Bibliography: Cultural Influences in New Mexico

Bibliography: "cultural+influences"+"new+mexico"_1 5_20161009
Date: 2016-10-09T19:10-06:00 | URL: eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Cultural+Influences%22+%22New+Mexico%22 | Range: 1-5; Total Pages = 5 | Total Citations = 61

Medina, Christina A.; Posadas, Carlos E. (2012). Hispanic Student Experiences at a Hispanic-Serving Institution: Strong Voices, Key Message, Journal of Latinos and Education. A symposium at New Mexico State University, a Hispanic-Serving Institution, revealed Hispanic students' attitudes about their experiences at the university. Discussions concerned the campus climate, mentors, the experiences of first-time students, cultural challenges, retention, and accountability. Discussion of the resulting data yields policy recommendations to help address the issues raised. [More] Descriptors: Hispanic American Students, Student Experience, Student Attitudes, Organizational Climate

Trujillo, Michael L. (2008). Onate's Foot: Remembering and Dismembering in Northern New Mexico, Aztlan: A Journal of Chicano Studies. This essay analyzes the historical construction of "Spanish" icons in northern New Mexico and the complex Hispanic and Chicano identities they both evoke and mask. It focuses on the January 1998 vandalism of a statue depicting New Mexico's first Spanish colonial governor, Don Juan de Onate. The removal of the Onate statue's foot references a brutal colonial encounter in 1599, when Onate ordered the amputation of one foot each from Pueblo men in the rebellious Native American village of Acoma. In this case study, national and regional narratives as well as self-consciously oppositional narratives collude, conflict, and supplement one another. I conclude that the vandalized statue offers a dynamic and "open" icon that powerfully represents the contradictions of New Mexican Chicana/o identity, shedding light on the complex and contradictory identities of all Mexican-origin peoples in the United States. [More] Descriptors: Mexican Americans, American Indians, Mexicans, United States History

Amezcua, Luis G. (2013). An Exploration of the Relationships between Language, Culture, Safety, and Training in the Construction Workforce in New Mexico, ProQuest LLC. The purpose of safety training is to avoid or at least decrease the number of work-related accidents and deaths. This study was concerned with the role that native language plays in effective training of adult construction workers in New Mexico. Specifically, this study examined workers' and trainers' perceptions of the effectiveness of safety training as these perceptions relate to language and cultural considerations. Bilingual safety training is often ineffective because the trainers are limited in their use of the second language. In some cases, individuals without a true grasp of the second language become trainers due to the large demand for bilingual trainers in what may be lucrative job opportunities. In other cases, trainers may be competent in both languages on a social level, but are not able to convey accurately technical information. Four instruments were used: Questionnaire for Workers, Questionnaire for Trainers, "Cuestionario para Trabajadores," and "Cuestionario para Entrenadores." Each questionnaire had two sections. The first section asked a series of demographic and contextual questions; the second section asked the two groups, workers and trainers, for levels of agreement with safety training statements. A comments section at the end of the survey encouraged participants to offer suggestions for improvements and/or include any general remarks. This exploratory study of the relationships between language, culture, safety, and training in the construction workforce in New Mexico provides a solid basis for further research and also may be utilized as a tool to raise awareness of trainers and companies of the importance of health and safety training. Most importantly, qualified trainers who understand the principles of andragogy are needed. The ANSI Standard Z490.1 includes all aspects of adult education and provides guidance as to how to implement effective training. The conclusions of the study have clear policy implications, which are discussed in detail in this study. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.%5D [More] Descriptors: Safety, Training, Construction Industry, Skilled Workers

Anhalt, Cynthia Oropesa; Rodríguez Pérez, María Elena (2013). K-8 Teachers' Concerns about Teaching Latino/a Students, Journal of Urban Mathematics Education. In this article, the authors examine elementary and middle school mathematics teachers' concerns about teaching Latino/a student populations across three regions in the United States: southern Arizona, northern New Mexico, and central California. Surveys were administered to 68 teachers who participated in professional development activities on language and culture diversity. Survey questions consisted of items from three domains: (a) concerns about social issues central to teaching Latino/a students, such as discrimination, multiculturalism, and stereo-types; (b) concerns about the task of teaching Latino/a students focusing on methods, strategies, materials, and new ideas for teaching; and (c) concerns about Latino/a students' learning, which dealt with factors that impact student performance in school, such as home environment, family culture, and expectations. In general, the authors found that the surveyed teachers were highly concerned with issues about teaching Latino/a students and their learning and were less concerned about social issues in teaching Latino/a students. [More] Descriptors: Elementary School Mathematics, Middle Schools, Secondary School Mathematics, Mathematics Teachers

Freeman, Janet (2010). It's Time to Talk: Tribal Colleges Tackle Culture of Silence about Suicide, Tribal College Journal of American Indian Higher Education. Compared to the general population, American Indians are experiencing an alarmingly increased rate of suicide, which some estimate at 50% higher than other ethnic groups. On the campuses of some tribal colleges, things look equally bleak, with 15% of students reporting that they seriously considered suicide over the past 12 months. While the reasons for this tragedy are myriad and complex--and much remains to be done--some tribal colleges in New Mexico, Montana, Nebraska, and North Dakota, are facing the crisis head-on, instituting prevention programs designed to reach students before they even set foot on campus. Culture-specific programs are pivotal for the success of suicide prevention at tribal colleges; research indicates that students who are more culturally and spiritually connected exhibit fewer suicidal tendencies. By engaging the community at large and incorporating cultural traditions, a tribal college can go a long way toward ensuring its students will seek help when they need it. [More] Descriptors: Prevention, American Indians, Suicide, Tribally Controlled Education

Kachina, Olga A. (2011). Teaching a Geographical Component in World History Curriculum, Contemporary Issues in Education Research. This article is devoted to the topic of teaching a geographical component in World History curriculum in American public high schools. Despite the fact that the federal legislation entitled "No Child Left Behind" (2001) declared geography as a "core" academic subject, geography was the only subject dropped from federal funding. As a result, geography as a separate subject in the majority of public schools around the country ceased to exist. California, New Mexico, and Rhode Island have adopted state standards of combined course of World History and Geography. However, a small geography segment included within the World History course has not been sufficient to provide students with a satisfactory level of geographical literacy. American students show their lack of geographical knowledge in one study after another even though the 21st century is an era of globalization and increasing international relationship. The geopolitical approach to teaching the World History course promoted in this paper can improve the situation significantly in a relatively short period of time. This geopolitical approach stresses the connection between history and geography. It involves an analysis of a county's economy, culture, domestic and foreign policies as directly connected to its geography. This approach improves students' analytical thinking and conceptual understanding. [More] Descriptors: World History, History Instruction, Geography, High Schools

Goodkind, Jessica R.; Gonzales, Melissa; Malcoe, Lorraine H.; Espinosa, Judith (2008). The Hispanic Women's Social Stressor Scale: Understanding the Multiple Social Stressors of U.S.- and Mexico-Born Hispanic Women, Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences. Measurement of social stressors among Hispanic women is a growing and important area of study, particularly in terms of understanding explanatory mechanisms for health disparities. This study involved adaptation of the Hispanic Stress Inventory and the Latin American Stress Inventory to create a measure of social stressors specifically for both immigrant and nonimmigrant Hispanic women. The measurement development process included review of existing scales, focus groups with Hispanic women (U.S.- and Mexico-born) in New Mexico, and creation, pilot testing, and factor analysis of a 41-item scale. Results indicate that the Hispanic Women's Social Stressor Scale is a reliable and valid measure of the social stressors experienced by U.S.-born and Mexico-born Hispanic women in the Southwest. Factor analyses revealed six reliable and conceptually distinct sub-scales of social stressors: immigration, socioeconomic, racism-related, familial, parental, and employment. Convergent and criterion validity were supported. [More] Descriptors: Stress Management, Females, Focus Groups, Predictive Validity

