Bibliography: Bilingual Education (page 151 of 829)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Boyd Robertson, Nancy Modiano, Mary Jean Habermann, Dean G. Arrasmith, Michael Brunn, Nena Torrez, Eugene E. Garcia, Will A. Flores, Amado M. Padilla, and A. Bruce Gaarder.

Brunn, Michael (2002). The Social Organization of Diversity: The Changing Faces in Rural America. Changes in the social organization and context of education were studied in a rural Illinois school district experiencing a rapid influx of Hispanic students. The local meatpacking plant closed, then reopened under a new name and began an aggressive campaign to recruit immigrant and migrant workers who would work for lower wages. In the next 3 years, the number of Mexican American families in the area grew rapidly, and the number of Hispanic students in the schools went from a few to over 180 (out of 1,100 total students). In addition, there was considerable student mobility, as families migrated in and out of the area. The school personnel were unprepared for this sudden change, and many pedagogical and classroom changes were made on an emergency basis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 teachers (41 percent of the preK-12 staff) and 3 administrators. All but one had lived their whole lives in the area. The interviews investigated educators' beliefs and attitudes that would function to separate or integrate student ethnic groups, and identified practices that promoted social inclusion. Themes included initial resistance to bilingual education and other changes necessitated by the new students, who were often viewed as "temporary"; initial animosity toward and gradual acceptance of new bilingual staff; some teachers' efforts to influence student attitudes; easier social integration in the elementary grades; conflict resolution between groups of secondary students; special programs for migrant students and their parents; inservice teacher education on intercultural communication and establishing communities of learners; and purposeful attention to the dynamics of social justice. (Contains 29 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Acculturation, Administrator Attitudes, Community Change, Community Relations

Flores, Will A.; Arrasmith, Dean G. (2001). The Traits of Effective Spanish Writing = Las caracteristicas de la buena escritura en espanol. Second Edition. This English-Spanish language report includes the rationale for creating an assessment model for Spanish writing, offering an overview of the components of high quality assessment for any subject area, particularly Spanish writing. It presents the characteristics of effective Spanish writing, rubrics for scoring student performance based on the characteristics, and student writing samples (all from the work of bilingual and English as a Second Language teachers in the field). The 13 sections look at the following: "Introduction"; "Changing Demographics"; "The History of Bilingual Education"; "The Benefits of Spanish Language Instruction"; "Characteristics of High-Quality Assessment"; "Assessment Options for Spanish Speaking ELLs"; "A Better Option: Dual Assessment Development";"The Traits of Effective Spanish Writing: Las caracteristicas"; "How the Spanish Traits Relate to the English 6+1 Traits"; "Rubricas para la evaluacion"; "Student Writing Samples" (tema e ideas, organizacion, tono y estilo, uso del lenguaje, fluidez, and gramatica y ortografia); "Classroom Applications and Strategies for Teaching Spanish Writing"; and "Conclusion." The appendixes present scoring guides for sample papers and project methodology. (Contains 125 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Elementary Secondary Education, Evaluation Methods, Limited English Speaking

Community School District 24, Queens, NY. (1980). Bilingual/Bicultural Education Program. ESEA Title VII. Community School District 24, Queens. Final Evaluation Report, 1979-80. This is an evaluation of a Title VII Bilingual/Bicultural Education Program conducted in New York City in 1979-1980. Bilingual education was offered to Spanish, Greek, and Italian speaking students. The evaluation describes the features of the program and its goals for both English and Non English speaking students, and briefly outlines instructional methodology and materials. A statistical evaluation of the program, which includes a discussion of its methodology, presents pre- and post-test scores in Spanish and English language ability for students in grades Kindergarten through 8.   [More]  Descriptors: Achievement Gains, Bilingual Education, Elementary Education, English (Second Language)

Garcia, Eugene E., Ed.; And Others (1984). Chicano Studies: A Multidisciplinary Approach. One in a series on bilingual education, this book contains 15 chapters organized under the following subject headings: Chicano studies; Chicano history, social structure, and politics; literature and folklore; and education. Carlos Munoz, Jr., traces the history of Chicano studies and its impact on access to higher education. Albert Camarillo dsscribes the Chicano urban experience. Mario Barrera discusses class structure and class diversity. Juan Gomez-Quinones examines the politics of immigration. Christine Sierra relates the history of Mexicans in the United States to contemporary issues. Francisco Lomeli follows Chicano literature from early Southwest beginnings to contemporary status. Carmen Salazar-Parr focuses on the characterizations of Chicana women. Jorge Huerta covers contemporary Chicano theater. Maria Herrera-Sobek provides an overview of Chicano literary folklore. Gary Keller shows how Chicano authors use bilingual techniques for literary effect. Guadalupe San Miguel discusses educational segregation of Mexicans in the Southwest. Eugene Garcia evaluates bilingual education programs. Co-authors John Aguilar and Carlos Vallejo propose a concept of culture for bilingual/bicultural education. John Halcon points out ways in which local school districts determine the effectiveness of bilingual education programs. Raymond Rocco calls for Chicano studies research informed by an understanding of the significance and role of theory in social inquiry. Descriptors: Access to Education, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Cultural Context

