Monthly Archives: September 2016

Bibliography: Chicanos and Education in New Mexico

Bibliography: Chicanos+"new+mexico"_1 6_20161009
Date: 2016-10-09T19:59-06:00 | URL: eric.ed.gov… | Range: 1-6; Total Pages = 6 | Total Citations = 80

Trujillo, Michael L. (2008). Onate's Foot: Remembering and Dismembering in Northern New Mexico, Aztlan: A Journal of Chicano Studies. This essay analyzes the historical construction of "Spanish" icons in northern New Mexico and the complex Hispanic and Chicano identities they both evoke and mask. It focuses on the January 1998 vandalism of a statue depicting New Mexico's first Spanish colonial governor, Don Juan de Onate. The removal of the Onate statue's foot references a brutal colonial encounter in 1599, when Onate ordered the amputation of one foot each from Pueblo men in the rebellious Native American village of Acoma. In this case study, national and regional narratives as well as self-consciously oppositional narratives collude, conflict, and supplement one another. I conclude that the vandalized statue offers a dynamic and "open" icon that powerfully represents the contradictions of New Mexican Chicana/o identity, shedding light on the complex and contradictory identities of all Mexican-origin peoples in the United States. [More] Descriptors: Mexican Americans, American Indians, Mexicans, United States History

Bebout, Lee (2007). Hero Making in El Movimiento: Reies Lopez Tijerina and the Chicano Nationalist Imaginary, Aztlan: A Journal of Chicano Studies. This article explores sites of tension and influence between the New Mexico land grant movement and Chicano nationalism. While these efforts diverged often in terms of aims and strategies, they nonetheless found common ground, shaping arguments and providing support to each other during critical years. Moreover, central to their convergence was a moment of historical confluence. I argue that the infamous June 5, 1967, raid propelled Reies Lopez Tijerina and the Alianza Federal de Mercedes to national attention at a moment when Chicano nationalism was just emerging but had not solidified political, spiritual, or philosophical grounds for unification. By examining popular movement discourse, this article demonstrates how the raid transformed Tijerina into a living embodiment of the revolutionary/bandido trope, how that trope was used to draw these projects together, and ultimately how the image of Tijerina conflicted with the reformist strategies of Tijerina, the man. [More] Descriptors: Nationalism, Foreign Countries, Hispanic Americans, United States History

Ramirez, Catherine S. (2004). Deus Ex Machina: Tradition, Technology, and the Chicanafuturist Art of Marion C. Martinez, Aztlan: A Journal of Chicano Studies. The visual art of Marion C. Martinez is examined. Through technology, Martinez reproduces and transforms traditional Indo-Hispanic art forms, at the same time, underscores New Mexico's history as a dumping ground for technological waste. Descriptors: Visual Arts, Artists, Technology, Hispanic American Culture

Valdez, Elsa O. (2000). Political Activism, Ethnic Identity, and Regional Differences among Chicano and Latino College Students in Southern California and Northern New Mexico, Perspectives in Mexican American Studies. Surveys of 242 Hispanic students attending New Mexico Highlands University and California State University, San Bernardino, examined students' political attitudes, political activism, and attitude toward bilingual education in relation to students' choice of ethnic label (Hispanic, Chicano, or Mexican American), level of acculturation, income, and geographic location. Differing sociocultural influences in California and New Mexico are discussed. Descriptors: Acculturation, Activism, College Students, Differences

Padilla, Fernando V. (1974). Socialization of Chicano Judges and Attorneys, Aztlan. The article traces the socialization patterns among the Chicano bar and judiciary in Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico and Texas. New Mexico's Chicano bar is detailed and examined. Descriptors: Age, Cognitive Development, Court Judges, Educational Background

Grinberg, Jaime; Saavedra, Elizabeth R. (2000). The Constitution of Bilingual/ESL Education as a Disciplinary Practice: Genealogical Explorations, Review of Educational Research. Provides a cultural and political critique of the constitution of bilingual/English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) education as a disciplinary practice in New Mexico. Uses genealogical and postcolonial, poststructural, and critical frameworks to show that the directions advanced by the Chicano/Chicana movement have been lost, replaced by an education that is not emancipatory for marginalized students. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Cultural Awareness, Discipline, Educational Practices

Garcia, Flaviano Chris (1974). Manitos and Chicanos in Nuevo Mexico Politics, Aztlan. The article briefly reviews New Mexico's political history, surveys the present socio-political status of its Spanish speaking population, and examines the effects of the Chicano Movimiento on Manitos in New Mexico. Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Cultural Influences, History, Political Divisions (Geographic)

Padilla, Fernando V.; Ramirez, Carlos B. (1974). Patterns of Chicano Representation in California, Colorado, and Nuevo Mexico, Aztlan. The pattern of Chicano political representation in the territorial and state legislatures of California, Colorado, and New Mexico was examined. Descriptors: Legislators, Mexican Americans, Political Affiliation, Political Power

Murphy, R. Paul (1974). Interference, Integration, and the Verbal Repertoire, International Journal of the Sociology of Language. A study of integration of English lexicon into the Spanish spoken in New Mexico considers formal English, formal Spanish and the informal mixture spoken by local Chicanos. Descriptors: Bilingualism, Dialect Studies, Interference (Language), Language Research

Vigil, Antonio (2006). Aztlanscape, Aztlan: A Journal of Chicano Studies. "Aztlanscape" is a painting that explores the notions of history, migration, and cultural exchange. It depicts various places with significant relationships to one another, reconfigured into a new landscape. The specific locales used in this painting are Albuquerque, New Mexico; Oakland, California; and Mexico DF, Mexico. These cities have a personal significance because the author has lived in all three. Much of the author's work takes place between two societies and cultures, Mexican and American. Between these spaces, notions are challenged, negotiated, and combined. Identities both personal and cultural begin to evolve. Through these images, the author explores ideas of history, memory, and migration on both personal and cultural levels. He uses landscapes with shared political, economic, and cultural histories to illustrate both the cohesion and disjuncture created by migration and cultural exchange. [More] Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Migration, Cultural Influences, Painting (Visual Arts)

Cordova, Teresa (2002). Problem-Solving Research: Strategic Engagement in Community Development and the Resource Center for Raza Planning, Aztlan: A Journal of Chicano Studies. The Resource Center for Raza Planning (RCRP) at the University of New Mexico helps Mexican American college students use research to meet the needs of their communities. The formation and early development of RCRP are described, followed by its work on policy and planning related to community economic development. Implications for universities working with communities are discussed. Descriptors: Action Research, Community Development, Community Planning, Higher Education

Gutierrez, Ramon A. (2007). Reflections on 1972, Aztlan: A Journal of Chicano Studies. In this article, the author reflects on the events that took place in the year 1972. The author was a junior at the University of New Mexico back then, refusing to eat or buy grapes and lettuce, picketing grocers who did not carry United Farm Workers of America produce. He and his buddies cast their votes against granting Richard Nixon a second term. Nightly he prayed for a just and more peaceful world amid flickering candles to St. Jude, to St. Anthony, to the crucified Christ. His missives of supplication seemed to float into thin air without a listener or response–until, of course, the death of J. Edgar Hoover was announced in May of that year. The war in Vietnam raged on and on. At home in the United States, the war was raging just as fiercely. The peace movement and the repressive government response to it were politicizing Americans–Mexican Americans among them. In particular, the heavy-handed tactics of the Federal Bureau of Investigation were pushing many young Mexican Americans toward a greater consciousness of their own status as an oppressed and racialized minority. Despite their patriotism to the United States and heroic participation in the Vietnam War, their demand for an equal place in the American society was systematically denied. Thirty years earlier, in 1942, Mexicans in the United States were still trying to prove their American identity, despite their citizenship. More than thirty years later, in 2007, Mexicans in the United States still struggle for their rights and dispute those who would declare them felons for having crossed the border when indeed the border has long ago crossed them. [More] Descriptors: Foreign Countries, War, Patriotism, Peace

Grieshop, James I.; Harris, Mary B. (1974). Effects of Mode of Modeling, Model Age, and Ethnicity on Rule-Governed Language Behaviors, Journal of Educational Psychology. The effect of three model variables on student performance of syntactic and semantic language behaviors in the absence of direct or vicarious reinforcement was examined. Subjects were sixth-grade students of both sexes attending New Mexico Schools. Half of the subjects and models were Chicanos and half were Anglos. Descriptors: Anglo Americans, Elementary Education, Ethnic Groups, Imitation

Race Relations Reporter (1974). Reporter Lead-In. Includes a report on the link between the Republicans and Chicano radicals, a hard look at Jesse Jackson, a surprise from the Supreme Court, a brief account of a television dispute in New Mexico, a report on renewed gang violence in Los Angeles schools, and a summary of important and revealing events in January and February. Descriptors: American Indians, Black Community, Broadcast Television, Community Leaders

Martinez, Paul E. (1979). Serna v. Portales: The Plight of Bilingual Education Four Years Later, Journal of Ethnic Studies. A class action suit brought against a New Mexico school district claiming discrimination against Mexican Americans is reviewed. Accounts of interviews and opinions presented by the district superintendent and other educators and researchers regarding the lack of progress toward improving opportunities for Chicanos through court ordered programs are presented. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Court Litigation, Elementary Secondary Education, Equal Education

Casso, Henry J., Ed.; Roman, Gilbert D., Ed. (). Chicanos in Higher Education: Proceedings of a National Institute on Access to Higher Education for the Mexican American (Albuquerque, New Mexico, July 1975), . In July 1975, a national institute was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to propose ways of improving Chicano access to higher education. The institute, dedicated to the memory of New Mexico educator Dr. Dolores Gonzales, brought together Chicano educators and representatives of public and private universities, state governments, and the Federal government. They examined the patterns of education and racism that encouraged Chicano students to drop out long before college and proposed educational and political reforms to make bilingual/bicultural education a reality. The proceedings of the institute propose higher education reforms such as open universities, flexible admission standards, Chicano colleges, and increased financial aid. Also discussed is the employment of Chicanos as faculty members and administrators in institutes of higher learning, and ways to improve Chicano participation in these areas. Other topics discussed are the current trends in student admissions and compliance, designing programs for Mexican Americans in higher education, the ineffective mechanisms of affirmative action plans in an academic setting, testing, curriculum, and Chicano alternatives in higher education. Descriptors: Access to Education, Administrators, Affirmative Action, Change Strategies