Johnson, Natasha Kaye (2009). Cross Country, Rodeo, Archery: Navajo Athletic Programs Give Students Running Start, Tribal College Journal of American Indian Higher Education. While tribal college athletic programs were not designed to market the colleges, there is no denying they have generated positive attention and have perhaps even helped to highlight the colleges' purpose. Dine College and Navajo Technical College are among a handful of tribal colleges who have made athletic programs a priority. They have since witnessed the positive impact on their students' overall success and in the process, have been able to tout the colleges' achievements to the general public. Mainstream 4-year colleges clearly have advantages over the chronically under-funded tribal colleges in athletics, such as state-of-the-art facilities and financial backing, but tribal colleges are making strides in building strong athletic programs. The cost of facilities and travel prevents a number of tribal colleges from participating in intercollegiate sports. Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI) was established in Albuquerque, New Mexico, in 1971 and has an enrollment of 900 students annually. While it has had athletic programs in the past, it has not been able to establish a permanent intercollegiate athletic program. As SIPI and other tribal colleges try to build athletic programs, the strong tribal college athletic programs may help pave the way for them. This article highlights the successes of the nationally recognized Navajo Technical College and Dine College cross country, rodeo, and archery teams. [More] Descriptors: Navajo (Nation), College Athletics, Technical Institutes, Tribally Controlled Education

Vigil, Antonio (2006). Aztlanscape, Aztlan: A Journal of Chicano Studies. "Aztlanscape" is a painting that explores the notions of history, migration, and cultural exchange. It depicts various places with significant relationships to one another, reconfigured into a new landscape. The specific locales used in this painting are Albuquerque, New Mexico; Oakland, California; and Mexico DF, Mexico. These cities have a personal significance because the author has lived in all three. Much of the author's work takes place between two societies and cultures, Mexican and American. Between these spaces, notions are challenged, negotiated, and combined. Identities both personal and cultural begin to evolve. Through these images, the author explores ideas of history, memory, and migration on both personal and cultural levels. He uses landscapes with shared political, economic, and cultural histories to illustrate both the cohesion and disjuncture created by migration and cultural exchange. [More] Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Migration, Cultural Influences, Painting (Visual Arts)

Deschenie, Tina (2008). Sports Drove Silva to Teach Wellness, Tribal College Journal of American Indian Higher Education. This article profiles teacher Leroy Silva (Laguna), 27, a.k.a. "Buster". Silva describes himself as an active guy who stays busy working out, playing basketball, softball, and more recently golf, soccer, and lacrosse. He teaches personal wellness and sports (not physical education), a job he began in 2006. Before that he was a trainer at the Laguna Pueblo Wellness Center, his first job after graduating from Haskell Indian Nations University in Lawrence, Kansas. He earned two degrees at Haskell: an Associate Degree in Health, Physical Education, and Athletics in 2003 and a Bachelor's Degree in American Indian Studies in 2005. Although he didn't plan to become a teacher, Silva says he has always known he wanted to make a difference with youth. When he began exploring the Native American Community Academy (NACA) position he spent two weeks deliberating before finally taking the leap at the urging of his mother, Joan Silva. Since he didn't major in education, Silva is working on alternative licensure by developing a portfolio that addresses New Mexico state teaching competencies. Kara L. Bobroff (Lakota/Navajo), the founding principal of NACA, says Silva is a strong role model for the students. He emulates the core values, mission, and vision of the school: college success, knowing his own culture and language, practicing personal wellness, and being committed to community and service. [More] Descriptors: Role Models, American Indians, American Indian Education, Wellness

Watts, Linda K. (2001). Applying a Cultural Models Approach to American Indian Substance Dependency Research, American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research. American Indian "cultural models" of substance dependency and recovery were developed based on discourse analysis during ethnographic studies at an Indian rehabilitation clinic and with New Mexico Pueblo youth. Incorporating such social constructions of everyday life into the design and implementation of prevention and intervention programs may support local cultural revitalization while increasing program relevance and effectiveness. (Contains 30 references.) Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indians, Community Attitudes, Cultural Influences

Lubin, Shami (1972). New Mexico Campaigns Against Hunger and Malnutrition, Opportunity. Describes the nutritional needs of individuals in New Mexico, and the efforts of the Nutrition Improvement Program (NIP) of the University of New Mexico School of Medicine at Albuquerque to remove hunger and malnutrition. Descriptors: Cultural Influences, Health Programs, Hunger, Nutrition

Garcia, Flaviano Chris (1974). Manitos and Chicanos in Nuevo Mexico Politics, Aztlan. The article briefly reviews New Mexico's political history, surveys the present socio-political status of its Spanish speaking population, and examines the effects of the Chicano Movimiento on Manitos in New Mexico. Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Cultural Influences, History, Political Divisions (Geographic)

Peshkin, Alan (2000). The Nature of Interpretation in Qualitative Research, Educational Researcher. Addresses the process of interpretation from a study of the academic achievements of Native American high school students in New Mexico, illuminating the relationship of researcher subjectivity to the many decision points that each process of interpretation embodies. The article also contains a counterpoint of problematics that reveals where alternative interpretive decisions could have been made. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, American Indians

Aguirre-Bielschowsky, Ikerne; Freeman, Claire; Vass, Eva (2012). Influences on Children's Environmental Cognition: A Comparative Analysis of New Zealand and Mexico, Environmental Education Research. This paper investigates Mexican and New Zealand children's conception of the environment and their understandings of environmental issues, focusing on how personal experiences, culture and school-based environmental education (EE) programmes influence their perspectives. Sixty Year 5 children (age 9-11) from three schools in Dunedin (New Zealand) and three schools from Ensenada (Mexico), their teachers and school principals were interviewed. The study found that children from both cities had limited opportunities for contact with nature. Most children understood the environment as nature, and did not typically link environmental problems to human activities or social causes. Rarely were children critical of the effect of socio-economic structure on the environment. The analysis shows that children's understandings of the environment are connected to their personal experiences and mediated by culture. Children from Ensenada had a more global perspective on environmental issues but a more passive attitude towards their local environment, participating in fewer environmental activities than children from Dunedin. In both countries, children from schools with an EE programme did translate environmental practices learnt at school into environmental practices at home. Based on our results, EE could be improved by considering the cultural context, enhancing children's contact with nature, encouraging critical thinking and more environmental activities. [More] Descriptors: Environmental Education, Global Approach, Foreign Countries, Comparative Analysis

Ortiz, Leroy I.; Engelbrecht, Guillermina (1986). Partners in Biliteracy: The School and the Community, Language Arts. Examines an exemplary bilingual program in Albuquerque, New Mexico and examines patterns of classroom literacy, including the role of written Spanish and the values it represents. Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Education Programs, Bilingualism

Gomez de Garcia, Jule; Olson, Maureen; Axelrod, Melissa (). The Importance of Women's Literacy in Language Stabilization Projects. Experiences with indigenous people in Mexico and New Mexico illustrate that there are cultural and situational constraints on women's literacy. A participatory demonstration in linguistics in which the demonstrator is largely silent highlights the group dynamics of learning communities that develop in successful literacy and stabilization projects. The leadership shifts, often without the conscious consent of the group, and new leaders emerge as the task changes because one person cannot be the master of all skills. These shifts in leadership can create problems when the organizational bureaucracy appoints a leader who does not recognize the leadership potential of each member in the project. This is especially problematic when the appointed leader is a man and the emergent leader is a woman. Cultural norms often do not allow or encourage such an arrangement. For most tribes working toward stabilizing their languages, involvement of the community, consensus from the community on ways of proceeding, negotiation among community members when a problem arises, and support of the individual learner by the community of learners are crucially important. A community that can resolve these issues will have taken great strides toward becoming a literate community before the first word is ever written or read. In many day-care, preschool, and immersion programs, the majority of the teachers are women. Therefore, involving women in this kind of planning is crucial. An Apache women's literacy camp is described in which women report feeling more relaxed without the presence of men. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Education, Community Cooperation, Cultural Influences, Females

