LEP/NEP children. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education, Eligibility

Cervenka, Edward J.; And Others (1980). Planning Paper 7: Follow-up Studies in Bilingual Education: Issues and Options. Follow-up studies are necessary for investigating the long-term, enduring, anticipated effects of bilingual education. Investigations need to be based on a recognition of their value to educational audiences, the relative merits of research issues, attention to the problem of attrition, proper selection of dependent measures, and the merits of planned follow-up studies. In addressing the need for follow-up studies, this report discusses (1) options or areas of focus for conducting follow-up investigations, (2) follow-up research foci, (3) methodological issues affecting the use of follow-up designs, (4) statistical and analytic issues in conducting follow-up designs, (5) selection of follow-up variables: measurement issues, (6) large scale post hoc follow-up studies, and (7) focused follow-up studies of bilingual education consequences for students. Charts include (1) a typology of follow-up and related designs; (2) potential research areas to investigate dealing with long term consequences of bilingual education on students, long term development of teachers, and long term program implementation and institutionalization; (3) an overall analysis of effectiveness of techniques; and (4) a flow chart of the process by which necessary sample size may be determined. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Elementary Secondary Education, Followup Studies, Measurement Objectives

Houston Independent School District, TX. Dept. of Research and Evaluation. (1996). Bilingual Education and ESL Programs 1995-96. Research Report on Educational Programs. To evaluate the implementation of the Bilingual Education and English as a Second Language (ESL) programs, the Houston Independent School District (Texas) studied the participation and academic achievement of limited English proficient (LEP) students who participated in these programs in the 1995-96 school year. The Fall 1995 database reported 56,269 LEP students in the district's bilingual education program. Of that number, 57% were classified as bilingual education students, and 28.7% were classified as ESL students. The great majority of these students were Spanish speakers (95.3%). The remaining 14.3% were enrolled in all-English classes. In general, achievement scores of LEP students in English increased over the scores of the previous year in reading (58.4% to 58.9%) and mathematics (50.9% to 63.5%) and declined in writing (83.7% to 80.5%) during the 1995-96 school year. Recommendations address curriculum development, staff development, text adoption, instructional materials, data collection, and other instructional and administrative issues. A particular concern will be providing support to LEP students whose native language is other than Spanish. One appendix contains the evaluation form used in site visits to the 11 schools studied in detail, and the other describes the site visits themselves. (Contains 1 figure, 11 tables, and 28 references.) Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education, Curriculum Development, Elementary Secondary Education

Jacobson, Kathleen (1974). Bilingual/Bicultural Education: Why? For Whom? What? How?, Minnesota Language Review. State after state is wrestling with federal legislation's mandate to respond to the needs of students whose native language is not English. Much ambiguity, confusion, and frustration surrounds the issue of bilingual-bicultural education. This paper begins by describing the confusion which often surrounds the English component in a bilingual program, and then reviews the historical development of bilingual education in the United States. Within this context, aspects and implications of the Bilingual Education Act are discussed. Definitions of key terms are then presented, followed by a discussion of the fundamental question of whether the child's mother tongue should function solely as a "bridge" to English or whether a systematic attempt should be made to maintain and develop linguistic and cultural differences between the child's native language and the target language. Specific problems related to bilingual-bicultural education are then discussed in some detail. Some of these include the qualifications of bilingual-bicultural teachers, the development and implementation of a bilingual curriculum, the development of bilingual-bicultural materials, the identification of bilingual children and/or the assessment of language dominance. Finally, the importance of community involvement in bilingual-bicultural programs is discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Bilingual Teachers

de Cos, Patricia L. (1999). Educating California's Immigrant Children: An Overview of Bilingual Education. The paper examines California's Proposition 227, a voter-imposed statutory amendment that substantially altered the method by which non-English-speaking children learn English in California's public schools, looking at the forces behind the legislation and the challenges to its implementation. The context for bilingual education in California is explored by examining the state's diverse demography, language laws and policies for learning English, testing programs and recent legislative proposals affecting English language learners. Further background information on the design and outcomes of instructional programs for English second language learners and on the relationship between neurological development and language learning is presented as a framework for discussion of methodologies for teaching English effectively. A number of policy considerations for educating this population are outlined. Contains 85 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language)