Rainwater, Jerry A. (). Comprehension Characteristics of Chicano and Non-Chicano Students at Eastern New Mexico University, . A study was undertaken to determine if differences existed between Chicano and non-Chicano students enrolled in the college reading improvement program and if Chicano students evidenced any comprehension characteristics unique to them as a group which would justify special instructional programing. Of the 184 subjects selected for the study, 69 were Chicano. The Davis Reading Test Form 1A was used; it is an instrument which measures five types of comprehension, three of which–factual recall, main idea, and inference–were selected for measurement in this study. Results of the study showed that there are significant differences in reading comprehension between the two groups. Data showed no differences between Chicanos and non-Chicanos who were poor or average readers, but showed definite differences between Chicanos and non-Chicanos who were good readers. It was concluded that this difference was caused by inferential comprehension. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Anglo Americans, College Students, Content Area Reading

Lopez, Ronald W.; And Others (). Chicanos in Higher Education: Status and Issues. Chicano Studies Center Publication, Monograph No. 7, . Compiled to provide a national picture of Chicanos in higher education, this report provides a profile of Chicanos in higher education, with emphasis on enrollment patterns. Based on census and Office of Civil Rights data, the data are mainly for 1970, although information for other years both before and after 1970 is also included. Information pertains to: the response of higher education to Chicanos; Chicano representation in higher education; issues facing Chicanos in higher education (access, retention and attrition, faculty, administration, funding, instruction and curriculum, Chicano Studies, research, and survival); the eligible population; undergraduate and graduate enrollment; enrollment by fields of study; and brief case studies of select institutions. The data indicates that Chicanos are under-represented at all levels of higher education. The proportional representation of Spanish-surnamed people declines the higher the level of education. Relatively higher percentages of Chicano enrollment are found in Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas which have the highest percentages of Chicanos in the general population. High percentages of Spanish-surnamed people are also found in the educational institutions of Florida and New York where the Cuban and Puerto Rican populations respectively are concentrated. These 7 states accounted for 83% and 80% of all Spanish-surnamed enrollment in higher education in 1970 and 1972 respectively. [More] Descriptors: College Freshmen, College Students, Declining Enrollment, Dental Schools

1974 (). Rio Grande Youth Care Center. Final Report, . A non-profit counseling and referral center, the Center was established in 1972 to alleviate delinquency problems in Los Lunas (New Mexico), with special reference to Chicanos. The Center used specific direct youth services to identify: barriers to services for Chicanos in Los Lunas and to provide referral services to overcome those barriers; methods to increase the capability of a neighborhood Chicano group to provide services; methods to increase the participation of Chicano youth in the decision-making process of social services at the state and local level; and methods of dealing with and alleviating the problem of cultural and racial differences. Personal interviews were conducted with 250 Chicano youth; 3,200 questionnaires were administered to youth, school teachers and administrators, youth serving agencies, and law enforcement personnel. Utilizing a statewide children and youth resource directory and staff personal knowledge, agencies with specific services to the Chicano community were identified. Chicano professional manpower and organizations provided training sessions to increase the staff's capacity in program development and management. Between 1972 and 1974, the Center served 316 youth, of which 80% were Chicanos. The program was successful in its efforts to: prevent delinquency, promote Chicano involvement and attitude change, and develop rapport between youth, parents, school and public agencies. Descriptors: Alcoholism, American Indians, Black Youth, Community Services

Galvan, Roberto A.; Teschner, Richard V. (). El Diccionario Del Espanol Chicano (The Dictionary of Chicano Spanish), . This is a supplementary dictionary of the Spanish spoken by Chicanos in the states of Texas, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Florida. The nearly 8,000 entries represent a compilation of Chicano words and phrases not typically found in standard dictionaries. Items are listed alphabetically in Spanish, followed by an English definition. This is intended, however, as a supplement to full-length dictionaries of standard Spanish. Appendices contain proverbs and sayings, a brief discussion on verbs ending in -iar and -ear, and a bibliography. Descriptors: Definitions, Dialect Studies, Dictionaries, Glossaries

New Mexico Highlands Univ., Las Vegas. (). Chicano Mobile Institutes, 1973-1974, . The Chicano Mobile Institute's (CMI) goal for fiscal year (FY) 1973-74 was to: improve the quality and equality of education and to meet the needs of Chicano students in public and private institutions of higher learning throughout the participating states. Its objectives were to: (1) prepare personnel in higher education who are concerned with the needs of students from low income and ethnically different families; (2) identify and document problem areas affecting Chicanos at the higher education level of the educational process; (3) identify proven and innovative solutions to the problems; and (4) effect the implementation of the proven solutions by decision-making bodies in the educational process. The National Advisory Board for Chicano Mobile Institutes, state coordinators, project director, and staff met at the National Evaluation Conference (held at Ghost Ranch, Abiquiu, New Mexico) to assess and write this final report for CMI FY 1973-74. This final report consists of the individual state report summaries for Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and California. These reports are intended to give the most salient recommendations and suggested solutions to the Chicano student's problems which were the actual outcome of the CMI held in each of the respective states. [More] Descriptors: Advisory Committees, Bilingual Education, Community Involvement, Demography

Chicano Communications Center, Albuquerque, NM. (). 450 Years of Chicano History in Pictures/450 Anos del Pueblo Chicano, . For use with junior and senior high school students, this book presents more than 250 drawings and pictures, with an introduction and brief texts in English and Spanish, depicting 450 years of Chicano history. The book covers: Mexico before the Spanish Conquests, Spain's colonization of the Southwest, the United States war on Mexico, events in the Southwest after the U.S. take-over, the Mexican Revolution, the increased migration from Mexico, the Chicano's role in building agriculture and industry, labor struggles of the 1900's, the Depression, World War II and Chicano participation, and the Chicano "movement" since the 1960's. Among the events covered are: El Grito de Dolores, the El Paso Salt War of 1877, the 1933 "riots" at Pixley (California), the Great Pecan Strike, the 1951 Miners Strike at Silver City (New Mexico), the Grape Strike, and the Farah Strike in Texas and New Mexico. Among the Chicanos discussed are: Father Miguel Hidalgo, Jose Maria Morelos, Joaquin Murieta, Tiburcio Vasquez, Elfego Baca, Gregorio Cortez, Carmen Serdan, Dolores Jimenez y Muro, Francisco "Pancho" Villa, Emiliano Zapata, Valentina Ramirez, Emma Tenayucca, Reies Lopez Tijerina, Olga Talamante, Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta, Ruben Salazar, and Inez Garcia. Descriptors: American History, Community Leaders, Cultural Context, Culture Conflict

Goho, Tom; Smith, David (). A College Degree: Does it Substantially Enhance the Economic Achievement of Chicanos? Center for Business Services Occasional Paper No. 503, . Determining the earning patterns of 2 major Southwestern groups–Anglos and Chicanos–the study assessed the relative values of higher education to each group. Male alumni between the ages of 22 to 55 from New Mexico State University were studied. Of the 30% response return in December 1972, approximately 89% were from Anglos and 11% from Chicanos. Data were compared for average salary according to age and year of entry into the university. The study found that recent Chicano graduates were earning less than Anglo graduates, although the difference disappeared in less than 10 years. It also concluded that less than a 4-year college education provided the Chicano with only marginal economic benefits, since those with 1 to 3 years of college earned only 10% more than high school graduates. Much of this might be explained by a dual labor market and low salary expectations, although evidence suggested that the financial ill effects of discrimination disappear with job experience. [More] Descriptors: Anglo Americans, Careers, College Students, Educational Objectives

Garcia, Rodolfo (). Educational Hierarchies and Social Differentiation: The Structural Patterns of Chicano Participation in Colleges and Universities in the Southwest, 1972-1976, . The enrollment patterns of Chicanos in colleges and universities of the Southwest were examined for 1972, 1974, and 1976, and enrollment patterns were compared to graduation data for Chicanos for the academic year 1975-76. Comparative data for whites and blacks were also examined. The primary sources of data were the compliance surveys conducted by the U.S. Office for Civil Rights. The analysis was conducted for Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. It was found that Chicanos are underrepresented in colleges and universities of the southwest and that they are less well represented than either blacks or whites. Chicanos were much more likely than whites, and slightly more likely than blacks, to enroll in two-year colleges. Chicanos' share of bachelor degrees were conferred in proportion to their enrollment in the undergraduate upper levels. Chicanos are least well represented in the major research universities that grant the doctorate. Implications of the findings to the issue of equal access to higher education are considered. Additionally, literature and research on Chicanos in higher education is reviewed and considered in relation to educational stratification. An interpretation of the expansion and differentiation of higher education systems is presented to provide a context for analyzing the participation of Chicanos in higher education. The discussion considers the expanded role of educational institutions in the economic structure and the structural character of system expansion. A bibliography is appended. Descriptors: Access to Education, Bachelors Degrees, Black Students, College Attendance

Quintana, Francis, Comp. (). The Brown Paper: Education and Chicanos in New Mexico, 1973-74, . Goals of the New Mexico Chicano Mobile Institutes were to: improve the quality and equality of education to meet the needs of Chicano students in public and private institutions of higher learning throughout the State; and prepare personnel in higher education to meet the needs of students, from low income and ethnic minority families, attending all public and private schools in the State. Persons identified as having some influence on the education of Chicanos in New Mexico were invited to participate in two 2-day institutes. Since participants had to pay for their own expenses, they were asked to participate through correspondence if unable to attend. Of the 158 persons identified, 62 did not respond, 59 corresponded by mail, and 38 actually participated. The first institute identified, defined, organized, and documented all problem areas affecting Chicanos at all educational levels. The second reviewed the problems identified in the first institute, then identified, defined, and related proven innovative solutions to the problems. Both institutes were conducted in a very successful manner. A synopsis of both institutes is given in this paper. Also included are: a list of all people responsible for education in the State; analysis of statewide testing; pupil enrollment by school district; and summaries of four Civil Rights reports pertaining to education in the Southwest. [More] Descriptors: Civil Rights, Community Involvement, Early Childhood Education, Educational Improvement