Stokrocki, Mary; Yazzie, Elmer (1997). A Microethnographic Study of a Navajo Art Teacher in a Boarding School: Balancing Traditional and Aesthetic Values in Art Education, Canadian Review of Art Education: Research and Issues. Describes, analyzes, and interprets the cultural values communicated by a Navajo art teacher in a K-12 boarding school in New Mexico. Much of the Navajo world view is expressed through content, instruction, and demonstration. This view emphasizes spirituality, harmonious living, and the process of seeing and drawing as a way of honoring and preserving relationships. Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, Art Education, Art Teachers

Navarro, Jay; And Others (1997). Substance Abuse and Spirituality: A Program for Native American Students, American Journal of Health Behavior. This report describes an innovative program to prevent substance abuse among Native American students that was implemented at the Institute for American Indian Arts in Santa Fe (New Mexico). The program emphasized traditional values, history, and spirituality to enhance self-esteem. It involved readings, classroom discussions, Native American ceremonies, and student projects. Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indians, Consciousness Raising, Cultural Awareness

Tempest, Phyllis; Skipper, Betty (1988). Norms for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised for Navajo Indians, Diagnostique. Norms were developed for Navajo Indian students for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, by sampling 16 percent of the Navajo school population from first through eighth grade in 8 schools in McKinley County, New Mexico. The norms, based on 539 students, help to separate cultural and language differences from learning difficulties. Descriptors: Ability Identification, American Indians, Cultural Influences, Disabilities

Osborne, A. Barry (1989). Insiders and Outsiders: Cultural Membership and the Micropolitics of Education among the Zuni, Anthropology and Education Quarterly. Outlines power relationships that exist in the schools of a small-scale, Zuni (New Mexico) community. Describes complex set of insider-outsider relationships, analyzes their effects, and provides support for McDermott's notion of collusion. Highlights complexities teachers face in providing culturally responsive pedagogy in a small-scale, culturally different community. Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indians, Cultural Influences, Elementary Secondary Education

Reeve, Kay A. (1981). Pueblos, Poets, and Painters: The Role of the Pueblo Indians in the Development of the Santa Fe-Taos Region as an American Cultural Center, American Indian Culture and Research Journal. Historically, the Pueblo Indians appealed to artists and writers' colonies in Santa Fe-Taos (New Mexico), inspiring a superficial art and, on a deeper level, inspiring a desire to explore and communicate the Pueblos' intrinsic values. The deeper appeal crucially influenced the establishment and continued productivity of the Santa Fe-Taos American cultural center. Descriptors: American Indian Culture, Art Expression, Art History, Artists

Borrego, John G.; And Others (). A Study of New Mexico Migrant Agricultural Workers. The intent of this report, as stated, is to bring about an awareness of the kinds of problems faced by migrant agricultural workers (Mexican Americans and Navajos), by farmers, and by agencies offering services to these migrants in New Mexico. An overview of the national and state migrant situation is presented, as well as case studies of various New Mexico counties, a discussion of the overall lifestyles of the Mexican American of northern New Mexico and the Navajos on the reservation, economies of the 2 groups, and the role of technology and mechanization. Agency services are described in terms of such areas as housing conditions, health and sanitation, education, economic conditions, social services, labor management and crew leaders, and transportation. Migrant problems discussed include wages (annual average wage of $922); child labor (25% of the migrant work force are under age 16); education (average grade level was 8.6 in 1967, with 17% of these being functionally illiterate); health (per capita health expenditure in 1967 was $12 compared to $200 for the total population); inadequate housing; and benefits (exclusion of unemployment insurance, Social Security, and Workmen's Compensation). State resources, a listing of state agencies, and a bibliography are appended. [More] Descriptors: Agricultural Laborers, American Indians, Cultural Influences, Economically Disadvantaged

Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology, Washington, DC. (). Changing America: The New Face of Science and Engineering. Final Report. The Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology was established by the U.S. Congress in Public Law 99-383 with the purpose of developing a long-range plan for broadening participation in science and engineering. Public hearings were held in Albuquerque (New Mexico), Atlanta (Georgia), Baltimore (Maryland), Boston (Massachusetts), Chicago (Illinois), Kansas City (Missouri), and Los Angeles (California) between Fall 1987 and Spring 1988. Six goals for the nation dealing with change in the United States, precollege education, higher education, federal research and development, employment, and cultural influences are suggested. Actions are recommended for (1) the President; (2) governors; (3) state legislators; (4) industry; (5) the federal government; (6) universities; (7) school boards; (8) educators; (9) parents; (10) professional societies; (11) the media; and (12) "all Americans" to help alleviate the "looming crisis in the science and engineering workforce." Specific strategies to promote greater participation among Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, people with disabilities, and White women in the science and engineering workforce are included. Population statistics and predictions are included in several parts of this document. A list of 40 exemplary programs is included. Appendices include lists of the Task Force members, hearing witnesses at the various sites, and a copy of Public Law 99-383. [More] Descriptors: Access to Education, College Science, Disabilities, Elementary School Science

Layton, Jean; And Others (). The Recruitment and Retention of Minority Trainees in University Affiliated Programs. Native American Indians. This monograph addresses the recruitment and retention of Native American Indians in University Affiliated Programs (UAP) which train personnel to provide health, education, and social services to people with developmental disabilities. It is designed to assist UAP faculty and staff to develop a comprehensive plan to increase the participation of Native American Indians. A chapter titled "Current Issues and Demographics" documents the low American Indian enrollment rate in higher education and its causes. "Identified Problems and Attempted Solutions in Education" outlines factors contributing to declining college enrollment among Native American Indians and uses a poem and a personal narrative by Native American Indians to describe the inadequacies of the education system and the cultural influences contributing to the target population's alcoholism and lack of personal goals and motivation. "Breaking Down the Barriers" focuses on three major barriers: cultural, academic, and financial. "Programming Possibilities" describes the essential components of a recruitment and retention plan: faculty involvement, financial assistance, marketing strategies, and cooperative efforts. Exemplary programs from Alaska, California, Colorado, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oregon, Texas, the Philippines, and Canada are described. A bibliography of 39 references concludes the monograph. [More] Descriptors: Access to Education, American Indians, Cultural Background, Developmental Disabilities

Smith, Anne M. (). Indian Education in New Mexico. The percentage of Indian children in New Mexico public schools is increasing, but dropout rates remain high and a low level of academic achievement by Indian children persists. An effort should be made to increase Johnson-O'Malley funds for Indian students, and more detailed accounting procedures should be required to ensure that these funds are used exclusively for Indian children. Schools of Education should include courses in linguistics to prepare teachers to teach English as a second language. Indian education must be based on a philosophy that respects and recognizes cultural differences. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, American Indians, Cultural Influences, Educational Finance