Prince, Cynthia D. (1987). Reading and Writing Instruction in Three Bilingual Education Programs in Connecticut. Proof of the value of bilingual education programs is usually based on evaluations which measure success solely on the basis of student test scores. An alternative method of evaluating such programs as it is implemented in three bilingual education programs in Connecticut elementary schools is reported in this paper. Eleven first- and second-grade Spanish/English classrooms containing a total of 257 students were visited twice a month for four months in 1986 to identify and describe the administrative, curricular, and instructional practices that contribute to program success. These characteristics were identified through qualitative methods such as classroom observations, interviews, and reviews of curricular materials. Qualitative data were then linked to students' test scores to provide a more accurate measure of program success than test scores alone could have provided. Program characteristics identified as contributing to success included: numerous opportunities for students to write; presence of a strong core curriculum in the bilingual education program matching the district's all-English curriculum; a well-defined plan for transitioning students to English reading and writing; highly-trained teachers; access to curricular materials; strong support for the native language as a bridge to learning English; principal support; and integration and acceptance into the mainstream school structure. An 11-item bibliography is included. Descriptors: Administrative Organization, Bilingual Education Programs, Case Studies, Classroom Techniques

Minaya-Rowe, Liliana (1980). A Comparison of Latin American and United States Bilingual Education Programs. Bilingual programs and the socio-cultural circumstances surrounding the programs of the United States are compared with the programs and socio-cultural circumstances of three Latin American countries: Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia. The legal frameworks are different. In the United States, bilingual education acts and subsequent programs came as a result of legal challenges by private citizens. In contrast to this, in Latin America the institutionalization of bilingual education programs began with the incentive of the national governments. There are differences in administration, goals, relative status of the languages involved, relative distribution of monolingual and bilingual populations, and cultural-historical backgrounds. In the United States a large number of different social processes are reflected in the various bilingual situations, while in the Latin American case, two historical factors are dominant. These differences mean that the socio-cultural attitudes that members of language communities have toward other languages and their use are an important factor in the stance toward bilingual education programs. Implications are discussed in terms of the final linguistic state of the societies in question and the degree of mutual versus unidirectional influence of the languages involved.   [More]  Descriptors: Aymara, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Comparative Analysis

National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, Arlington, VA. (1978). Resources in Bilingual Education: A Preliminary Guide to Government Agency Programs of Interest to Minority Language Groups. This document identifies some government agencies and the programs they administer that address minority group needs and is the first section of "Resources in Bilingual Education," a publication designed to address the information needs of the bilingual community. The format is designed to provide easy identification of available funding, contact person, authorizing legislation and regulation or guideline location. The overall agencies that are included are: the National Institute of Education, the U.S. Office of Education, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the U.S. Department of Labor. A number of programs are described within the bureaus of the agencies. Among the listings are: (1) Civil Rights Technical Assistance and Training, Educationally Deprived Children, and Follow Through Programs under the Bureau of Elementary and Secondary Education; (2) Adult Education and Bilingual Vocational Training under the Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education; (3) Bilingual Education under the Office of Bilingual Education; (4) Indian Education under the Office of Indian Education; (5) Vocational Education under the Office of Research and Planning; and (6) Teacher Corps and Ethnic Heritage Studies Program under the Office of Education. Information on Federal Government publications and other publications are included, and Congressional committees and subcommittees and Congressmen are listed. Descriptors: Adult Education, American Indians, Bilingual Education, Elementary Secondary Education

Casso, Henry J. (1976). Bilingual/Bicultural Education and Teacher Training. NEA Professional Studies Series. Bilingual/bicultural education in the United States in undergoing a renaissance founded on the notions of (a) equality of educational opportunity and (b) accountability in public education. The first section of this monograph examines the significant causes for this renaissance. It is pointed out that although great strides have been made in a relatively short time, it is erroneous to conclude that the bilingual/bicultural education movement is proceeding smoothly; there has been and will continue to be great opposition to its concept, philosophy, and practice. Both sides of the issue are treated in Section II, aptly titled, "The Controversy in Bilingual/Bicultural Education: Melting Pot vs. Cultural Pluralism." Most administrators, counselors, teachers, and teacher educators, we are reminded, have been trained under the melting pot theory, which is now being challenged. Section III discusses implications for bilingual/bicultural teacher training, including: guidelines for improvement of teacher training; teacher views of bilingual/bicultural education; and responses of teacher training institutions in training bilingual personnel. Section IV reviews ERIC publications concerning bilingual teacher training and presents recommendations based on an ERIC search. Seven appendixes offer: (1) approved bilingual education fellowship programs; (2) office of bilingual education grant awards; (3) location of Lau Centers in the United States and states served; (4) major U.S. Commission on Civil Rights hearings for various linguistically and culturally distinct peoples; (5) guidelines for the preparation and certification of teachers; (6) random sample of institutions in the Southwest that have teacher education programs; and (7) bibliography of ERIC publications.   [More]  Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Schools, Bilingual Students

Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Government Funded Programs. (1974). A Comprehensive Design for Bilingual-Bicultural Education. Although bilingual education has existed in this nation's schools since the nineteenth century, during the last two decades there has been a major increase in both the number and the scope of bilingual-bicultural educational programs. This publication seeks to provide a foundation for the coherent, comprehensive development of educational programs for children who speak a language other than English. The philosophy on which the design is predicated is that two languages and cultures are both taught and used as mediums of instruction in a truly bilingual-bicultural education program. The aim of such a program is to enable students to function with equal facility in two languages and two cultures. After setting forth several important considerations, the design presents overall needs and goals for five interrelated elements of a bilingual-bicultural program: instruction, staff development, community involvement, curriculum development, and management. The needs and goals presented were assessed and evaluated by people experienced in developing and operating bilingual education programs in Chicago. The publication includes a selected listing of sources of information and a selected bibliography. Both may be helpful in developing bilingual-bicultural education programs. A copy of the 1973 Foreign Language Survey of Chicago Public Schools accompanies the document.   [More]  Descriptors: Bibliographies, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students

Bermudez, Andrea (1984). Generating Public Awareness of Bilingual Education in the United States. Part I: Programmatic Variables. A study of public awareness of issues in bilingual education was conducted using a random sample of 336 college educated and college-bound adults from 23 states and the District of Columbia, Hawaii, Alaska, continental United States, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, Alaska, the Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico. Subjects were mailed a 32-item questionnaire with established content validity and reliability. The instrument measures the individual's degree of awareness of sociolinguistic, methodological, psychological, and political issues affecting the implementation of bilingual education in this country. A five-point Likert scale was used to measure each response. Analysis of the data revealed that: (1) ethnic groups tend to respond only to their own basic needs and alienate themselves from issues involved in educational programs for all children, (2) professional groups involved in training and implementation functions of bilingual programs are neither articulate nor knowledgeable about bilingual education principles and practice, (3) educated individuals in the United States are generally monolingual, and (4) parents' awareness of bilingual methodology must be improved in order to involve them in the educational process. It is concluded that in order to avoid developing a value system in the schools that excludes minority participation, advocates, teachers, parents, and administrators must become more knowledgeable about teaching methodology in the various programs offered in the public school systems. Descriptors: Administrator Attitudes, Bilingual Education Programs, College Bound Students, College Graduates

Waggoner, Dorothy (1977). State Certification Requirements for Teachers for Bilingual Education Programs, June 1976. As of June 1976, 11 states had adopted special requirements for teachers in bilingual education programs. This publication contains these requirements. The information was obtained as a small part of a survey of state education agencies undertaken in October 1975. The bilingual teacher certification requirements are given here, by state, for the 11 involved: Arizona, California, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New Mexico, Rhode Island and Texas. In addition, the bilingual/bicultural teacher education standards adopted by the National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification are appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teachers, Cultural Awareness, Elementary Secondary Education

Berke, Iris Polk (1980). The Development of Criteria for Student Participation in Bilingual Education: Federal, State, and Local Roles. The determination of who shall receive bilingual education services is distributed among the federal, state, and local policy levels. This study explores how each level exercises that discretion. It examines targeting, identification, and assessment criteria set forth in federal and state legislation, and how a limited number of local districts implement the legislated mandates. The discussion focuses on the following: (1) the major federal criteria for student participation in bilingual education programs which are contained in the 1975 Lau Remedies and in Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act; (2) an investigation of the mandatory bilingual education programs in Texas and California, with emphasis on targeting requirements, identification and language assessment procedures, and the variation among school districts in implementing the mandates; and (3) interviews with local school district administrators, principals, and teachers in Texas and California, which revealed great variability in program. Questions regarding civil rights protections for language minority children are raised in a concluding section. Attachments include a list of districts where interviews were conducted, and appendices containing examples of home surveys used, the Lau Categories of Language groups, and a memo listing Texas approved language assessment instruments.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Civil Rights, Criteria

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. (1974). Bilingual-Bicultural Education and English-as-a-Second-Language Education: A Framework for Elementary and Secondary Schools. Introductory sections of these guidelines give the point of view and goals of bilingual-bicultural education. Definitions of some terms commonly used in this area follow. A section on program organization gives guidelines for assessment, staff, staff development, instruction, methodology, instructional materials, community involvement and evaluation. Guidelines for alternative designs for elementary and secondary programs are also provided. An appendix lists the members of the Framework Advisory Committee for Bilingual-Bicultural Education and English as a Second Language.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Guides, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teacher Aides

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