Ludwig, Edward W., Ed.; Santibanez, James, Ed. (). The Chicanos; Mexican American Voices, . Articles, fiction, and poetry that form a picture of Chicano life today are presented in this anthology of writings about Mexican Americans. Included are reminiscences of Mexican American childhood, accounts of Chicanos in the American school system, reports on strikes by Chicano workers, and poems and stories that reflect the hard realities of poverty and alienation. The book is divided into 6 sections: The Fields of the Past; La Raza in the Fields Today; The Barrios, a Growing Awareness; Education, a Way In or Out; Facing Anglo Society; and Between Two Worlds. Among the contributors are Cesar Chavez, who discusses the California grape strike; Joan Baez Harris, who describes her experiences as a Mexican American; and Reies Lopez Tijerina, who writes from prison on the Alianza activities in New Mexico. Descriptors: Anthologies, Culture Conflict, Educationally Disadvantaged, Ethnic Stereotypes

Carter, George E., Ed.; And Others (). Essays on Minority Folklore: Selected Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Minority Studies (3rd, April 3, 1975), Volume 3, . This collection of selected conference papers includes experiences of specific minority groups: the native Americans, the Chicanos, and the Puerto Ricans. The papers represent the work of folklorists, historians, musicians, literary critics, and minority and ethnic studies experts. The section on native American oral tradition includes papers on Indian oratory, Algonkian communal values, Indian wisdom stories, and the work of Alex Posey, a Creek Indian. In the section on Latino folklore, the topics covered are the importance of folk literature in the Chicano experience, the creation of myth in Chicano literature, Hispanic wedding customs in New Mexico, the paradoxes of contemporary Puerto Rican poetry, the literature of the Barrio, and the Puerto Rican folk tradition of the child's wake. Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indians, Conference Reports, Essays

Sotomayor, Frank (). Para Los Ninos — For the Children: Improving Education for Mexican Americans, . The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights conducted the Mexican American Education Study between 1969 and 1974. Drawn from the published and unpublished findings of this study, this report discusses the education of Mexican Americans in the 5 Southwestern states of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas, where about 85 percent of all Chicanos live. Additional material was obtained from interviews with students, parents, and educators throughout the Southwest. Topics discussed are: (1) the first day of school for a Chicano; (2) what students feel; (3) what teachers expect of Chicanos; (4) what schools are doing; and (5) bilingual/bicultural education. The report of the Mexican American Study are listed. [More] Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Attitude Change, Bilingual Education, Counselor Attitudes

Burrola, Luis Ramon; Rivera, Jose A. (). Chicano Studies Programs at the Crossroads: Alternative Futures for the 1980s. Working Paper #103, . Fiscal reductions as well as growing conservatism may have a profound impact on many university programs, including Chicano Studies programs, which are expanding into research, publications, and other areas. To frame the issues of greatest concern to Chicano Studies programs, a small research effort at the University of New Mexico involved the input of 12 knowledgeable respondents at universities in the West and Southwest United States. The respondents served on a Delphi Panel and responded to two questionnaires. On the first, they suggested key issues for Chicano Studies programs. On the second, they ranked the importance of seven current and eight future issues, chosen from the responses to the first questionnaire. Respondents indicated that curriculum issues, academic quality, the potential for program consolidation, and the potential for program expansion were the most important current and future issues. Other issues included renewed interest in Chicano Studies, greater career orientation of Chicano programs, and broadened support for Chicano programs. The report presents five scenario themes for future research: status quo, consolidation/absorption, obsolescence, program development, and post-revisionist. Descriptors: Activism, Curriculum Development, Delphi Technique, Educational Environment

Hernandez, Leodoro (). Language of the Chicano. Bilingual Education Paper Series, Vol. 3, No. 1, . Chicano Spanish in not only a product of two languages, but also the influence of middle-class environment and immediate realities. These realities are much different from those in Mexico, even though they derive from it, having a strong relationship to all factors that constitute social level and status. Three principal dialects are: Tex-Mex, spoken in Texas; Manito, spoken in New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado; and Calo, spoken in California. Chicano Spanish is not something to be ignored; it's the mother tongue of several million Chicanos and their only link to their culture. When teachers know what makes Chicanos tick, where they're coming from, they can be much more effective in improving the educational level of Chicanos. The Bilingual Education Act of 1968 brought about a rash of crash programs to educate children in two languages. Because the Chicano spoke broken English and/or had a Spanish surname, it was assumed the language they were comfortable with was Spanish; no real assessment was made. Bilingual teachers must know who the student is, their knowledge level of Spanish, and the type of Spanish used. Every child speaks the language of the family and community; therefore, family and community must be involved in bilingual education. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Community Involvement, Cultural Awareness

Ortego, Felipe, Comp.; Conde, David, Comp. (). The Chicano Literary World–1974. The National Symposium on Chicano Literature and Critical Analysis (1st, Las Vegas, New Mexico, November 1974), . Over 200 participants from 10 states and 17 universities attended "The First National Symposium on Chicano Literature and Critical Analysis." Five of the papers presented at the symposium are given in this publication. The papers cover Chicano poetry, novel, drama, and popular folklore humor. "National Character vs Universality in Chicano Poetry" sets forth the notion that national traditions are adaptations of universal styles and national character is or should be but a step toward universality. The new "space" (identity) of Chicano art or literature is related to the definition of the Chicano national character in "The Space of Chicano Literature." In "La Prosa Chicano: Tres Epigones de la Novela Mexicana de la Revolucion", three novels are reviewed–Tomas Rivera's "Y no se lo trago la tierra", Rolando R. Hinojosa-S.'"Estampas del valle y otras obras", and Miguel Mandez-M.'s "Peregrinos de Aztlan." Humor as a tool of artistic expression is the topic of "Chicano Folklore: Raza Humor in Texas." Although the title indicates a Texas context, many of the situations and expressions are part of the national Chicano experience. "Satire: Techniques and Devices in Luis Valdez"Las Dos Caras del Patroncito'" traces the exchange of roles between the oppressor and the oppressed. Descriptors: Analytical Criticism, Characterization, Conferences, Drama

Ortiz, Leroy; Chavez, Luisa (). The Development of Culturally Relevant Spanish Literacy Materials, . A number of issues related to the production of literacy materials for the Chicano children of New Mexico are discussed. First, a historical survey gives some idea of the way in which instructional materials available for use with Spanish-speaking children have contributed to cultural estrangement and alienation from their own particular home and community culture. Following this, a discussion of sociolinguistic issues indicates what is involved in the preparation of instructional materials designed to move children into bilingualism, bi-literacy, and biculturality. In a final section, the "Tierra de Encanto" reading series is reviewed and indications are given on the way it was particularized to meet the needs of Spanish-speaking children in New Mexico. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Bilingualism, Cultural Background

Acuna, Rodolfo (). Occupied America. The Chicano's Struggle Toward Liberation, . Covering the period from 1819 to the present, this book presents the history of Chicanos in the United States with emphasis on the Southwest. The monograph is divided into 2 parts: (1) the U.S. conquest of the Southwest during the 19th century and (2) the experiences of Chicanos in the 20th century. In Part I, the historical myth that the Anglo American people brought democracy to the Southwest and "liberated" the area from Mexican tyranny is challenged by giving a historical overview of the U.S. Southwest. This overview covers the conquest of Mexico, the Mexican-American War, the methods of colonization in the Southwest, and instances of Mexican resistance against their oppressors. The conquest and colonization of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California are discussed in separate chapters. Part II, "A Radical View of the 20th Century Chicano," discusses the importation of Mexicans, their migration patterns, public opinion towards their immigration, legislation pertaining to Mexicans, and education and religion in relation to the Mexicans. Several labor strikes, such as the Cantaloupe Strike, the Di Giorgio Strike, and the San Antonio Pecan Shellers' Strike, are discussed, along with the attempts by the Chicanos to unionize. The Chicano movement is also reviewed from its beginning to the present. A subject index is provided. Descriptors: Activism, Anglo Americans, Braceros, Catholics

McAlpine, Dave (). The Occurrence of Beliefs and Legends in Selected Chicano Literature from 1959-1979, . Six Chicano anthologies, five novels, and one poem written between 1959 and 1979, selected for their usefulness as texts for a Chicano literature course, were investigated for occurrence of folk beliefs and legends. The 1959 novel "Pocho" contained one reference to a belief. In the 1967 poem "I Am Joaquin" were references which suggested the influence of legend. Two folk beliefs appeared in the novel "Chicano" (1970). One selection in the anthology "The Chicanos" (1971) featured four folk beliefs. The 1972 novel "Bless Me, Ultima" presented the reader with the greatest number and most skillful use of folkloric motifs, as well as witchcraft, curses and a legend from the Indian heritage of New Mexico. The anthology "Aztlan" (1972) contained references to legends about Joaquin Murrieta and la Llorona, a ghost. Another anthology, "Mexican-American Authors" (1972), contained only two examples of legends. Two legends appeared in another anthology, "Songs & Dreams" (1972). Three beliefs and legends were found in "Yearnings," a companion anthology. Some excellent beliefs and legends appeared in the anthology "We Are Chicanos" (1973). The novel "Heart of Aztlan" (1976) was an excellent source of New Mexican folklore. The novel "Tortuga" (1979) contained several beliefs and mentioned la Llorona. [More] Descriptors: Beliefs, Cultural Background, Folk Culture, Hispanic American Culture

Esquibel, Antonio; Casso, Henry J. (). A Report on the National Institute of Education/National Education Task Force de la Raza Symposium (Albuquerque, New Mexico, July 25-26, 1974), . Participating in the "NIE/National Education Task Force de la Raza Symposium" were 57 of the nation's top Chicano educators. During the Symposium's 2 days, these Chicano educators interacted with 5 National Institute of Education (NIE) staff members. Objectives of the Symposium included: (1) to review NIE's 1975-76 Multicultural Agenda; (2) to review previous input conference reports; (3) to identify Chicano funded projects; (4) to seek commitments from NIE; and (5) to improve a rapidly deteriorating relationship between NIE and the Chicano community. Symposium activities consisted of large group presentations and interaction sessions, as well as small groupwork sessions. The participants had and took the latitude of changing the proposed agenda. Recommendations and action plans were formulated by the participants in the areas of: (1) a Collegium of Chicano Scholars; (2) a R & D Center for Chicano education; (3) curriculum; (4) linguistics; (5) psychological testing; (6) sociocultural implications; (7) NIE's policy, governance and personnel; (8) technology and Chicano education; and (9) educational finance as it effects equal educational opportunities for Chicanos. This report, based on the information generated during the Symposium, presents a historical review of the Symposium's development, objectives, activities, and participants' recommendations. Descriptors: Conference Reports, Conferences, Curriculum, Educational Finance