KNOWLTON, CLARK S. (). BILINGUALISM--A PROBLEM OR AN ASSET. THE AUTHOR DISCUSSES THE PROBLEMS RATHER THAN THE ASSETS ASSOCIATED WITH BILINGUALISM IN NEW MEXICO AND TEXAS SCHOOLS. HE STATES THAT MANY SPANISH-SPEAKING STUDENTS DO NOT LEARN BECAUSE THE SCHOOLS ARE BIASED AGAINST THEM IN THE FOLLOWING WAYS--(1) THE LOW TAXING ABILITY OF THE COMMUNITY PROVIDES ONLY FOR ILL-STAFFED AND ILL-EQUIPPED SCHOOLS, (2) THE STUDENTS CANNOT LEARN OTHER SUBJECT MATTER, AS EXPECTED, BEFORE THEY MASTER ENGLISH, AND (3) SPANISH-SPEAKING CHILDREN LEARN TO REGARD THEIR NATIVE LANGUAGE AND CULTURE AS INFERIOR TO THAT OF THE ANGLO-AMERICANS. THE AUTHOR CONCLUDES THAT THE SCHOOLS SHOULD TEACH THESE STUDENTS IN THEIR NATIVE LANGUAGE WHILE THEY ARE MASTERING ENGLISH, TO ENABLE THEM TO LEARN OTHER SUBJECT MATTER EARLIER AND DEVELOP AN APPRECIATION OF THEIR NATIVE LANGUAGE AND CULTURE. HE SUGGESTS THAT CREATIVE SYNTHESIS OF THE SOUTHWEST CULTURES WILL PRODUCE CLASSROOMS IN WHICH THE FULLEST POTENTIAL OF THE ANGLO-AMERICAN, MEXICAN-AMERICAN, AND INDIAN CULTURES WILL BE ATTAINED. THIS IS A SPEECH PREPARED FOR DELIVERY TO THE MEETING OF STAFF AND FACULTY OF ANTHONY SCHOOL DISTRICT (ANTHONY, NEW MEXICO, DECEMBER 8, 1965). [More] Descriptors: Bilingualism, Cultural Background, Cultural Influences, English (Second Language)

Carnicom, Gene E. (). Flying High With Civil Air Patrol: The Sierra Blanca Civil Air Patrol Squadron. The Sierra Blanca Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Cadet Squadron from Mescalero, New Mexico, is a program funded by the tribe and the state of New Mexico for Mescalero Apache youth. The national CAP Cadet Program promotes moral leadership, aerospace education, leadership, and physical fitness; Mescalero cadets have learned self-confidence and leadership skills from participation in the program. Although many Mescalero cadets were initially shy and embarrassed when they excelled in activities, had to do public speaking, or were placed in leadership positions, some have overcome their shyness and assumed positions of responsibility in the Squadron. Other problems have been: occasional cultural conflicts between some Mescalero cadets and some white cadets from Ruidoso, where Squadron meetings take place; problematic attendance at meetings and special training events; lack of parental involvement; and peer pressure. The CAP offers alternatives to drug or alcohol abuse and encourages school attendance. Since the Sierra Blanca Squadron has no aircraft, it emphasizes emergency medical services, radio communications, and ground search and rescue activities, which are useful because the mountainous terrain and high altitude results in a high accident rate among civilian pilots. The history of the national CAP, its requirements, and its mission are also described. Descriptors: American Indian Education, Cultural Differences, Cultural Influences, Financial Support

Oliver, Joseph D. (). Social Determinants in Communication Events in a Small Bilingual Community in New Mexico. The purpose of this report is to present an outline of actual occurrences in communication and their social determinants in the small Spanish-English bilingual community of Los Ojos, New Mexico, with some emphasis on difference in occurrences as related to age. These generalizations are linked to past and current educational practices and social conditions, and the effect of these factors on communication behavior is noted. Individual sections of the report (1) describe the culture and area of Los Ojos; (2) discuss the varieties of English and Spanish used in the area and identify three registers involved in the usage of each; (3) discuss the factors affecting language use and demonstrate how these can be utilized to predict language choice; (4) consider how proxemic and kinesic behavior are affected by biculturalism; and (5) discuss the effect of age on communication behavior. A bibliography completes the report. [More] Descriptors: Age Differences, Attitudes, Biculturalism, Bilingualism

Baca, Joseph Donald (). A Comparative Study of Differences in Perception of Mexican American Students Between Anglo and Mexican American Secondary School Teachers in Dona Ana County (New Mexico). The purpose of this study was to determine whether attitudes toward Mexican American students were associated with the ethnicity, age, and teaching experience of secondary school teachers in Dona Ana County, New Mexico. A 50 item cultural awareness questionnaire was used with a sample of 112 participants. The 6 significant factors studied were achievement, time orientation, acculturation, religiosity, family identification, and economic influences. The results of the study indicate a possible need to sensitize teachers of "culturally different" children. The study was concluded by a discussion of implications for the state legislature, the State Department of Education, local school boards, teachers, administrators, and teacher-training institutions. Also included were recommendations for the various educational agencies. [More] Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Cultural Awareness, Cultural Influences, Economic Status

Grebler, Leo; And Others (). The Mexican-American People: The Nation's Second Largest Minority. Based on over 4 years of research completed in 1968, this work "is the most comprehensive study to date" of the position of Mexican Americans in selected urban areas of 5 southwestern states (Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas). Ranging over historical, cultural, religious, and political perspectives, the class structure, the family, and the Mexican American in a changing social world, the analysis contains 7 parts: "The Setting,""Historical Perspective,""Socioeconomic Conditions: A Detailed Portrait,""The Individual in the Social System,""The Role of Churches,""Political Interaction," and "Summary and Conclusions." Included are appendices to various chapters; a 1593-item bibliography; 147 tables, charts, maps, and figures; and a subject index. Descriptors: Cultural Influences, Ethnic Studies, Family Relationship, Individual Characteristics

Acrey, Bill P. (). Navajo History to 1846: The Land and the People. This textbook for high school, college, or adult readers covers major areas of Navajo history from prehistoric times to 1846 from the Navajo point of view. A brief description of pre-Navajo cultures including the Hohokam, Mogollon, and Anasazi precedes the more detailed history of the arrival of the Navajo and contact with the Pueblo peoples. History of contact with the Spanish, the missionary period, and Mexican rule is detailed and descriptions of economic, social, and cultural, aspects of the Navajo are included. The text concludes with the takeover of the Province of New Mexico by American troops in 1846. Footnotes and 31 black and white drawings, photographs, and maps amplify the text. An 86-item bibliography of books and articles and a subject index are appended. Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indian History, American Indian Studies, Cultural Awareness

Knox, F. Robert (). Report on Battered Women and Children Conference (Shiprock, New Mexico, May 5 and 6, 1977). Representatives of 47 federal, state, local, and tribal agencies and about 280 participants attended the May 4-5, 1977, series of presentations and workshops co-sponsored by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the New Mexico Commission on the Status of Women. Designed to acquaint residents of the San Juan Basin with social service workers, the conference attempted to clarify needs, problems, and concerns of domestic violence victims, attempted to formulate recommendations aimed at developing responsive services, and coordinate existing resources for such victims. Speakers addressed child neglect and abuse, and woman abuse, which follow similar patterns of self-perpetuation. It was felt that few agencies at any level are equipped to handle woman abuse, and that key problem areas in which change is necessary are research, social policy, emergency services, and the criminal justice system. Workshop participants formulated detailed recommendations for prevention services, emergency and social services, the criminal justice system, and tribal needs. Participants agreed that in the San Juan Basin, there is considerable interest in and support for an organized, systematic, and effective response to problems of domestic violence; residents are looking to their leaders and officials for aid and support in this area because, untreated, domestic violence can only spread. [More] Descriptors: Agency Role, American Indians, Battered Women, Child Abuse

Murrell, William G. (). A Study of Multi-Cultural Alternatives to Drug Abuse in New Mexico. Five minority alternative drug abuse prevention programs (three Indian and two Hispanic) in New Mexico were evaluated to determine which elements were successful or unsuccessful in addressing the needs of Indian and Hispanic youth regarding the relationship of substance use and abuse, cultural differences, and self-concept. The programs were evaluated on the basis of program description, staff-client action/interaction, community support, and criteria of success. Data indicated: (1) ability to communicate meaningfully with ethnic participants in alternative prevention activities may depend upon the prevention staff's ability to understand the mental and physical circumstances specific to their ethnic target population, which contribute to dependencies on chemical substances; (2) funding should be solicited from federal, state, and local levels, with emphasis on local funding to insure program longevity free of federal/state funding reductions; (3) a needs assessment of the community in which the program will operate is essential; (4) goals and objectives should reflect community and specific target populations; (5) documentation of program activities is vitally important for program accountability; (6) community awareness and support are fundamental to a meaningful drug prevention program; and (7) program success will depend on the program's ability to meet community needs. Descriptors: American Indians, Community Support, Counseling, Counselor Client Relationship