Padilla, Amado M., Ed.; And Others (1990). Bilingual Education: Issues and Strategies. This collection of 16 studies examines the wide variety of issues surrounding bilingual education and reviews program design, evaluation, and classroom strategies. The following chapters review the 20-year history of bilingual education and concomitant political issues: (1) "Bilingual Education: Issues and Perspectives" (A. M. Padilla); and (2) "History of Language Minority Education in the United States" (M. Malakoff and K. Hakuta). The following chapters provide a generally nontechnical review of the major issues involved in conducting research in language education: (3) "Language and Cognition in Bilingual Children" (K. Hakuta); (4) "Rationales for Native Language Instruction: Evidence from Research" (C. E. Snow); and (5) "African American Dialects and Schooling: A Review" (H.  H. Fairchild and S. Edwards-Evans). The following chapters deal with the development and evaluation of bilingual programs: (6) "Bilingual Immersion Education: Criteria for Program Development" (K. J. Lindholm); (7) "Development of a Bilingual Education Plan" (C. M. Valdez and C. P. Gregoire); and (8) "Evaluation of an Elementary School Bilingual Immersion Program" (K. J. Lindholm and H. H. Fairchild). The following chapters focus on specific guidelines for how teachers can accomplish many of the goals outlined in previous chapters, with an emphasis on teaching content and language simultaneously: (9) "Combining Language and Content for Second-Language Students" (D. Christian, G. Spanos, J. Crandall, C. Simich-Dudgeon, and K. Willets); (10) "Language and Problem Solving: Some Examples from Math and Science" (G. Spanos and J. Crandall); (11) "Innovative Second-Language Instruction at the University" (M. A. Snow and D. M. Brinton); (12) "Dialogue Journal Writing: Effective Student-Teacher Communication" (J. K. Peyton); (13) "Beginning at the Beginning: First-Grade ESL Students Learn to Write" (J. K. Peyton); (14) "Cooperative Learning: Instructing Limited-English-Proficient Students in Heterogeneous Classes" (E. Jacob and B. Mattson); (15) "Material Needed for Bilingual Immersion Programs" (K. Willetts and D. Christian); and (16) "Innovations in Bilingual Education: Contributions from Foreign Language Education" (H. H. Fairchild and A. M. Padilla). Each chapter includes a list of references.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Education Programs, Classroom Techniques, Elementary Secondary Education

Gonzalez, Rosa Maria (2001). Bilingual/ESL Programs Evaluation Report, 1999-2000. The Austin Independent School District (AISD) provides bilingual education and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs for limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. Mandatory evaluation of these programs involved the following: data from the Student Master File (information on each student's grade level, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status); data from the LEP student master file (information on students' LEP status, home language, and program service dates); programmatic and professional staff development details; Emergency Immigrant Program expenditure data; prior-year information on LEP students from Office of Program Evaluation reports; test scores; and participant responses. Achievement of former LEP students surpassed that of all AISD students on percentages passing the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills. Their attendance rates and grade point averages were similar to those seen districtwide. Potential retention rates and discipline rates were lower than districtwide rates. Achievement of current LEP students was generally below state and national norms. Participants reported that staff development was appropriate and useful. The number of LEP students attending AISD increased in recent years. Three appendixes contain text of the Texas Administrative Code; data on alternative language program/bilingual/ESL staff development; and a comparison of LEP students served versus LEP refusals. (Contains 19 figures and 36 tables.)   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education Programs, Educational Research, Elementary Secondary Education