Fernandez, Celestino (). Schooling in the Borderlands: Neglect, Inequality and Cultural Conflict, . Of the more than 2 million Spanish-surnamed students enrolled in the public elementary and secondary schools, more than 70% are located in the five Southwestern states of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas, and of these more than 95% are Mexican Americans. However, in all five Southwestern states the proportion of Chicano students to Anglo students decreases at every level, due mainly to the higher attrition and dropout rate for Chicanos than for Anglos. Two key resources are recommended to those interested in understanding the Chicano experience in schools. First is Thomas Carter's "Mexican Americans in School: A History of Educational Neglect," and the second is a set of six reports published between 1970 and 1974 by the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. Four other publications are briefly noted in this paper. Results of research in the literature are discussed in the areas of achievement, self concept, aspirations, and bilingual/bicultural education of Chicanos. The basic conclusion reached is that the literature available is minimal, inferior in quantity and quality, and falls far short of providing a basis for comprehensive assessment of the problems in Chicano education or a basis for formulation of policies to ameliorate these problems. [More] Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Aspiration, Bilingual Education, Elementary Secondary Education

Larralde, Carlos (). Mexican-American: Movements and Leaders, . Biographical studies of 20 influential Chicano leaders trace Mexican American history from 1848 to the present. The book is organized chronologically by four historical periods: (1) The Cortinista Movement, 1848-1876; (2) The Teresita Movement, 1888-1905; (3) The Magonista Movement, 1904-1919; and (4) The Chicano Activists, 1920 ;o the present. Men and women from all walks of life and possessing diverse styles of leadership are represented. Juan Cortina, soldier and statesman, gives his name to the first period, when he called for Chicano unity following the Mexican American War. The second period, corresponding to Porfiro Diaz's presidency in Mexico, is named for Teresa Urrea, mystic and evangelist, who became the symbol of many campaigns against Diaz. The third period is named for the brothers Ricardo and Enrique Magona, journalists and union organizers. Chicano activists in the fourth period include Octaviano Larrazola, New Mexico governor; Emma Tenayuca, labor organizer; and Corky Gonzales, leader of student causes. The biographical sketches, drawn from primary sources as well as published documents, include personal history, family background, and anecdotal material in addition to the biographee's contributions to the Chicano movement. Footnotes follow each biography; appendices contain a chronology, an index, and notes on the photographs that illustrate the text. Descriptors: Activism, Biographies, Change Agents, Civil Disobedience

Uranga, Susan Navarro (). The Study of Mexican American Education in the Southwest: Implications of Research by the Civil Rights Commission, . The United States Commission on Civil Rights conducted a 4-year study of Chicano education in the Southwest and compiled information on conditions in the schools attended by Chicanos, educational practices in these schools, and educational achievement of Mexican American students in these districts. Data were compiled in 3 phases: a stratified random sample of all school districts in the United States, a mail survey of 538 districts and 1,166 schools throughout the Southwest, and a field study of 52 schools in California, New Mexico, and Texas. Findings include that the Mexican American public school pupils are severely isolated by district and schools within districts, Chicanos are underrepresented on school professional staffs and on boards of education, and the majority of Mexican American staff and school board members are found in predominantly Mexican American schools or districts. It was also found that the proportion of minority students who remain in school through the 12th grade is lower than that of Anglo students, that a disproportionately large number of Chicanos lack reading skills commensurate with age and grade level, that the reading achievement drop is severe for minority children as they advance in age and grade, that grade repetition rates for Mexican Americans are higher than for Anglos, that Mexican Americans are as much as 7 times as likely to be overage as Anglos, and that Chicanos are underrepresented in extracurricular activities. [More] Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Boards of Education, Civil Rights, Economic Factors

Metcalf, Allan A. (). Chicano English. Language in Education: Theory and Practice, No. 21, . The English spoken by Spanish-surnamed Americans of the southwestern United States often has a Spanish flavor, even though the speakers may have no competence in Spanish. This Chicano English is discussed in a series of descriptions based on a number of previous studies of regional variations. Each description covers pronunciation, intonation, stress, vocabulary, and syntax. Regions covered include California (East Los Angeles, Riverside and vicinity, Redwood City, Los Angeles, Long Beach, and Whittier), Arizona, New Mexico (Las Vegas), and Texas (San Antonio in the 1950's and in 1970, Fort Worth-Dallas, and Austin). From the evidence of the individual descriptions, certain general conclusions are drawn about the linguistic feature of Chicano English, and especially about its dependence on Spanish influence. Pedagogical implications of this Spanish background are briefly discussed. A partially annotated bibliography is appended. [More] Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Dialect Studies, English, Intonation

Garcia, Juan R., Ed; And Others (). In Times of Challenge: Chicanos and Chicanas in American Society. Mexican American Studies Monograph Series No. 6, . This anthology compiles articles and essays on Chicano and Chicana political concerns in the 1980's, on cultural aspects of the Chicano experience, and on historical issues and events. The papers are: (1) "Chicano Politics after 1984" by Christine Marie Sierra; (2) "Hacia una Teoria para la Liberacion de la Mujer" (analysis of the relationship of women's economic exploitation to patriarchal and racial oppression) by Sylvia S. Lizarraga; (3) "The Chicano Movement and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo" by Richard Griswold del Castillo; (4) "Assimilation Revisited" (social mobility versus cultural loss) by Renato Rosaldo; (5) "En Torno a la 'Teoria de las Dos Culturas' y su Aplicacion a la Literatura Chicana" (examination of Dieter Herms' application of Lenin's theory of two cultures to Chicano literature) by Lauro Flores; (6) "Anticlericalism in Two Chicano Classics" by Lawrence Benton; (7) "The Relationship of Spanish Language Background to Academic Achievement: A Comparison of Three Generations of Mexican American and Anglo-American High School Seniors" by Raymond Buriel and Desdemona Cardoza; (8) "The Causes of Naturalization and Non-Naturalization among Mexican Immigrants" by Celestino Fernandez; (9) "The Los Angeles Police Department and Mexican Workers: The Case of the 1913 Christmas Riot" by Edward J. Escobar; (10) "The Rediscovery of the 'Forgotten People'" (the socioeconomic situation of the Taosenos–Chicanos in Taos County, New Mexico–since they were studied by George Sanchez in 1940) by Ruben Martinez; and (11) "La Vision de la Frontera a Traves del Cine Mexicano" (historical analysis of Mexican movie depictions of the border region) by Norma Iglesias. Descriptors: Anthologies, Mexican American History, Mexican American Literature, Mexican Americans

Santana, Ray; And Others (). Parameters of Institutional Change: Chicano Experience in Education, . During the 1960's, the Chicano movement directed considerable attention, energy, and resources toward educational change. The predominant mood was optimism and anticipation of major institutional change; the predominant tactic used was militant confrontation. Countless confrontations occurred and numerous plans and strategies for educational change were formulated during this period. These led to varying degrees of change. Composed of 2 parts, this publication examines and assesses the Chicanos' efforts to create institutional change. Case histories of Chicano experiences in attempting to create educational change are discussed in Part I. Among these are: (1) the Los Angeles Blowouts in East Los Angeles in March-April 1968; (2) the conference in Santa Barbara in April 1969 which resulted in "El Plan de Santa Barbara"; (3) Chicano Commencement which was a mass walkout of the June commencement at San Jose State College in 1968; and (4) the Bilingual/Bicultural program in Silver City, New Mexico. Part II consists of conceptual essays bearing directly on experiences described in the case histories that reflect on the cultural relevance and the idealogical, legal, and political characters of educational institutions. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Case Studies, Change Agents, Change Strategies

National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC. (). Proceedings of the Symposium on Chicanos and Welfare (Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 19-20, 1976), . The five papers presented at the symposium were discussed and reacted to by the participants. In "Values, Ideology and Social Services" a socio-philosophical approach is used to compare Chicano values to the origins and development of the values behind the Social Welfare System. "An Oral History of a Mexican Immigrant" presents the story of a 75-year-old Mexican woman who, at an early age, was faced with the adjustments and difficulties entailed in immigrating to the United States. A socio-cultural approach is used to document the values, attitudes and motives of a Mexican immigrant and her family. In "The Effects of the Welfare System on the Chicano Elderly", the economic and social conditions of the older Chicano generation are described in detail. A review is made of the government programs available to them and the effects the welfare practices and value system have on the Chicano elderly. The theoretical justification for these programs is also discussed. "The Welfare System's Impact on the Chicana: A Beneficiary's Perspective" describes the situation which motivated the formation of organizations that would advocate for the presentation of the rights of the Chicana when dealing with social service programs, discusses the failure of some Federal programs to meet their objectives, and gives case studies which illustrate problems encountered by Chicanas when participating in the various welfare programs. The final paper provides a statistical analysis of Chicanos and other Hispanic groups on the various public assistance programs. The symposium's plenary group discussion is summarized. Descriptors: Attitudes, Case Studies, Conferences, Cultural Influences

Martinez, Reynaldo L.; And Others (). Mexican-Americans in the Southwest, . Of the 10 million Mexican Americans in the United States, 90% reside in the southwestern states of California, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. Historically, the acquisition of Spanish speaking citizens by the U.S. has resulted from military conquest. Yet, Mexican Americans did not have a significant political voice until the high fatality rate of Mexican Americans in World War II prompted the formation of the American G.I. Forum and the League of United Latin American Citizens. Both groups have served as vehicles for expression of numerous Mexican American concerns and issues. The economic, social and educational levels of this population are "shockingly" low. Most Chicanos do not have the training and background to obtain good paying jobs. Thus the Chicanos' economic level is a reflector of the educational structure. Social discrimination, stemming from an ethnocentric attitude, prevails despite legal sanctions guaranteeing equal opportunities. The Chicano movement is slowly changing this; but it is a slow process. Both the Catholic and Protestant churches are also beginning to take a larger role in "El Movimiento". A new religious renaissance is spreading, emphasizing self-assertion, indigenous leadership and a pluralistic spirit of existence. The Chicano's philosophy of education is currently being re-defined to emphasize internal examination of one's self-worth and to provide a specific set of values which provide orientation toward the individual viewed as independent of external measures. Descriptors: Cultural Interrelationships, Cultural Traits, Culture Conflict, Dissent