Peshkin, Alan (). Places of Memory: Whiteman's Schools and Native American Communities. Sociocultural, Political, and Historical Studies in Education. "Indian High School" is a nonpublic off-reservation boarding school in New Mexico serving over 400 American Indian students. The large majority of the students come from the 19 Pueblo tribes, whose governors appoint school board members with authority to hire all personnel. The Bureau of Indian Affairs provides funding but acknowledges Pueblo rights to local control. Based on 3 years of qualitative research at Indian High School, this book focuses on the lives of Pueblo adolescents in school and seeks to explain why they achieve only limited academic success, despite the school's relatively abundant resources, its congenial atmosphere for Indian students, the good intentions of school personnel, and the aspirations of parents and students. A central theme in this exploration is the dual-world character of students' lives. At home, Pueblo students learn to place their tribal communities at the center of their loyalty, affect, responsibility, and support. But they attend a school whose origins and rationale are in non-Indian society. It is a school designed for becoming effective in mainstream America, an effectiveness that Pueblo students and their parents accept as requisite for their economic well-being. However, this process of becoming economically effective is problematic and ambiguous for Pueblo students as it often clashes with traditional cultural ideals that are at the heart of Pueblo communities' struggle for cultural survival. Contains 193 references and subject and author indexes. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, Cultural Differences

Evans, Pierre (1971). New Mexico Law Center: University Trains Indian Attorneys, Opportunity. Descriptors: American Indians, Cultural Influences, Educational Needs, Federal Aid

CAMPA, ARTHUR L. (). MANANA IS TODAY. THE PHILOSOPHY THAT GUIDES SOCIETY IS DETERMINED TO SOME EXTENT BY THE INTERPRETATION GIVEN TO THE PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE. NEW MEXICO IS INHABITED BY TWO GROUPS OF PEOPLE WITH A DIFFERENT UNDERSTANDING OF LIFE WHO ARE BOTH STRIVING TO LIVE PEACEFULLY WITH EACH OTHER. THEIR DIFFERENCES COMPLEMENT EACH OTHER. BOTH THE ANGLOS AND THE MEXICANOS MAY BE CLASSED AS ROMANTICS, BUT IN DIFFERENT TIME RELATIONSHIPS. THE ANGLOS' ROMANTICISM IS BASED UPON THE FUTURE, THE PRESENT BEING A PREPARATION FOR THAT FUTURE. THE PAST IS GONE. MEN OF VISION ARE PRODUCED BY THIS PHILOSOPHY. HOPE IS PRESENT DURING TEMPORARY DISSATISFACTION. ALL ACTIVITIES ARE WELL PLANNED IN ADVANCE AS A CARRYOVER FROM ORGANIZED INDUSTRY AND TIME SCHEDULES. URBANIZED ANGLOS FIND LITTLE IN COMMON WITH IMPOVERISHED MEXICANOS. THE MEXICANO, OR MESTIZO, A RACIAL AMALGAMATION OF RESIGNED, STOLID INDIANS AND LIGHTHEARTED SPANIARDS, HAS BASED HIS ROMANTICISM ON THE REALITY OF THE PRESENT AND ITS RELATION TO THE PAST. THE FUTURE IS ATTACKED WITH A FATALISM, AN INDEFINITE TERM, "MANANA," WHICH EXPRESSES A REMOTENESS MISSING FROM "TOMORROW." HE LIVES AN IMPROVISED, SPONTANEOUS EXISTENCE. HE NEVER PUTS OFF FOR TOMORROW WHAT CAN BE ENJOYED ONLY TODAY. HE IS NOT LAZY, BUT HE WORKS ONLY ENOUGH TO SUPPORT HIS MEAGER NEEDS. Descriptors: Anglo Americans, Cultural Background, Cultural Differences, Cultural Influences

Civikly, Jean M.; Plax, Timothy G. (). The Effects of Information Exposure Activities on Attitudinal Changes Among Co-Culturals: Some Preliminary Findings. To examine the effect of various activities and interactions on the attitudes of members of co-cultures toward each other was the purpose of this study. The research was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, semantic differential scales were developed for the measurement of attitudes toward co-cultures. Each of five sets of scales was used to measure perceptions of a different cultural group: black, Chicano, native American, Anglo, and Filipino. The data were collected from 89 students enrolled in basic speech communication courses at the University of New Mexico. The students were randomly selected and instructed to indicate their feelings about each cultural group as accurately as they could for each scale. The findings indicated that similar factor structures were found when measuring the perceptions of co-cultures together or separately. In the second stage, attitudinal changes across activities and cultures were measured. A group of six Anglo and six Chicano subjects engaged in a series of four co-cultural activities, and subjects also responded individually to attitude scales. The findings indicated that there is no difference in the effects of certain co-cultural information activities on attitude changes toward other cultures. [More] Descriptors: Attitudes, Communication (Thought Transfer), Cultural Differences, Cultural Influences

Scoon, Annabelle R.; Blanchard, Joseph D. (). The Relation of a Test of English as a Second Language to Measures of Intelligence, Achievement, and Adjustment in a Sample of American Indian Students. This report discusses the types and results of tests used on 142 "reasonably representative" American Indian bilingual students at the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Major hypotheses of the study were that (1) there is a factor in the abilities of an English-as-a-second-language speaker which can be isolated as English language ability; (2) a low TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) score will occur with poor adjustment scores; and (3) there will be a significant difference in the mean scores of the two intelligence tests used (the Otis Gamma Verbal and the Chicago Nonverbal). Results seem to warrant two conclusions: (1) the TOEFL is a valid measure of English language skill of American Indian students; results are close enough to those of the non-native speakers of English for whom the test was written to suggest strongly that similar abilities are being measured; and (2) since the TOEFL and ITED (Iowa Test of Education Development) do not factor out into different factors, ITED also measures language ability. ITED may be too hard for the students, however. It is recommended that American Indian students be given the same consideration as foreign students, with intensive or semi-intensive instruction in English as need, and adjustment of course load if indicated. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indians, Bilingual Students, Cultural Influences

Bellenger, Joseph; And Others (). A Feasibility Study Planning Manual. Based on the procedures, materials, and resources used in "A Study of the Feasibility of Vocational Modules", this manual is one of the products of the study. Since guidelines for feasibility studies in the areas of public services that relate to human behavior are not clearly defined, it is hoped that this manual will guide, support, and lessen the efforts of other practitioners contemplating such studies. Procedures used by the Navajo Division of Education and American Institutes for Research in designing a vocational education curriculum for a community school serving Indians in Navajo, New Mexico, are generalized for more universal use. The major tasks selected as fundamental to a feasibility study are: (1) determination of goals and conditions; (2) identification of people and agencies; (3) analysis of resources available; (4) review of previous studies; (5) use of advisory committee(s); (6) collection of data; (7) analysis of data; (8) interpretation of data; (9) formulation of conclusions and recommendations; (10) statement of feasibility; and (11) time/task/responsibility chart. These tasks are fully described. Attention is given to the problems encountered; suggestions for solving the problems are provided. Descriptors: Advisory Committees, American Indian Education, Behavior, Critical Path Method