Dphrepaulezz, Diallo (2001). The Fight To Save the Edison Charter in San Francisco. Briefing. In 1998, the San Francisco Board of Education granted a charter to Edison Schools, Inc., to manage the Edison Charter Academy. In 2001, it commenced a formal investigation of complaints that Edison had materially violated its charter and notified the school of its intent to revoke the charter. This briefing traces the events from the commencement of the investigation to the development of a parent advocacy group. It discusses a possible role for the state in addressing the situation and describes the growing divide between liberal education reactionaries and the minorities they purportedly represent. The major charges included material violations in matters concerning teacher turnover, charter governance, bilingual education, academic achievement, and counseling out of African American, low-income, and special education students. The investigation found that from 1999-2000 the school's academic achievement scores rose at a greater rate than nearly all of the district's 73 elementary schools; African American and Hispanic students improved their scores by 25 percent and 15 percent, respectively; most parents and teachers signed a petition supporting the charter; the shift in minority student populations followed a uniform district-wide trend; and the board could not provide names of African American parents who were counseled out. (Contains 36 endnotes, 5 tables, and 1 figure.)   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education, Black Students, Charter Schools

Johns, Kenneth M.; Torrez, Nena (2001). Helping ESL Learners Succeed. Fastback 484. This booklet explains that teachers need to upgrade the strategies they use to help students who are learning English as a Second Language (ESL), describing several strategies that have been derived from advances in bilingual education and ESL research during the last 20 years. The introduction explains first language acquisition. The next section focuses on second language acquisition, describing four stages that children must go through at their own pace: preproduction (the silent period), early production, speech emergence, and intermediate fluency. The third section explains how to work with parents and other caregivers, whose English fluency and attitudes about having their children learn English significantly influence their children's English acquisition. The fourth section examines the role of technology in helping ESL children (computer assisted instruction and e-mail, interactive audio, video, and the Internet). The fifth section discusses the English-only controversy, focusing on bilingual programs, ESL programs, and English-only programs. The booklet concludes that teachers and caregivers must be familiar with all the program options and approaches available to serve language minority students and provide a classroom environment conducive to learning. (Contains 10 references.) Descriptors: Audiotape Recordings, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Computer Uses in Education

Gaarder, A. Bruce (1977). Bilingual Schooling and the Survival of Spanish in the United States. This volume contains fifteen essays focussing on the themes of (a) bilingual schooling and (b) the role and prospects of the Spanish language in the United States. Eleven of the essays are written in English, and the rest are in Spanish. The essays are: (1) "Rationale of Bilingual Education in the United States," (2) "Organization of the Bilingual School," (3) "Teaching the Bilingual Child: Research, Development and Policy," (4) "The First Seventy-Six Bilingual Education Projects," (5) "Teaching Spanish in School and College to Native Speakers of Spanish," (6) "The Golden Rules of Other Language Acquisition by Young Children," (7) "Teacher Training for Spanish-Medium Work in United States Schools," (8) "Political Perspective on Bilingualism and Bilingual Education," (9) "Language Maintenance or Language Shift: The Prospect for Spanish in the United States," (10) "Bilingual-Bicultural Education and Cultural Pluralism: The Special Case of Mexican Americans," (11) "The Dilemmas of Cultural Pluralism," (12) "La centralidad del idioma espanol comun," (13) "Analisis critico de Peregrinos de Aztlan," (14) "Las consecuencias del bilinguismo colectivo," and (15) "Establishment of the Liga nacional defensora del idioma espanol". Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Schools, Bilingual Students

Yzaguirre, Raul (1979). The Case for Bilingual Education, AGENDA. In spite of the increasing attack from columnists, some legislators, and other assorted real or imagined policymakers, the Hispanic community is realizing that bilingual bicultural education represents a viable pedagogical strategy to deal with their astonishingly low educational attainment.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Change, Educational Needs, Nontraditional Education

Modiano, Nancy (1972). Reading in Bilingual Education. In a bilingual education program, reading should be introduced in the child's stronger language. Reading in the second language should be delayed until the child has become fully literate in the first language. Ideally that point should be determined for each child individually. The relative emphasis given to reading in each language is based on different factors, basically depending on language role. In the case of newly transcribed languages, the creation of a written literature should be encouraged.   [More]  Descriptors: Beginning Reading, Bilingual Education, English (Second Language), Instructional Materials