Hernandez-Chavez, Eduardo, Ed.; And Others (). El Lenguaje de los Chicanos (The Language of Chicanos). Regional and Social Characteristics of Language Used by Mexican Americans, . The following articles are included in this anthology on Chicano speech: (1) "Mexican Spanish," D.N. Cardenas; (2) "The Archaic and the Modern in the Spanish of New Mexico," J. Ornstein; (3) "Problemas Lexicograficos del Espanol del Sudoeste," A.M. Espinosa, Jr.; (4) "Associative Interference in New Mexican Spanish," J.B. Rael; (5) "Some Aspects of Arizona Spanish," A.C. Post; (6) "Dialectal and Nonstandard Forms in Texas Spanish," D.M. Lance; (7) "Variations in Los Angeles Spanish Phonology," R.N. Phillips, Jr.; (8) "El Habla y la Educacion de los Ninos de Origen Mexicano en Los Angeles," Y. Lastra de Suarez; (9) "Chicano Spanish Dialects and Education," E. Garcia; (10) "Spanish-English Bilingualism in San Antonio, Texas," J.B. Sawyer; (11) "Speech Mixture in New Mexico: The Influence of the English Language on New Mexican Spanish," A.M. Espinosa; (12) "Adaptation of English Borrowing," J.D. Bowen; (13) "Some Lexical Characteristics of San Jose Spanish," A. Beltramo and A. de Porcel; (14) "Spanish-English Code Switching," D.M. Lance; (15) "Cognitive Aspects of Bilingual Communication," J.J. Gumperz and E. Hernandez-Chavez; (16) "Chicano Multilingualism and Multiglossia," F. Penalosa; (17) "Social Functions of Language in a Mexican-American Community," G.C. Barker; (18) "Pachuco: An American-Spanish Argot and Its Social Function in Tucson, Arizona," G.C. Barker; (19) "Assessing Language Maintenance in Spanish-Speaking Communities in the Southwest," A.D. Cohen; and (20) "The Acquisition of Grammatical Structures by Mexican-American Children," G. Gonzalez. Descriptors: Bilingualism, Child Language, Code Switching (Language), Cognitive Processes

Fuller, Mary Lou; Casaus, Luis (). The Divorced Chicana of Northern New Mexico, . County demographic records and the voluntary responses of 80 Chicanas to a questionnaire and a self-concept examination were analyzed to identify the patterns, problems, and dynamics in the lives of divorced Northern New Mexico Chicanas. The women, half of whom were divorced and most of whom were Roman Catholics, were from urban Bernalillo County and non-urban San Miguel County. Chicano divorce rates were lower than expected in both places. Eighty percent of the non-urban divorced women, 79% of the urban divorced women, and 60% of the married women received salaries. Among divorced women, 50% earned less than $5000/year and 52.2% received no child support. Most additional financial support came from the families of non-urban divorced women and from the friends of their urban counterparts. Emotional support from the Church was important to all divorced women. Non-urban non-custodial parents (fathers) visited their children more often than urban fathers, but visitation rates for both groups exceeded national averages. The self concepts of the four groups of women were remarkably similar. Chicano culture, the influence of the Church, and a non-urban setting may inhibit the divorce rate. Descriptors: Demography, Divorce, Employment Level, Employment Statistics

Rodriguez del Pino, Salvador, Ed.; And Others (). Proceedings of the National Exploratory Conference on Chicano Sociolinguistics (Las Cruces, New Mexico, November 6-8, 1974). Purpose of the conference was to develop a set of priorities for sociolinguistic research on the Chicano community over the next 3 to 5 years. The conference was designed to develop guidelines for such research. Workshops dealt with specific areas of sociolinguistic theory, applied sociolinguistics, and sociolinguistic research policy guidelines. Topics covered were: (1) language varieties and attitudes toward language, (2) sociolinguistics and bilingual education, (3) Spanish language instruction for Chicanos, (4) language creativity in the Chicano community, (5) language policies and the Chicano community, (6) publication and dissemination of Chicano language materials, and (7) guidelines for sociolinguistic research. After the workshops, a plenary session was held to present workshop summaries and resolutions to the group as a whole. Prepared from transcriptions of recorded sessions and from notes taken at the workshop sessions, this report includes a summary of the workshop discussion and recommendations, a brief analysis of the workshop proceedings, a presentation of the final plenary session, and a list of participants. The proceedings appear in both English and Spanish in order to reproduce the actual linguistic setting of the workshops. Where the workshop was conducted primarily in Spanish, a short summary in English is provided. Descriptors: Attitudes, Bilingual Education, Community Influence, Conference Reports

Stabler, Karen, Comp. (). Chicano Studies: A Bibliography of Primary Reference Sources. This document provides primary references (mostly in English) on Chicano topics and a basic strategy for researching topics related to Chicanos. The document suggests beginning with dictionaries and encyclopedias as starting points for research. Journals are the best source for current information on a topic. Several indexes list references to journal articles in the field of Chicano studies. CD-ROM databases offer an exciting new approach to the retrieval of citations of journal articles. These include INFOTRAC Academic Index, PsychLIT, ERIC, and ABI/INFORM. Books are not as current as journal articles but will provide more comprehensive coverage of a subject. Sources that may also be helpful include other bibliographies, biographies, directories, statistical references, atlases, genealogical sources, and government documents. In each entry, the bibliography provides the call number of the New Mexico State Univerity Library, the title, publisher, publication date, and a short description of the reference, where appropriate. The document also offers tips for using the various sources. Descriptors: Abstracts, Annotated Bibliographies, Biographies, Databases

Serrano, Hector M. (). The Mexican-American and Dramatic Literature. In the area of the arts, the Mexican American has discovered a rich cultural heritage which gives him a strong sense of pride and a deep feeling of satisfaction. A new interest in the literature of Mexico and the Southwestern states of Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and California has started the Chicano people reading classic and modern works written in Spanish. The area of dramatic arts has developed a special kind of theater as a result of this movement of ethnic interest: Teatro Chicano. This "teatro" is, in essence, what its name suggests: half Mexican and half Anglo American. Teatro Chicano was created as a direct reply to both Mexican and American writers of dramatic literature. Its ultimate goal is to give the Mexican American in the United States a new, accurate, and proud picture of himself. This thesis provides a short history of the theater and its singular progress in modern times. The treatment of the Mexican American in the theatrical literature of Mexico and by American dramatists such as Maxwell Anderson and Tennessee Williams is reviewed. Excerpts from the plays of Celestino Gorostiza, J. Humberto Robles, Maxwell Anderson, Tennessee Williams, and Luis Valdez are given. Descriptors: Characterization, Cultural Awareness, Drama, Hispanic American Literature

Southwest Network, Hayward, CA. (). Directorio Chicano, Third Edition. A Resource Listing of Chicano Media: Print & Film. Based on data from a questionnaire mailed to about 235 identifiable Chicano media sources from February through May 1976, this directory presents the name and address of each media group; name of organization, if applicable; how long they have been in existence; their publication's focus, language and frequency; and subscription rates. The 190 entries were classified according to research centers, publishers, distributors/booksellers, journals/magazines, newsletters, pinto newsletters (unbound publications printed on a regular or irregular basis as information sources for prison inmates), newspapers (in California, Colorado, New Mexico, Oregon, Texas/Arizona, and Midwest/East), film producers/distributors, and films. A listing of 175 inactive media groups is also included. About two-thirds of all the inactive entries are for media that has been inactive for more than two years. Descriptors: Directories, Filmographies, Films, Mexican Americans

de la Torre, Adela; Rochin, Refugio I. (). Directory of Chicano Studies Programs in California and the Southwest. The directory identifies 38 Chicano/Mexican American studies programs at major universities and colleges in the Southwest, particularly California. It presents information on programs by location, faculty, goals and objectives, and final degrees offered. Following an introductory section, Section II describes programs at California State University affiliates in Chico, Dominguez Hills, Fresno, Fullerton, Hayward, Humbolt, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Northridge, Sacramento, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, Sonoma, Stanislaus, Pomona, and San Luis Obispo. Section III presents details about programs affiliated with University of California campuses at Berkeley, Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Diego, Santa Barbara, and Santa Cruz. Private California college programs at Claremont Colleges, Loyola Marymount, Stanford, University of Santa Clara, and University of Southern California are listed in Section IV. Section V contains information about selected public university programs at the University of Arizona, University of Colorado (Boulder), New Mexico State University (Las Cruces), University of New Mexico, Pan American University, University of Texas (Austin), and University of Texas (El Paso). [More] Descriptors: Course Objectives, Degrees (Academic), Educational Objectives, Ethnic Studies

Aleman, Ramon (). [Chicano Counselor Training: Curriculum and Beyond Curriculum]. The particulars of the evolved curriculum and how the training has evolved around the change-agent concept are stressed in this presentation. The measure of success achieved in attempting to influence the staff and course of studies of the regular guidance department is also emphasized. The curriculum of this counselor training institute has, from the start, reflected the change-agent concept. The approach is based on the proactive model of counseling wherein the counselor initiates attempts to reach students in their own environment (including neighborhood hangouts, clubs, schoolyards or homes.) Formal attempts at effecting change within the University of New Mexico are also discussed. [More] Descriptors: Change Agents, Counseling Theories, Counselor Training, Cultural Pluralism

Rodriguez Pino, Cecilia, Comp. (). Selected Bibliography of Spanish for Native Speaker Sources. This bibliography was prepared for middle school and high school teachers participating in a conference at New Mexico State University (July 14-18, 1993), to assist in research and pedagogical endeavors in the teaching of Spanish to native speakers. It is presented in two parts. The first is a bibliography edited by Francisco J. Ronquillo, which includes citations of materials, in these categories: Spanish language textbooks and readers (23 citations); general bibliography (95 citations); video recordings (18 citations); computer-assisted instruction (8 citations); dictionaries (5 citations); curriculum guides (2 citations); and Chicano literature (8 citations). The second part includes photocopies of articles by Isabel Schon and annotated bibliographies on science materials, children's literature, and materials on Mexico published in Spanish. [More] Descriptors: Computer Assisted Instruction, Curriculum Guides, Dictionaries, Heritage Education