Van Roekel, Gertrude B. (). Jicarilla Apaches. Geronimo's surrender in 1886 ended some 200 years' warfare against encroaching white man in that broad area abutting the Rocky Mountains. Thus, the free-roaming period of Apache life, marked by repeated instances of bad faith and broken treaties, was ended and the Jicarilla Apaches were delivered to their reservation in northern New Mexico. The first 25 years on the reservation, from 1887 to 1912, was a period of adjustment, when tribal religious beliefs continued to dominate Apache culture. From 1912 to 1937, life changed from a bare subsistence level to the beginnings of better conditions. The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, adopted by the Apaches in 1937, opened the door to Indian self-government. The former Wirt Trading Post became the Jicarilla Cooperative Enterprise and the Apaches, whose life-style had been based on sharing and living for the present, began to accept such Western concepts as acquiring and building for the future. Then, during Eisenhower's administration, the Indian regained his personal dignity when he was encouraged to enter the mainstream of American life by going off the reservation or by remaining at home to join the labor market provided for him. With the organization of an intertribal pressure group, The National Council of American Indians, the Indian voice is now being heard. Before the fourth 25-year period of this Apache history ends in 1987, it is expected that dependence on the paternalism of the Federal Government will be a thing of the past. Descriptors: American Indian Reservations, American Indians, Attitudes, Cultural Background

Dean, Ernest H. (). A Study of Vocational Education as a Factor in Selecting a Community for a Manufacturing Plant Site. The purpose of the study was to determine the factors considered by industrialists as they select communities in which to locate their new manufacturing plants, and to place the relative importance upon vocational-technical education as a factor in the plant site selection process. The three populations consisted of 113 companies of varying sizes who manufactured different products, a group of 93 companies who returned answers to questions, and of a group of 191 companies which answered a second questionnaire. All three populations were from Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming. Of the 27 site selection factors submitted by the manufacturing industry, vocational-technical education ranked in the middle in degree of importance. The clothing, metal fabrication and plating, and electronic-electrical-refrigeration manufacturers rated vocational-technical education as more significant than did other types of manufacturers. Of the ones who investigated this type of education, 70 percent looked for brochures and catalogs as a means of evaluating vocational-technical education. Descriptors: Community Education, Cultural Influences, Decision Making, Doctoral Dissertations

Leonetti, Robert (). A Primary Self-Concept Scale for Spanish-Surnamed Children, Grades K-4. The purpose of this study was to develop a group test of self-concept which is especially applicable to the Spanish-surnamed primary school student. The pilot version of this instrument, the Primary Self-Concept Scale (PSCS), was designed to measure 5 aspects of self-concept which were felt to be relevant to school success: behavior, intellectual, physical appearance, peer relationships, and emotional state. After factor analysis, however, the factors identified were (1) aggressiveness/cooperation, (2) intellectual self, (3) peer ostracism/acceptance, (4) helpfulness, (5) physiological self, and (6) adult acceptance/rejection. The 2 additional factors measured in this study were emotional self and success/nonsuccess. Both the preliminary and the revised PSCS were administered to 650 primary school pupils in New Mexico. Emanating from the PSCS was the third revision, the Primary Self-Concept Inventory (PSCS). Studies concerning the further development and refinement of the PSCI should include subjects from a variety of age levels, ethnic groups, and socioeconomic levels. Further research should also entail the development of remediational procedures closely related to performance on the PSCI. [More] Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Children, Cultural Influences, Doctoral Dissertations

Hernandez, Leodoro (). Language of the Chicano. Bilingual Education Paper Series, Vol. 3, No. 1. Chicano Spanish in not only a product of two languages, but also the influence of middle-class environment and immediate realities. These realities are much different from those in Mexico, even though they derive from it, having a strong relationship to all factors that constitute social level and status. Three principal dialects are: Tex-Mex, spoken in Texas; Manito, spoken in New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado; and Calo, spoken in California. Chicano Spanish is not something to be ignored; it's the mother tongue of several million Chicanos and their only link to their culture. When teachers know what makes Chicanos tick, where they're coming from, they can be much more effective in improving the educational level of Chicanos. The Bilingual Education Act of 1968 brought about a rash of crash programs to educate children in two languages. Because the Chicano spoke broken English and/or had a Spanish surname, it was assumed the language they were comfortable with was Spanish; no real assessment was made. Bilingual teachers must know who the student is, their knowledge level of Spanish, and the type of Spanish used. Every child speaks the language of the family and community; therefore, family and community must be involved in bilingual education. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Community Involvement, Cultural Awareness

Santana, Ray; And Others (). Parameters of Institutional Change: Chicano Experience in Education. During the 1960's, the Chicano movement directed considerable attention, energy, and resources toward educational change. The predominant mood was optimism and anticipation of major institutional change; the predominant tactic used was militant confrontation. Countless confrontations occurred and numerous plans and strategies for educational change were formulated during this period. These led to varying degrees of change. Composed of 2 parts, this publication examines and assesses the Chicanos' efforts to create institutional change. Case histories of Chicano experiences in attempting to create educational change are discussed in Part I. Among these are: (1) the Los Angeles Blowouts in East Los Angeles in March-April 1968; (2) the conference in Santa Barbara in April 1969 which resulted in "El Plan de Santa Barbara"; (3) Chicano Commencement which was a mass walkout of the June commencement at San Jose State College in 1968; and (4) the Bilingual/Bicultural program in Silver City, New Mexico. Part II consists of conceptual essays bearing directly on experiences described in the case histories that reflect on the cultural relevance and the idealogical, legal, and political characters of educational institutions. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Case Studies, Change Agents, Change Strategies

Hadfield, Oakley D.; And Others (). Mathematics Anxiety in the Navajo Reservation School. Of the many factors that have been proposed as a rationale for poor mathematics conceptualization by American Indians, cultural factors remain the most popular when explanations are submitted. Additionally, the accepted fault for poor achievement is focused upon mathematics anxiety. A study of American Indian school mathematics achievement and mathematics anxiety was conducted at a middle school on the Navajo Indian Reservation in northern New Mexico/Arizona with a total sample of 353 students. The relationships of both achievement and anxiety to certain cognitive style predictor variables was also investigated through the use of the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills Mathematics Subtest (CTBS, 1982), the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale for Adolescents (MARS-A), and the Learning Style Profile as designed by the National Association of Secondary School Principals Learning Style Task Force (NASSP-LSP). Results indicated that mathematics achievement was near the national norm in computational skills, but significantly lower in application skills. Also, mathematics anxiety was found to be excessively high for the entire sample population. Discussion focused upon the possibility that language deficiencies were the underlying cause for the discrepancies between computational and application skills. (29 references) [More] Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indian Reservations, American Indians, Brain Hemisphere Functions

Navajo Community Coll., Tsaile, AZ. (). Proceedings of the Indian Nursing Education Conference (1st, Chinle, Arizona, June 21-22, 1974). Barriers to recruitment and retention of minority students (particularly Indian students) in collegiate nursing programs in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah include such factors as schools located away from home environments, inadequate student preparation for course requirements, feelings of isolation experienced by Indians in university settings, lack of sensitivity within the college or university system, lack of financing, and a lack of role models to reinforce aspirations in nursing. Because of shortages of health personnel on reservations, persons in the health delivery system are often called on to provide services above their training and skill levels; continuing education is critical and should be a well-planned program linked to career mobility. Conference participants developed a number of recommendations regarding recruitment and retention of Indian students, career mobility, and continuing education. Among these were: Indian nursing role models must be visible; the Indian philosophy of health must be recognized; nursing faculties and university staff must be sensitized to cultural differences; precollegiate and remedial programs must be planned to deal with poor science preparation; state and private nursing schools should provide a well-planned program of post-graduate education with special attention to the needs of reservations and other under-served areas; and the Navajo Health Authority should become more active in all relevant phases of nursing education. The participants further expressed a desire for future conferences and workshops of this nature. Descriptors: American Indian Reservations, American Indians, College Students, Conference Reports