Robertson, Boyd (2001). Gaelic in Scotland at the Dawn of the New Millennium. Gaelic is a minority language in Scotland. Gaelic speakers tend to be older and concentrated in the Western Highlands and Islands and some urban centers. Gaelic is used mainly in craft work and with friends and community members at prayer meetings, stores, post offices, and social events. Gaelic has no official status and limited legal protection. Its only official status is in the field of local administration. Broadcasting is one of the main contributors to the decline of the language, bringing English language into Gaelic-speaking homes. The government's Gaelic television fund has enabled increased broadcasting of Gaelic programs, though there is very little Gaelic in the print media. Gaelic activity in the arts is very strong and contributes significantly to the Scottish economy. Provision is made for Gaelic in all sectors of education, as a subject of study and a medium of instruction. The use of Gaelic as a medium was officially sanctioned in 1975, when a bilingual education project was launched. Gaelic-medium study is most comprehensive at Sabhal Mor Ostaig college. Official recognition of Gaelic by the state is crucial to halting the long-term decline of the language. (Contains 17 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Elementary Secondary Education, Foreign Countries, Language Maintenance

Aquila, Frank (1975). Laws, Ruling Set Bases for Bilingual Programming. This document provides a detailed discussion of two laws and three court cases affecting the education of non-English speaking children. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 addresses equal education opportunities for all Americans. The Four Point Memorandum issued by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare specifically deals with discrimination and denial of services on the basis of national origin. The Lau vs. Nichols legal case was filed in San Francisco to protect the rights of Chinese speaking students who were not receiving adequate education because of their ability to speak English. This landmark case in the movement for equal educational opportunity for non-English speaking people considered to have spurred bilingual education programming. The Serna vs.  Portales case continued the push for bilingual education by directing its efforts to Spanish-speaking persons in New Mexico. A court evaluation of the merits of bilingual/bicultural education concluded that (1) bilingual education was the best way of meeting the needs of the Spanish-speaking children, and (2) ordered an expansion of these services. The Aspria et al vs. the Board of Education case was brought to court in the interests of youngsters born in Puerto Rico or recent adult immigrants who are also parents. The Aspira decision led to a consent decree signed by both parties to provide bilingual programming for New York City children needing help in language.   [More]  Descriptors: Asian Americans, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Schools

Sauvao, Malaeta F. (2002). Transition of Samoan Children from Aoga Amata to Primary School: Case Study in the Wellington Region. Noting that the number of Samoan children in New Zealand receiving early childhood education in their heritage language has been increasing rapidly, this study examined the way the transition to primary school was organized for Aoga Amata (early childhood centers) children. Participating in the interview study were 39 parents, 14 teachers, 14 principals, and 20 children. Additional case study data were collected for 6 children. The findings indicated that parents had language and cultural reasons for enrolling their children at a local Aoga Amata. The parents, teachers, and principals of receiving schools viewed the Aoga Amata experience as valuable. Transition was managed by families and schools through several strategies: family assistance, assistance of other Samoan children at school, use of non-teaching staff who were Samoan speakers, and, in one school, a bilingual program. Some teachers and principals were concerned that the Aoga Amata did not provide written records regarding children and their development. Schools recognized the importance of language maintenance but, except for one school, could not provide bilingual education during the transition. Parents were aware of the familys role in achieving bilingualism and the school's role in English language development, but they were seeking ways to link the home and school through their childrens language education. Based on findings, it was concluded that: (1) schools with English-only solutions to transition may not be properly appreciating the importance of language continuity in the education of bilingual children; (2) parents, teachers, and principals view transition from different perspectives; (3) language maintenance can proceed through many pathways; (4) new initiatives are needed to consider the role of language continuity in transition arrangements for Aoga Amata children; and (5) neither administrative nor professional continuity were in place at the majority of schools surveyed.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingualism, Case Studies, Early Childhood Education, Educational Policy

Habermann, Mary Jean (1997). Binational Teacher Development: Teacher Ambassador Exchange Program, New Mexico, USA and Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The report describes the rationale for and history of an exchange program for Nuevo Leon (Mexico) and New Mexico bilingual education teachers. The program evolved from the need to help Spanish-speaking students maintain their own language and culture while in the United States. New Mexico's state policy concerning language-minority children and second language learning is traced from the first bilingual education policy statement in 1968 to standards for bilingual education and second language skills set in 1996. The general design of state-mandated bilingual multicultural education programs is also outlined. Policy developments emerging from an October 1991 border conference organized by the U.S. and Mexican departments of education are chronicled through the implementation of the second teacher exchange program in 1996. The exchange itself involves an orientation, teacher preparation of three mini-workshops (comments on home community and students, strategies for teaching English as a Second Language, and the New Mexico educational system) to be presented to their Mexican colleagues, and a paired exchange in which 12 New Mexico teachers and their Mexican teacher-partners live in each other's home and teach together for 2-week periods. Teacher responses to the program are summarized, and support materials are appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Cultural Awareness, Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education

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