Foos, Donald D., Comp. (). Proceedings of the HEA Title II-B Institute on Continuing Education Program Planning for Library Staffs in the Southwest, March 17-28, 1975. The proceedings of the Institute on Continuing Education Program Planning for Library Staffs in the Southwest contain historical and state-of-the-art information, needs assessments, program planning information, program descriptions and the Continuing Education for Library Staff program. The continuing education needs of medical, school, special, academic, and children's librarians are discussed, as well as the training needed to meet the special requirements of Blacks, Chicanos, and American Indians. Other articles describe a game plan for the continuing education planning and development process, new learning media, automated services, the Continuing Library Education Network and Exchange, and library programs in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Results of the evaluation surveys conducted on the institute are included, as are the working forms, letters, and papers needed in organizing it. There is also information about institute participants, as well as a list of institutes in the Southwest, 1968-1974. [More] Descriptors: College Libraries, Conference Reports, Disadvantaged, Educational Media

Tuskegee Inst., AL. (). National Center for the Training of Educational Resource Agents to Serve Rural Minorities. The Preparation of Problem Solving/Development/Diffusion Personnel to Serve Rural/Minority/Culturally Limited Populations. A blueprint for Educational Resource Agents (ERA's) has been compiled by a consortium consisting of the National Federation for the Improvement of Rural Education, Tuskegee Institute, New Mexico State University, University of North Dakota, Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Southwestern Cooperative Educational Lab., Appalachia Educational Lab., and Southeastern Education Lab. A 42-month cooperative thrust is proposed to train 48 recruits as ERA's. Design stresses effective communication within a rural, culturally limited, minority school setting with a high degree of generalizability for the urban counterpart. Program elements include performance criteria/accountability; 1-week key staff training at Tuskegee Institute; 2-week common core teaching; rotation of participants through all field, lab, and campus components; 4-week rotational internship in rural schools and kindred agencies settings; and a trends seminar. Recruits from 3 test states with heavy minority populations (Alabama, Black; New Mexico, Chicano/Indian; and North Dakota, Indian) will be educators who are high communicators having peer acceptance from target populations. Purposive dissemination and internal-external evaluation are built-in. National needs and job opportunities for ERA's have been established via the Clark and Hopkins survey. Descriptors: American Indians, Blacks, Change Agents, Diffusion

Rodrigues, Raymond J. (1981). A Longitudinal Study of Bilingual English Syntax, Aztlan–International Journal of Chicano Studies Research. Compares 1973 and 1978 studies of the English syntactic proficiency of bilingual Mexican-American fourth- and ninth-grade Spanish/English speakers in Las Vegas (New Mexico). Shows that students enrolled in bilingual education throughout the elementary school years perform better on syntactic maturity measures than do their counterparts not enrolled in bilingual education. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language)

Arora, Shirley L. (1982). A Critical Bibliography of Mexican American Proverbs, Aztlan–International Journal of Chicano Studies Research. The 19-item bibliography surveys the compilations of Mexican-American proverbs published to date and describes each entry (categorized by region–California, New Mexico, Texas, Mexico) in terms of type and quantity of material included, presence or absence of interpretive comments or translations, sources, organization, and accuracy of presentation. Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies, Correlation, English, Mexican Americans

Valverde, Leonard A. (). Office for Advanced Research in Hispanic Education: Project Activities and Accomplishments 1979-1983. Final Report. The Office for Advanced Research in Hispanic Education, funded from 1979 to 1983, was established to support research and to disseminate findings that focused on policy formation or policy implications for Hispanic education at all levels. During its 3 years of funding, the Office supported 16 research proposals in Texas, New Mexico, California, Arizona, and Virginia. The Office also supported two round table seminars (on bilingual education and Title VII programs) and an invitational symposium on Hispanics in higher education. The report includes a description of 15 of the funded projects, giving the title, the investigators and their affiliations, and an abstract of the project. The projects included studies of immigrant and Hispanic children in public schools, Hispanic administrators, Chicano students in higher education, college attrition, Chicano student retention and achievement, bilingual education, early childhood bilingual education, interdependent/cooperative bilingual education, school district structure and innovation, Mexican American student achievement, health and mental health needs of rural south Texas children, Hispanic females' aspirations, bilingual teacher and student language behaviors, and the impact of mandated enrollment of undocumented students. The report also includes summary information about the round table seminars and the symposium. [More] Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Administrators, Aspiration, Bilingual Education

Civikly, Jean M.; Plax, Timothy G. (). The Effects of Information Exposure Activities on Attitudinal Changes Among Co-Culturals: Some Preliminary Findings. To examine the effect of various activities and interactions on the attitudes of members of co-cultures toward each other was the purpose of this study. The research was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, semantic differential scales were developed for the measurement of attitudes toward co-cultures. Each of five sets of scales was used to measure perceptions of a different cultural group: black, Chicano, native American, Anglo, and Filipino. The data were collected from 89 students enrolled in basic speech communication courses at the University of New Mexico. The students were randomly selected and instructed to indicate their feelings about each cultural group as accurately as they could for each scale. The findings indicated that similar factor structures were found when measuring the perceptions of co-cultures together or separately. In the second stage, attitudinal changes across activities and cultures were measured. A group of six Anglo and six Chicano subjects engaged in a series of four co-cultural activities, and subjects also responded individually to attitude scales. The findings indicated that there is no difference in the effects of certain co-cultural information activities on attitude changes toward other cultures. [More] Descriptors: Attitudes, Communication (Thought Transfer), Cultural Differences, Cultural Influences

Valencia, Atilano A., Ed. (). Selected Readings in Multicultural Education. The New Mexico Highlands University Multicultural Education Series. One in a series on cultural pluralism and multicultural education, this collection of 10 brief articles focuses on bilingual education with much of the material specific to Spanish-English programs. Dennis Wilson discusses Indian self determination and the task of preserving Indian culture while solving contemporary Indian problems. Lorenzo Gonzalez contributes two articles in Spanish; one depicts the Chicano as unique representative of both Latin and Anglo culture and urges complete bilingualism; the second is a collection of folk wisdom. Three articles by Atilano Valencia discuss bilingual education models, training for bilingual teachers, and the need for school and community commitment if bilingual education programs are to be successful. Cecilio Orozco describes and critiques three bilingual program models. David Conde reviews the history of bilingual education and points out the overall failure of compensatory bilingual programs; he emphasizes the need for education that considers the socio-cultural characteristics of the students and their community. Dolores Gonzalez discusses cultural pluralism and the elementary school curriculum and describes the inservice teacher training necessary to implement an innovative bilingual-bicultural program. A children's story by Julia Sanchez tells of an Anglo boy's first visit with a Chicano family and his introduction to a new language and new customs. Descriptors: American Indians, Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students

McClure, Erica (1992). The Pragmatics of Codeswitching in Mexican Political, Literary, and News Magazines, Pragmatics and Language Learning. A study investigated the syntactic properties and functions of English-Spanish code-switching in literary, political, and news magazines in Mexico. It is proposed that oral code-switching in Chicano communities and written code-switching in the Mexican press differ both syntactically and pragmatically, with the latter more syntactically restricted. Spanish is found to be the matrix language in the Mexican press, while in Chicano code-switching the matrix language is not always discernable. Several possible explanations are offered. In addition, it is found that code-switching in the Mexican press has limited pragmatic functions because it involves a written channel, is addressed to an anonymous audience, and is constrained by negative attitudes toward the type of code-switching found in the United States' Chicano community and the ambivalent status of English in Mexico. Finally, it is noted that this ambivalence is reflected in the use of English in the Mexican press, where it is used both to evoke a more precise image or sophisticated tone than a Spanish word or phrase and to attack American politics and values. [More] Descriptors: Code Switching (Language), Cultural Context, Discourse Analysis, English (Second Language)

Frieder-Vierra, Andrea (). School-Year and Summer Reading Growth of Minority and Non-Minority Children in Albuquerque, New Mexico, . This study investigated whether summer vacation accounts for more of the reading achievement gap between minority and non-minority children than does the school year. To test for the summer effect, the reading subtests of the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills were administered to approximately 1,200 fifth-grade children in 15 public schools in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Ethnic, income, and residential data were also collected. Results indicated that summer does not account for more of the reading gap between minority and non-minority children; in fact, the gap closed during the summer and widened during the school year. Residence is the most effective variable in this context. Three calendar-year learning patterns emerged. The first involves substantial school-year loss offset by summer gain. The second involves moderate school-year gain offset by summer loss. The third involves excellent school-year gain and no summer loss. These patterns are described in terms of barrio and non-barrio Chicano children in different income groups. The results of this study were also compared to the results of three previous related studies. The comparisons and results are discussed. Descriptors: Doctoral Dissertations, Grade 5, Intermediate Grades, Mexican Americans

Castillo, Pedro, Ed.; Camarillo, Albert, Ed. (). Furia y Muerte: Los Bandidos Chicanos (Fury and Death: The Chicano Bandits). Monograph No. 4, Aztlan Publications, . In the latter half of the nineteenth century five Chicano "bandidos" became prominant in Southwestern history. These "social bandits" were viewed by the dominant Anglo culture as outlaws and criminals; their people saw them as heroes and fighters for justice. Anglos had invaded Northern Mexico, disrupted the existing society, and established a foreign government upon the indigenous population. A new language, culture and economy were imposed and the Mexicans were dispossessed of lands and jobs, deprived and downtrodden. Each of the five "bandidos" was a revolutionary against the Anglos and each expressed his rebellion in a different way. Tiburcio Vasquez and Joaquin Murieta adapted banditry as a form of retribution and led gangs that terrorized Anglos in California. Elfego Baca of New Mexico was handy with a gun, but he chose to defend his people by working within the law, first as a U.S. marshal and later as a lawyer. Juan N. Cortina attempted to raise armies as he used armed forces in the Texas Rio Grande Valley to champion the cause of the oppressed Mexicans there. Gregorio Cortez killed a Texas sheriff who was trying to arrest him unjustly and, in his flight from the posses pursuing him, his courage, horsemanship and ability to embarrass the Anglos endeared him to his people. This anthology discusses the times and conditions producing each of these "social bandits," their individual deeds, and their ultimate ends. Descriptors: Biographies, Change Agents, Cultural Background, Folk Culture