Wax, Murray L.; Luhman, Reid A. (). Bilingual Classrooms in a Mexican-American Community. The Social Bases of Thinking and Speaking: A Study of Bilingual Chicano Children. Final Report, September 1974. The study examined the relation of language use and logical thought to social experience with both age and class held constant. The primary assumptions under study were: that the logic of symbolic grouping was highly sensitive to a child's experience with the objects to which that logic was applied; that the existence of diglossia in a bilingual community and/or relative shifts in language dominance might create a situation of language specialization by domain, particularly along the dimension of immediacy and distance; that the content of grouping (those final organizations produced by the logic) was a far more stable aspect of cognition than the logic used to construct it. The study was conducted in a fourth grade classroom in a bilingual school in Las Vegas, New Mexico. All of the children had Spanish surnames. Twenty-eight children took part in an extensive set of interviews in two languages. These interviews were designed to examine inter-relations of language use and the logic and content of symbolic grouping to social experience. Findings included: the logic of grouping was related to children's experience with the objects of grouping; town children had a much narrower and more specialized portion of their experience occurring in Spanish than did the rural children; the logic of grouping employed by these children was not related to school achievement with the one exception of the clustering of the tight-loose factor in Spanish with achievement test scores. Descriptors: Abstract Reasoning, Academic Achievement, Bilingual Students, Cognitive Processes

FORBES, JACK D. (). MEXICAN-AMERICANS, A HANDBOOK FOR EDUCATORS. APPROXIMATELY FIVE MILLION PERSONS OF MEXICAN ANCESTRY RESIDE IN THE STATES OF CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, NEW MEXICO, TEXAS, AND COLORADO. A LARGE NUMBER HAVE ALSO MADE HOMES IN THE GREATER CHICAGO AREA AND IN OTHER INDUSTRIAL CENTERS. MEXICAN AMERICANS HAVE PLAYED A VITAL ROLE IN THE INDUSTRIAL, AGRICULTURAL, ARTISTIC, INTELLECTUAL, AND POLITICAL LIFE OF THE SOUTHWEST. FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS MEXICO HAS BEEN A CENTER FOR THE DISSEMINATION OF CULTURAL FACTORS AND THE MEXICAN AMERICAN PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES HAVE SERVED AS A CULTURAL BRIDGE FOR THE DIFFUSION NORTHWARD. THE MEXICAN AMERICAN COMMUNITY IS DESCRIBED AS BEING PROUD OF ITS MEXICAN BACKGROUND AND IS EXPERIENCING DIFFICULTY IN ACCULTURATION. MEXICAN AMERICAN YOUTH OFTEN MAKE VALUABLE CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SCHOOLS BY BRINGING A VARIED BACKGROUND OF EXPERIENCES AND SKILLS, BILINGUALISM, CULTURAL FACTORS, HOMEMAKING SKILLS, AND PRACTICAL WORK EXPERIENCE. SIXTEEN SUGGESTIONS ARE PRESENTED TO TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS THAT WOULD HELP PROVIDE TRANSFER OF TRAINING FOR ALL STUDENTS INTO A MIXED ANGLO MEXICAN CULTURE. THE PUBLICATION CONCLUDES WITH A LISTING OF SUPPLEMENTARY AUDIOVISUAL AIDS AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS WHICH ARE AVAILABLE FOR CLASSROOM USE AT BOTH THE ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL. [More] Descriptors: Acculturation, Administrators, Agriculture, Anglo Americans

Tefft, Virginia J. (). A Physical Education Guide with English Language Practice Drills for Teachers of Navajo Kindergarten and Primary School Children. Cultural and language barriers, particularly among Indian and Spanish American students, face 40% of New Mexico's school age children. This often forces them to become disadvantaged as they progress through the public schools. The present 1968-69 study has devised guides for teaching physical education while giving second language practice in kindergarten and in primary grades. Teaching approaches motivate the learner toward a process of self-discovery in each activity. Procedures are described for subject selection, devising the guides, field testing the guides, and data collection and evaluation. Eleven teachers in 2 public schools with 275 students, mainly Navajo, field tested the guides for 18 weeks. It was found that, through teaching second language and physical education together, subjects learned to use selected English sentence patterns comfortably and appropriately, and associated language learning with enjoyable activities. It was recommended that the guides be revised, tested, and utilized in an extended 36-week program. The document contains a bibliography, along with a chapter devoted to review of related literature. The guides for teaching physical education simultaneously with English language practice drills are appended. An evaluation of the field study is also presented. Descriptors: American Indians, Cultural Influences, Disadvantaged Youth, Discovery Learning

Moore, Justin R.; Ratchner, Craig (1976). Spanish? Mexican? Chicano? The Influence of Spanish Culture on New Mexico, Integrated Education. This study was designed in an attempt to solve what appeared to be a serious problem--the spanish speaking students confusion about their cultural identity. Descriptors: Community Surveys, Cultural Background, Cultural Influences, Ethnic Groups

National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC. (). Proceedings of the Symposium on Chicanos and Welfare (Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 19-20, 1976). The five papers presented at the symposium were discussed and reacted to by the participants. In "Values, Ideology and Social Services" a socio-philosophical approach is used to compare Chicano values to the origins and development of the values behind the Social Welfare System. "An Oral History of a Mexican Immigrant" presents the story of a 75-year-old Mexican woman who, at an early age, was faced with the adjustments and difficulties entailed in immigrating to the United States. A socio-cultural approach is used to document the values, attitudes and motives of a Mexican immigrant and her family. In "The Effects of the Welfare System on the Chicano Elderly", the economic and social conditions of the older Chicano generation are described in detail. A review is made of the government programs available to them and the effects the welfare practices and value system have on the Chicano elderly. The theoretical justification for these programs is also discussed. "The Welfare System's Impact on the Chicana: A Beneficiary's Perspective" describes the situation which motivated the formation of organizations that would advocate for the presentation of the rights of the Chicana when dealing with social service programs, discusses the failure of some Federal programs to meet their objectives, and gives case studies which illustrate problems encountered by Chicanas when participating in the various welfare programs. The final paper provides a statistical analysis of Chicanos and other Hispanic groups on the various public assistance programs. The symposium's plenary group discussion is summarized. Descriptors: Attitudes, Case Studies, Conferences, Cultural Influences

Beam, Gail Chasey; And Others (). Introduction: Getting Started. Teams in Early Intervention. Project TIE (Teams in Early Intervention) was conceptualized to meet the need for: (1) involvement of formerly "ancillary" service professionals in early intervention for children with disabilities, (2) high quality family-centered services, and (3) training in the team approach. The project provides training to four groups that might constitute an early intervention team--speech/language pathologists, motor therapists, health care professionals, and family members. The training is designed to enable participants to determine what supports and interferes with children's performance, develop shared perspectives in viewing children's performance, apply a common conceptual framework for early intervention, explore how each profession addresses early intervention team practices, know what other team members expect from them, and improve information sharing among team members. This introductory training module contains a paper by Carol Westby titled "Developing Cultural Competence: Working with Culturally/Linguistically Diverse Families." The paper examines controversial issues in cultural diversity, cultural variations in values and beliefs, cultural differences affecting child development, and cultural influences on interviewing. Another paper, "The Performance Competence Model: A Narrative Discussion" by Meave Stevens Dominguez, promotes a holistic view of the child within the context of the child's personal characteristics, preferences, environments, family, and culture. Appendices contain a sample training agenda and cards for use in a performance competence game. (Contains approximately 120 references.) [More] Descriptors: Ancillary School Services, Cultural Differences, Cultural Influences, Disabilities