John-Steiner, Vera; And Others (). Learning Styles Among Pueblo Children. Final Report, August 1975, . Observational, exploratory and verbal learning, and verbal and imaginal processes of Pueblo Indian children were compared with those of non-Indian (Anglo and Chicano) children. Both Pueblo and non-Indian adults and children were observed, interviewed, and asked to carry out various tasks. The children attended either a Tanoan or a Keresan day school, an Albuquerque public school, a summer school, or a commune school in New Mexico or a San Diego (California) elementary school. Mapping as an observational procedure, a learning experience interview, and story retelling and drawing were used to obtain data on learning processes and modes of representation. Story retelling was explored as a possible measure of bilingualism. Pueblo children were found to be self-confident and independent at an early age; they excelled in visual representation and showed a high interest in role play. Although their verbal expression in English was not as fluent as that of non-Indians, no evidence was found to support the view of the "silent" Indian child–on the contrary, in their native languages and/or in comfortable settings Pueblo children were willing and capable verbal communicators. All of these patterns were linked to the nature of Pueblo communities and the children's place in them. [More] Descriptors: Adults, American Indians, Anglo Americans, Behavior Development

Amodeo, Luiza B.; Edelson, Roz (). Effects of a Multicultural Awareness Course on Teachers of Ethnically Different Students, . During the summer of 1980, 27 graduate students (13 Chicano and 14 Anglo) at New Mexico State University participated in a course designed to emphasize 3 areas of awareness relevant to multicultural education: (1) clarification of personal ethnic, cultural, and sex role attitudes and identification; (2) increased sensitivity to ethnic, cultural, and sex role stereotypes and biases and the acquisition of accurate information and realistic understanding of minority groups; (3) recognition of potential areas of bias in existing curricula and the development of strategies for integrating multicultural education in public school curricula. Activities of the course were focused on helping students clarify their attitudes about their own ethnic, cultural, and sex role identification, sharpen their awareness of ethnic and cultural groups, and find strategies for implementing multicultural education. Results of an ethnic literacy test administered the first and last week of the course indicated a gain of more than seven points on the mean score. A recommendation for more courses of this nature was indicated by student feedback and the instructors' comments. Descriptors: Cultural Awareness, Cultural Education, Ethnicity, Higher Education

Carter, George E., Ed.; Mouser, Bruce L., Ed. (). Identity and Awareness in the Minority Experience. Selected Proceedings of the 1st and 2nd Annual Conferences on Minority Studies (March, 1973 and April, 1974). Volume 1, Number 1, . The first conference focused on specific approaches in the offering of minority studies (both as a collective unit and as separate entities) and on problems of "Anglo" educators in medium-sized Midwestern institutions. Topic panels focusing on various literatures and on specific minority groups were held at the second conference. Stemming directly from papers presented at both conferences, this anthology of 14 essays deals with the subject of identity and awareness in the minority experience of Latinos, Native Americans, and Afro-Americans. Topics covered include: the importance of literature in the emergence of Latino identity; drama as an important medium in a quest for Latino identity; the main thrust of the Chicano studies program at New Mexico Highlands University (Las Vegas); Navajo "nationalism" as a source of identity and awareness; the impact of urbanization on the identity of Native Americans; the importance of identity and awareness from a literary perspective as it relates to Native Americans; the mulatto tradition in literature, a search for identity in two worlds; black identity and awareness viewed from the negative side, as developed by the English; adolescent literature viewed as a method of developing awareness and self-identity; the development of racial pride among blacks (from an historical perspective); and the issue of educational programs in the context of resocialization. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Anthologies, Black Literature, Black Studies

Martinez, Roger D. (). Survey of the Hispanic Population In Colorado, . Three hundred twelve respondents representing a cross section of Colorado Hispanic families participated in a 1978 questionnaire survey developed by the Colorado Department of Education to assess the mobility and point of origin of the state's Hispanic population and to provide information about attitudes and feelings concerning the public school education of Hispanic students. Analysis of the data indicated: most Hispanics were not newcomers to the state (71% were born in Colorado, 42% had moved less than 50 miles from their birthplace, 53% were second generation Coloradans, and 4% of their grandparents were born in Colorado); only 6% indicated the Spanish language was never used at home, 54% always spoke Spanish with parents and relatives, and 38% sometimes spoke Spanish at home; 82% of the respondents who had originated in Colorado or New Mexico preferred to be referred to as "Spanish Americans", the majority of those who had originated from Mexico preferred the term "Mexican Americans", and 16% preferred "Chicano"; 94% favored a state bilingual/bicultural educational program with the content emphasizing culture, education, self-esteem, and Spanish language; 84% felt a multi-ethnic program for all students was needed; 42% were satisfied with the school's efforts in promoting better understanding among students of all ethnic backgrounds; and 85% felt there was a dropout problem among the Spanish surnamed. Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Dropouts

Meier, Matt S., Ed.; Rivera, Feliciano, Ed. (). Readings on La Raza–The Twentieth Century, . This chronological anthology consists of documents and articles on the history of Mexican American people in the 20th century. The anthology may be directed to students in higher education, historians, and those interested in the Mexican American people. Section I spans the period from 1900 to 1920 and introduces immigration as the starting point for the history of La Raza in this century. Section II, covering from 1920 to 1930, describes the movement of Mexicans and Mexican Americans from their Southwest heartland to steel mills, packing plants, and "colonias" of the Midwest. Other sections address themselves to the development of a hostile attitude on the part of many Americans to the rising tide of Mexican immigration, as was exemplified by the Harris and Box bills in Congress. Section III deals with repatriation in the 1930's. Chicano World War II experiences both at home and overseas are described in Section IV. The Second World War introduced a new era in Mexico-United States relations, formalizing the use of bracero labor. Section V traces continuing postwar demands for Mexican labor and the resultant increase in both braceros and majados. The impact of these workers eventually led to "Operation Wetback" and finally to termination of the bracero program in 1964. Section VI encompasses a broad spectrum of contemporary Chicano activities and ideology, especially an increased and more aggressive political activity. These 6 sections are chronologically sequential, with some unavoidable overlap. Descriptors: Activism, Anthologies, Cultural Awareness, Cultural Background

Cordova, Teresa, Ed.; And Others (). Chicana Voices: Intersections of Class, Race, and Gender, . These essays represent a plateau in the fight for Chicana voices to be heard, and they display the range of scholarship Chicanas are producing. The first section contains statements given at the plenary session on Chicana feminism, and the second section analyzes the position of Chicanas in the workplace. Section 3 considers research and data on Chicanas, and Section 4 explores aspects of language, literature, and the theater. The following papers are included: (1) "The University Setting Reinforces Inequality" (Christine Marie Sierra); (2) "Women, Then and Now: An Analysis of the Adelita Image Versus the Chicana as Political Writer and Philosopher" (Norma Cantu); (3) "Sexism in Chicano Studies and the Community" (Cynthia Orozco); (4) "Studying Chicanas: Bringing Women into the Frame of Chicano Studies" (Alma M. Garcia); (5) "Manuela Solis Sager and Emma Tenayuca: A Tribute" (Roberto R. Calderon and Emilio Zamora); (6) "Chicanas and Triple Oppression in the Labor Force" (Denise A. Segura); (7) "Toward a Reconceptualization of Women's Economic Activities: The Informal Sector in Urban Mexico" (Marta C. Lopez-Garza); (8) "Between the Lines: A New Perspective on the Industrial Sociology of Women Workers in Transnational Labor Processes" (Devon Pena); (9) "The Women's Movement and the Left in Mexico: The Presidential Candidacy of Dona Rosario Ibarra" (Theresa Carrillo); (10) "Women in Early New Mexico: A Preliminary View" (Angelina F. Veyna); (11) "Chicana Historiography: A Research Note Regarding Mexican Archival Sources" (Barbara A. Driscoll); (12) "Chicana Reference Sources" (Richard Chabran); (13) "Women in El Teatro Campesino: 'Apoco Estaba Molacha La Virgen de Guadalupe?'" (Yolanda Julia Broyles); (14) "Libertad de No Procrear: La Voz de la Mujer en 'A una Madre de Nuestros Tiempos' de Margarita Cota-Cardenas" (Clara Lomas); (15) "Reproductive Freedom: The Voice of Women in Margarita Cota-Cardenas's 'A una Madre de Nuestros Tiempos'" (Clara Lomas); (16) "La Realidad a Traves de la Inocencia en el Cuento: Un Paseo" (Elba R. Sanchez); and (17) "Women: Prisoners of the Word" (Alvina E. Quintana). References follow each paper. (Contains three tables.) Descriptors: Equal Education, Ethnicity, Females, Feminism

Haltom, John F.; Singleton, James F. (). From Indian Village to Chicano Suburb: Problems of Identity and Suburbanization, . A case study of social change, this paper describes the community of Tortugas, an American Indian-Mexican village at the southern edge of Las Cruces, New Mexico. The Indian inhabitants of the community have been assimilated into the rural Mexican American subculture, which has become increasingly suburban through a process little explored in the literature on suburbanization. The study attempts to document the suburbanization of one community, to describe the problems suburbanization created, and, hopefully, to contribute toward the development of an adequate typology of suburbanization. Data is based on a combination of historical sources and 2 surveys: in the April 1972 survey, 145 interviews were completed; the second survey, completed in October 1972, was composed of 21 interviews with elected officials and influentials of Las Cruces and officers of a unique corporation–Los Indigenes. The conclusion indicates that the Tortugas community and other communities facing absorption into an urban complex do not wish to relinquish either their governmental autonomy or their life style. However, Tortugas appears to be drawn into the Las Cruces urban area by forces that appear irreversible. The people of Tortugas appear powerless to resist whatever fate leaders of the adjacent city may plan for them, be it annexation or re-creation of an Indian pueblo that never existed. [More] Descriptors: Acculturation, Community, History, Land Settlement

California Univ., Los Angeles. School of Public Health. (). Hispanic Health Services Research Conference (Albuquerque, New Mexico, September 5-7, 1979). NCHSR Research Proceedings Series, . In order to lay the foundation for the development of an agenda for health services research among Hispanics for the 1980's and beyond, over 200 conference participants drawn from among Hispanic and non-Hispanic health service researchers, health providers, users of research data, health science students, consumers, and representatives of Mexico's Ministry of Health addressed health problems of U.S. Hispanics, identified needed areas of research, and recommended methods of conducting health research among Hispanic populations. Following initial addresses regarding Chicano culture, accountability in Hispanic health services research, and the development of the agenda, participants divided into four task forces to hear and discuss solicited papers and make recommendations. Task force one focused on the impact of national, regional, state, and local policies regarding health services for Hispanics, and recommended research topics in the areas of policy formation, program implementation, and program evaluation. Task force two studied sociocultural influences on health services research and delivery for Hispanics. Task force three focused on resource development strategies for conducting health services research among Hispanic populations. Its recommendations addressed language use, research tools, health science education curricula, and intervention in specific diseases. Task force four studied the facilitation of timely dissemination, assessment, and use of Hispanic health services research. Descriptors: Accountability, Cultural Background, Delivery Systems, Health

Brischetto, Robert; Arciniega, Tomas (). Inequalities in Educational Opportunity and the Chicano. A Study of School Systems in the Southwest. Final Report, . This research examined educational inequalities for Mexican Americans in the Southwest. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 1972 on a sample of 636 superintendents in the public school systems in Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico and Texas. The study was designed as a follow-up to a 1969 Civil Rights Commission survey of 538 superintendents in districts with at least 10 0/0 Mexican American enrollment and of 1,166 schools within these districts. A subsample of "Anglo" districts was added in the 1972 survey to estimate the extent of inequalities among districts of different ethnic enrollments. Quantity and quality of educational services were found to be highly related to the ethnic composition of district enrollment and to residents' income. Even after controlling state and district size, the relationships remained. Inequalities in educational resources and services based on ethnic composition of the district were also found among schools surveyed in 1969. Another dimension of the 1972 survey involved an analysis of superintendents' opinions on a variety of issues related to the central question of equality of educational opportunity. The findings have important implications for further litigation, legislation, and policy-making vis-a-vis the Mexican American student. Descriptors: Attitudes, Civil Rights, Court Litigation, Educational Opportunities

Guerrero, Adalberto; Arellano, Albert (). Institute for Guidance, Counseling, Administrative, Supervisory and Teaching Personnel in Vocational Programs for Chicano Students at the Secondary or Post-Secondary School Level. Final Report, . The goal of the project was to provide educational and guidance personnel in vocational and technical fields with new perspectives relating to teaching and counseling Mexican-American students. A two-week institute was held in June, 1973 at the University of Arizona for counselors, administrators, teachers, and student representatives of high schools with large minority populations in Arizona, New Mexico, and California. Objectives of the institute related to providing career information and increasing awareness of cultural differences. Based on participant assessment of the problems facing the Mexican-American students in their relationship with counselors and teachers, a pilot program to increase the relevancy of the school program was developed. Also developed were programs for a bilingual resource center and a program to improve communication between teachers and minority students–project "RAP." The report of the project describes the institute, presents the programs developed, and includes the program schedule and participant lists. The evaluation instrument is also included with tabulated results and comments from participating groups–administrators, students, counselors, and teachers. [More] Descriptors: Career Counseling, Cultural Awareness, Cultural Differences, Institutes (Training Programs)

Wax, Murray L.; Luhman, Reid A. (). Bilingual Classrooms in a Mexican-American Community. The Social Bases of Thinking and Speaking: A Study of Bilingual Chicano Children. Final Report, September 1974, . The study examined the relation of language use and logical thought to social experience with both age and class held constant. The primary assumptions under study were: that the logic of symbolic grouping was highly sensitive to a child's experience with the objects to which that logic was applied; that the existence of diglossia in a bilingual community and/or relative shifts in language dominance might create a situation of language specialization by domain, particularly along the dimension of immediacy and distance; that the content of grouping (those final organizations produced by the logic) was a far more stable aspect of cognition than the logic used to construct it. The study was conducted in a fourth grade classroom in a bilingual school in Las Vegas, New Mexico. All of the children had Spanish surnames. Twenty-eight children took part in an extensive set of interviews in two languages. These interviews were designed to examine inter-relations of language use and the logic and content of symbolic grouping to social experience. Findings included: the logic of grouping was related to children's experience with the objects of grouping; town children had a much narrower and more specialized portion of their experience occurring in Spanish than did the rural children; the logic of grouping employed by these children was not related to school achievement with the one exception of the clustering of the tight-loose factor in Spanish with achievement test scores. Descriptors: Abstract Reasoning, Academic Achievement, Bilingual Students, Cognitive Processes

National Education Task Force de la Raza, Albuquerque, NM. (). Report of a National Bilingual Bicultural Institute: A Relook at Tucson '66 and Beyond (Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 28-December 1, 1973), . The symposium, convened in 1966 at the University of Arizona (Tucson), served as a sequel to the 1965 "Tucson Survey on the Teaching of Spanish to the Spanish Speaking" and as a prologue to action. November 28-December 1, 1973 a National Bilingual Bicultural Institute was held to: (1) review the rationale, activities, and recommendations of the 1966 symposium; (2) review important activities in bilingual bicultural education since 1966; (3) demonstrate exemplary bilingual bicultural education programs which have been implemented in school settings of high Mexican American concentration; (4) review present and pending State and national bilingual bicultural education legislation and appropriations; and (5) develop new directions for bilingual bicultural education in American education for the 1970's which will lead to national legislation. Since Chicanos are the largest Spanish speaking community in the United States, the institute's emphasis was on bilingual bicultural education for Mexican American children, from preschool to college. Given in this report are: (1) condensed versions of addresses given at the institute; (2) work lab reports on State and national legislative, administrative, court, and community action; (3) brief descriptions of local and national bilingual bicultural exemplary projects; and (4) general institute recommendations. [More] Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Community Action, Conferences

Willey, Darrell S.; And Others (). Bilingualism: A Review of the Literature Relevant to Preparation of Teachers for Southwestern Spanish-Speaking Children and Youth, . Fifty-eight literature citations relevant to preparation of teachers for Southwestern Spanish-speaking children and youth are reviewed in this paper. The citations include journal articles, monographs, research reports, and synthesis papers published between 1920 and 1974. Topics covered are bilingual teaching strategies, stereotyping, problems and issues of teaching Chicano pupils and youth, testing, standardized psychometrics and mental measurements, reform legislation, criteria for bilingual programs, and quality teacher preparation program design. [More] Descriptors: Bilingualism, Citations (References), Educational Legislation, Elementary School Teachers

Moore, Justin R.; Ratchner, Craig (1976). Spanish? Mexican? Chicano? The Influence of Spanish Culture on New Mexico, Integrated Education. This study was designed in an attempt to solve what appeared to be a serious problem–the spanish speaking students confusion about their cultural identity. Descriptors: Community Surveys, Cultural Background, Cultural Influences, Ethnic Groups

Cooper, James G. (). Mirror, Mirror on the Wall: Adolescent Self-Concept in Four Countries. Self-concepts of adolescents in Germany, Mexico, Chinese in Taiwan, and the U.S.A. were measured with an Osgood type of semantic differential. The American sample included Anglo, Chicano, and Indian high school seniors. The 11 concepts included: attitudinal measures on the self, school, social milieu and other racial groups. The bipolar adjectives comprised: good-bad, sharp-dull, ugly-beautiful, strong-weak, slow-fast, shallow-deep, effective-ineffective, valuable-worthless, intelligent-stupid, and honest-dishonest. Tests were translated into Chinese, German, and Spanish; effort was made to preserve semantic equivalence. In perceptions of self, the German mean was lowest, and the Mexican mean was highest. This pattern was repeated in perception of school. Perception of the social milieu showed that Anglos were lowest; the Mexican mean was highest. Perceptions of other groups was highest in the Mexican group; the Chinese students were low. Based upon an overall assessment, it was found that Mexican adolescents gave the most favorable perceptions, followed by Chicanos, Chinese, American Indians, Germans and Anglos at the bottom with the least favorable perceptions. [More] Descriptors: Adolescents, American Indians, Anglo Americans, Chinese

Duran, Elva (). Teaching Reading to Disadvantaged Hispanic Children Based on Direct Instruction. A controlled experiment was conducted in 1980 with 117 first graders in two Southwestern schools near the Mexican border to determine the effects of direct instruction in teaching bilingual Hispanic children to read. Direct instruction has been defined as using modeling, reinforcement, prompting, discrimination learning, and correction/feedback for positive self concept development. Two rural schools with high percentages of Chicano students and with established bilingual education programs were selected for the study; however, School A served a poor neighborhood and was judged to be disadvantaged while School B served a more affluent area. In each school 58 first grade Hispanic bilingual children were randomly selected and randomly assigned to two experimental groups, conditions for which were identical except that one group used direct instruction and the other group used the regular bilingual method. Significant effects resulted between schools, between groups, and within a group/school interaction. Tentatively, direct instruction can significantly improve beginning bilingual children's achievement more than regular bilingual instruction; bilingual education may be enhanced by incorporating direct instruction into its teaching method. "School characteristics" may interact with the effects of any specific teaching method. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Comparative Analysis, Concept Teaching

Hale, James A. (). A Model Program for Training Personnel to Develop Solutions to Major Educational Problems in the Indian and Mexican-American Communities. Final Report. The program's objective was to train a cadre of research and development specialists with competencies to strengthen and institutionalize organizational assessment and program development within higher education institutions serving large numbers of Chicano and Native American students. The project's two major thrusts were: (1) project management and consortium arrangements and (2) articulation of curriculum objectives, content, and activities. Faculty members and administrators from 17 2-year and 4-year "developing" institutions of higher education located in the Southwestern United States participated. The research training program consisted of: (1) an entry skills diagnostic test administered prior to the start of formal instruction; (2) a formal academic training phase; and (3) a practicum or followup phase conducted at the parent institution and at the Educational Testing Service. Both "enroute" and terminal performance measures were used in the program's evaluation. Although the model was deficient along some lines, it proved to be useful in identifying the major dimensions of a training program. This report contains documentation of the program objectives, activities, and evaluation and the results of testing a transportable training model. External evaluator's reports (pre-post, comparative, and summative) are included in the form submitted. [More] Descriptors: American Indians, Change Agents, Consortia, Educational Development

Rios-Bustamante, Antonio Jose (1976). New Mexico in the Eighteenth Century: Life, Labor and Trade in la Villa de San Felipe de Albuquerque, 1706-1790, Azlan—-International Journal of Chicano Studies Research. Descriptors: Population Growth, Social History, Sociocultural Patterns, Socioeconomic Background

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