Tebeaux, Elizabeth (1999). Designing Written Business Communication Along the Shifting Cultural Continuum: The New Face of Mexico, Journal of Business and Technical Communication. Focuses on the rhetorical strategies for written business communication in Mexico. Explains the methods used to collect documents for examination, discusses several of these documents as they reflect Mexico's history and cultural value dimensions, and summarizes principles for designing written business communication for Mexico. Descriptors: Business Communication, Cultural Influences, Foreign Countries, Higher Education

Johnson, Marilyn J., Ed.; Ramirez, Bruce A., Ed. (). American Indian Exceptional Children and Youth. Report of a Symposium (Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 6-8, 1985). An ERIC Exceptional Child Education Report. Revised. The intent of this symposium report is to share information with educators and other professionals who work with American Indian exceptional children. In this monograph, most symposium presentations, and in some cases the ensuring discussion, are summarized. Introductory remarks are provided by Gil Pena of the All-Indian Pueblo Council, and this is followed by an opening address by Beverly Valley. Titles and authors of the other presentations are: "Parent Involvement Considerations" (Roger Kroth); "American Indian Parents of Handicapped Children" (Marilyn Johnson); "The Influence of Locus of Control and Culture on Learning Styles of Language Minority Students" (Alba Ortiz); "Language and Curriculum Development for American Indian Handicapped Children" (Jacqueline Walker);"Bilingual Special Education Teacher Training for American Indians" (Leonard Baca); "American Indian Personnel Preparation in Special Education" (Anna Gajar); and "Federal Policy and the Education of American Indian Exceptional Children and Youth: Current Status and Future Directions" (Bruce Ramirez). References accompany each paper. An appendix offers statistical data on: (1) the number of American Indian children with disabilities by handicapping condition, state, and educational environment; and (2) the number of special education teachers and related personnel. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indians, Bilingual Education, Cultural Influences

Koehne, Fred W.; Wilson, Stephany S. (). Albuquerque Police Department, Race and Cultural Relations Training: Evaluation Report. Seminars conducted for 90 officers were evaluated by personal observation of the seminars in progress and by a comparison of seminar participants and nonparticipants. The evaluation revealed that the initial strong impact of the seminars tended to dissipate rather quickly over time. Other major findings were that seminar participants tended to perceive greater negativism, hostility, and dissatisfaction toward police among minority groups and other segments of the community and appeared more attuned to socioeconomic factors affecting the city's crime problems. Descriptors: Attitudes, Crime, Cultural Awareness, Cultural Influences

Western New Mexico Univ., Silver City. (). A Study of Visual Perceptions in Early Childhood. Over a period of three years a group of 510 rural children participated in a study of visual perceptions, including eye motor coordination, discernment of figures in a ground pattern, form constancy, position in space, and spatial relations, as measured by the Frostig Visual Perceptions Test. Visual perceptions of children of other cultures were compared to those of children of the dominant Anglo-Saxon culture. The relationship of visual perceptions to cultural deprivation was also studied. The development of children's visual perceptions over a period of 18 to 25 months and the effectiveness of various types of programs in improving a child's visual perceptions were investigated. Results of testing showed that all rural children scored low in form constancy. Culturally deprived children scored lower in all perceptions, but visual perception handicaps were sometimes as great as eight times that o f control group children. The valus of the Frostig developmental training program was demonstrated. Pupil progress was retained for at least one academi c year. The study concludes that visual perception handicaps result from cultural deprivation rather than from participation in a nondominant culture. Implications are that rural children would benefit from form constancy training during their first year at school. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Conservation (Concept), Cultural Influences, Disadvantaged

Anderson, James G.; Johnson, William H. (). Social and Cultural Characteristics of Mexican-American Families in South El Paso, Texas. Interim Report of the Mathematics Education Program. A study with emphasis upon cultural and social factors focused on urban Spanish-speaking children and their families in south El Paso, Texas. Specific objectives sought to identify: cultural and social characteristics of the student sample with respect to language patterns, basic attitudes towards school and mathematics, self-concept of ability, attitudes towards peers, and achievement motivation; and general characteristics of the student's family with respect to its socioeconomic status, language patterns, attitudes towards school and mathematics, and the amount of support given to the child to assist him in his school work. Although the students came from large, impoverished families where parents' educational levels were relatively low, higher educational aspiration for the children was evident; lack of support of the children in school was apparent, yet parents felt that everything the children studies would be valuable to them outside school. It was concluded that motivational factors were far more important in predicting success in mathematics than was the educational level of parents, or the language that they spoke. [More] Descriptors: Area Studies, Cultural Influences, Educational Research, Ethnomathematics

Zintz, Miles V. (). What Classroom Teachers Should Know About Bilingual Education. Chapter I of this classroom teacher's guide to bilingual education discusses cross-cultural education and English language learning, with illustrations from Navaho, Alaskan Indian, Zuni, and Mexican-American cultures. It is stressed that teachers must be alert to the differences in languages, values, customs, and the cultural heritage of their students. They must understand their students' feelings, attitudes, and emotional responses. One way of life or one language for communication is not better, or "more right." than another. Chapter II discusses several basic linguistic principles and components of language. Some contrastive points of Spanish and English grammar and pronunciation are also presented, in non-linguistic terminology. In Chapter III, some techniques for teaching oral substitution, expansion, and transformation practices are illustrated. Chapter IV presents some techniques for developing vocabulary and briefly describes several TESOL texts. Chapter V defines and discusses some principles underlying bilingual education and cites programs observed in South Africa, Wales, Canada, and Miami, Florida. Materials for Spanish-English bilingual programs, and selected bilingual readings for classroom teachers are listed. Annotated bibliographies of studies on cultures, language, vocabulary, and TESOL texts are appended. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Bibliographies, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education

Spolsky, Bernard; And Others (). A Model for the Description, Analysis, and Perhaps Evaluation of Bilingual Education. Navajo Reading Study Progress Report No. 23. The model attempts to map all relevant factors onto a single integrated structure and to suggest some of the interaction lines. Based on a hexagonal figure, each side represents a set of factors which may have a bearing on, or be affected by, the bilingual program's operation in a particular situation--psychological, sociological, economic, political, religio-cultural, and linguistic. A seventh set of factors are the educational ones. The model comprises three of the hexagons. Representing the total situation of a community before the program's introduction, the first hexagon includes any relevant socio-educational entity, ranging from a village or neighborhood through a school district, a geographically-focused ethnic group, province, region, or nation. The second one deals with those factors which are more or less controlled by the people administering the program, or which may be directly influenced by the program's operation--i.e., the sources of the program's basic needs, the constraints within which the administrators have to work, the program's contribution to the community, and potential reasons for the program's failure. The third hexagon sets out the program's effects which may be on the individual participant or on the community at large. This report discusses the model, exemplifies the various factors, and outlines the interrelations between factors within and between the hexagons. Descriptors: American Indians, Bilingual Education, Community Involvement, Cultural Influences

Pettibone, Timothy J.; Solis, Enrique, Jr. (). Dental Health Care Models of Southwest Cultures. Final Report, . The major goal of this research was the development and validation of cultural models of dental health practices. The specific objectives were to determine if 3 cultural groups (American Indians, Mexican Americans, and Anglo Americans) differ in the dental health hygiene indices, characteristics, psychological factors, or social factors; to develop explanatory models of dental health practices; and to cross validate the models. Two kinds of information were obtained--personal interviews and dental examinations. Data were collected during Spring 1972 for the first year phase and during Fall 1972 and Spring 1973 for the validation. The information was summarized and analyzed by descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and path analysis. Six separate models were discussed and analyzed. It was found that similarities exist in the models developed across dimensions of ethnicity and residential groupings, and that financial factors and "symptomatic orientation toward dental care" were the greatest determinants of dental care behavior. Copies of the interview questionnaire and the dental examination form were included. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Anglo Americans, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Influences

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